P,p

 




  P, p

  / pi:; pi/ n (pl P's, p's / pi:z; piz/) 1 the sixteenth letter of the English alphabet 英语字母表的第十六个字母: `Philip' begins with (a) P/`P'. Philip一字以P字母开始. 2 (idm 习语) mind one's p's and q's => mind2.

  P

  abbr 缩写 = (on a road sign) parking (area) (路标所示)停车(区).

  p

  abbr 缩写 = 1 (pl pp) page: see p 94 见第94页 * pp 63-97 *63至97页. 2 / pi:; pi/ (Brit infml 口) (decimal) penny or pence (十进制的)便士: a 12p stamp 一张12便士的邮票. Cf 参看 d 1. 3 (music 音) softly; quietly (Italian piano) 柔和地, 轻轻地(源自意大利文piano). Cf 参看 f 3.

  P and O

  / 9pi: En 5EU; 9pi En `o/ abbr 缩写= Peninsular and Oriental (Steamship Company) (英国)半岛暨东方轮船公司: the P and O line 半岛暨东方轮船公司航线.

  p and p

  / 9pi: En 5pi:; 9pi En `pi/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit commerce 商) (price of) postage and packing 邮资与包装费: price 28.95 including p and p *28.95英镑, 包括邮资与包装费.

  pa

  / pB:; pB/ n (infml 口) father 爸; 爸爸.

  PA

  / 9pi: 5eI; 9pi `e/ abbr 缩写 = 1 (infml 口) personal assistant 私人助理: She works as PA to the managing director. 她给总经理作私人助理. 2 Press Association 新闻协会. 3 public address (system) 广播(系统); 播音(系统): I heard it on the PA. 我从广播里听到的.

  pa

  abbr 缩写 = per year (Latin per annum) 每年(源自拉丁文per annum): salary 12000 pa 年薪12000英镑.

  pace

  / peIs; pes/ n 1 [C] (length of a) single step in walking or running (走或跑的)一步, 一步的距离: only a few paces away 仅数步之外 * She took two paces forward/She advanced two paces. 她向前走了两步. 2 [sing] (a) speed, esp of walking or running 速度(尤指走或跑的): at a good, fast, slow, walking, etc pace 以很快的、 快的、 慢的、 步行的...速度 * quicken one's pace 加速步伐 * She slowed down her pace so I could keep up with her. 她放慢脚步好让我跟上她. * (fig 比喻) He gave up his job in advertising because he couldn't stand the pace, ie found the pressure of work too great. 他放弃了做广告的工作, 因为工作节奏太快, 他受不了. (b) [U] rate of progress or development, esp of an activity 进步或发展的速度; (尤指)活动的速度: the pace of change in the electronics industry 电子工业的发展速度 * This novel lacks pace, ie Its plot develops too slowly. 这部小说的节奏太慢. 3 (idm 习语) at a snail's pace => snail. force the pace => force2. keep pace (with sb/sth) move forward, develop or increase at the same rate (as sb/sth) (与某人[某事物])并驾齐驱, 齐头并进: He was so unfit he couldn't keep pace (with us). 他身体很不好, 跟不上(我们). * It's important for a firm to keep pace with changes in the market. 对一个公司来说, 能跟上市场的发展是很重要的. * Are wages keeping pace with inflation? 工资的增长跟得上通货膨涨的速度吗? put sb/sth through his/its `paces test the ability or quality of sb/sth 考验、 试验某人[某事物]的能力或质量: The new recruits were put through their paces. 新兵正接受考验. * put a new car through its paces 试验新汽车的性能. ,set the `pace run, walk, etc at a (usu fast) speed which others try to follow 定速度(使他人跟从): (fig 比喻) This company is setting the pace (ie is the most successful) in the home computer market. 这家公司在国内计算机市场上是先行者.

  pacemaker

  n (a) (also `pace-setter) runner, rider or driver in a race who moves at a (usu fast) speed which others try to follow (速度赛中)定速度者(使其他参赛者跟从): (fig 比喻) That firm was the pace-setter in car design for many years, ie introduced new ideas which were copied by others. 那家公司在汽车设计上多年来一直领先. (b) electronic device placed on the heart to make weak or irregular heartbeats stronger or more regular (心脏)起搏器.

  pace

  / peIs; pes/ v 1 (a) [Ipr, Ip] walk with slow or regular steps 缓慢而行; 以规律的步伐行走; 踱: He paced up and down (the platform), waiting for the train.他(在月台上)踱来踱去等候火车. (b) [Tn] walk backwards and forwards across (sth) in this way 来回或前後缓慢而有规律地走动; 来回踱步: The prisoner paced the floor of his cell. 那犯人在牢房里来回地走著. 2 [Tn] set a speed for (a runner, rider, etc in a race) (为速度赛的参赛者)定速度. 3 (phr v) pace sth off/out measure sthby taking regular steps across it 以步数测量某物: She paced out the length of the room. 她用步子测量了房间的长度.

  pace

  / 5peIsI; `pesI/ prep (Latin 拉) with respect to (a specified person) who does not or may not agree 请(可能与自己意见不同的人)原谅.

  pachyderm

  / 5pAkId\:m; `pAkE9d[m`/ n any of varioustypes of thick-skinned, four-footed animal, eg an elephant or a rhinoceros 厚皮兽(如象或犀牛).

  pacific

  / pE5sIfIk; pE`sIfIk/ adj (fml 文) making or loving peace; peaceful 和解的; 求和的; 爱和平的; 和平的.

  pacifically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  pacifism

  / 5pAsIfIzEm; `pAsE9fIzEm/ n [U] belief that all war is morally wrong and that disputes should be settled by peaceful means 和平主义; 反战主义.

  pacifist

  / -Ist; -Ist/ n person who believes in pacifism (and who therefore refuses to fight in a war) 和平主义者; 反战主义者. Cf 参看 conscientious objector (conscientious).

  pacify

  / 5pAsIfaI; `pAsE9faI/ v (pt, pp -fied) [Tn] 1 calm or soothe the anger or distress of (sb) 使(某人)安静,息怒; 抚慰: He tried to pacify his creditors by repaying part of the money. 他为安抚债权人偿还了部分借款. 2 establish peace in (an area, a country, etc where there is war) 在(有战争的地区、 国家等)实现和平.

  pacification

  / 9pAsIfI5keIFn; 9pAsEfE`keFEn/ n [U] pacifying or being pacified 平定; 平息; 安抚; 绥靖: the pacification of the rebel states 对发动叛乱的州的平定.

  pacifier

  n (US) = dummy 3.

  pack

  / pAk; pAk/ n 1 [C] (a) number of things wrapped or tied together for carrying, esp on the back 包, 包裹(尤指背负的): The tramp carried his belongings in a pack on his back. 那个流浪者把所有的东西捆成一包背在背上. (b) bag, usu of canvas or leather, fitted with straps for carrying on the back 背包. Cf 参看 backpack, haversack, rucksack. 2 [C] small paper or cardboard container in which goods are packed for selling; packet 小纸盒; 小硬纸板箱; 小纸包: a six-pack of beer, ie six cans of beer wrapped and sold together 半打装啤酒 * (esp US) a pack of cigarettes 一包香烟. =>Usage at packet 用法见packet. 3 [CGp] (a) group of wild animals that hunt together (野兽的)一群: Wolves hunt in packs. 狼总是成群猎食. (b) group of dogs kept for hunting, esp with horses (猎狗的)一群(尤指骑马狩猎用者): a pack of hounds 一群猎狗. (c) organized group of Cub Scouts or Brownies (童子军的)一队: a `Brownie pack 一队女童子军. (d) the forwards of a Rugby football team (一支橄榄球队的)全体前锋. 4 [CGp] ~ (of sb/sth) (derog 贬) number of people or things (used esp in the expressions shown) (指人、 物的)一帮, 一伙, 一堆(尤用於以下示例): a pack of fools/thieves 一伙傻瓜[小偷] * a pack of lies 一派谎言. 5 [C] (US deck) complete set of 52 playing-cards (纸牌的)一副(为52张). 6 [C] (only in compounds 仅用以构成复合词) thing placed on a part of the body for a period of time, such as a layer of cream or paste for cleansing the skin of the face or a bag of ice for soothing a burn 一时敷於身体之物(如润面霜、 冰袋): a `face-pack * an `ice-pack.

  pack-animal

  n animal used for carrying things, eg a horse, mule or camel 力畜, 役畜(如马、 骡、 骆驼).

  pack-ice

  n [U] large mass of ice floating in the sea, formed from smaller pieces which have frozen together 海上的大堆浮冰.

  pack-saddle

  n saddle with straps for holding packs驮鞍.

  packthread

  n [U] strong thread for sewing or tying up packs (缝包或打包用的)捆扎线, 粗线, 打包绳.

  pack

  / pAk; pAk/ v 1 (a) [I, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ A (in/into B); ~ B (with A) put sth into a container for transport or storing; fill (a container, esp a suitcase) with sth 将某物装入(箱、 盒等)(尤指装入衣箱): Have you packed (your suitcase) yet? 你装好(衣箱)了吗? * Don't forget to pack your toothbrush! 别忘了把牙刷放到箱子里去! * All these books need to be packed (into boxes). 这些书都要打点(装箱). * pack clothes into a trunk/pack a trunk with clothes 把衣物装进箱子里 * He takes a packed lunch (ie sandwiches, etc packed into a box or some other container) to work every day. 他每天带(盒装)午饭上班. (b) [I, Ipr] ~ (into sth) be able to be put into a container for transport or storing 能被包装(便於装运): This dress packs easily. 这件连衣裙易於装箱. * These clothes won't all pack into one suitcase. 这些衣物一个箱子装不下. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (in sth) cover or protect sth with (esp soft) material pressed tightly on, in or round it 用材料(尤指软物)充填、 衬垫或包裹某物(以覆盖或保护): pack china in newspaper 用报纸包裹瓷器 * glass packed in straw 用稻草包垫的玻璃. 3 [Tn] prepare and put (meat, fish, etc) in tins in order to preserve it 把(肉、 鱼等)装罐保存; 做(鱼、 肉等)罐头. 4 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (with sth/sb) fill, cram or crowd sth (with sth/sb) (事物)塞满、 充满某处; (人)挤满某处: Chanting fans packed the stadium/The stadium was packed with chanting fans. 热情的观众挤满了体育场, 不停地喊叫著有节奏的口号. * The show played to packed houses, ie large audiences. 那节目演出时场场爆满. * This book is packed with useful information. 这本书里有很多有用的资料. * an action-packed film, novel, etc 充满刺激动作的影片、 小说等 * The restaurant was packed, ie crowded with people. 饭馆里挤满了人. 5 [I, Tn] (of snow, ice, etc) (cause sth to) form a hard compact mass (指冰、 雪等)(使之)形成硬块: The snow had packed against the wall. 墙根的雪形成了硬块. * The wind packed the snow against the wall. 风把雪吹到墙边堆积起来. 6 [Tn] (US infml 口) carry (sth); be equipped with (sth) 携带(某物); 装备有(某物): pack a gun 带著枪. 7 [Tn] (derog 贬) choose (the members of a committee, etc) so that they are likely to decide in one's favour 挑选(委员等)使之偏袒自己. 8 (idm 习语) ,pack one's `bags (prepare to) leave (准备)离开: After their row she packed her bags and left. 他们争吵後, 她收拾好提包就走了. * He was told to pack his bags. 已经告诉他让他走人. ,pack a (hard, etc) `punch (infml 口) (a) (of a boxer) be capable of delivering a powerful blow (指拳击手)能发出重击. (b) (fig 比喻) have a very powerful effect 极有效力: Those cocktails pack quite a punch! 那些鸡尾酒劲儿可真大! send sb packing => send. 9 (phr v) pack sth away put sth into a box, cupboard, etc because it is not needed 将某物放入盒、 箱等中收起: She packed away the deck-chairs for the winter. 冬天她把折叠躺椅收了起来.

  pack (sb/sth) in; pack (sb/sth) into sth

  (cause sb/sth to) crowd or press together into a limited space (使某人[某物])挤进, 紧挤入(一有限空间): All six of us packed into the tiny car. 我们六个人全挤进那辆小型汽车里. * That show has been packing them in for months, ie attracting large audiences. 那个表演一直吸引著大批观众, 经月不减.

  pack it in

  (infml 口) (esp imperative 尤用於祈使语气) stop doing or saying sth that angers or annoys sb else 不再做令人讨厌的事; 不再说令人生气的话: I'm sick of your complaining just pack it in, will you? 你老发牢骚我都烦死了--别说了, 行不行?

  pack sth in

  (infml 口) give sth up; abandon sth 放弃或抛弃某事物: She's packed in her job. 她已辞掉了她的工作. * Smoking's bad for you; you ought to pack it in. 吸烟对你很不好, 应该戒掉.

  pack sth in; pack sth in/into sth

  do (a lot of things) in a limited time 在有限的时间里做(大量的事): She managed to pack a lot of sightseeing into three days. 她三天中设法观光了许多地方.

  pack sb off

  (to...) send sb away, esp quickly and decisively 打发某人(尤指迅速而果断地): She packed the children off to bed. 她把孩子全打发去睡觉了. * We were packed off to stay in the country. 都把我们送到乡下去了.

  pack sth out

  (esp passive 尤用於被动语态) completelyfill (a theatre, cinema, etc) with people 人挤满(电影院、 剧院等): Opera houses were packed out whenever she was singing. 她一演唱剧院就满座.

  pack up

  (infml 口) (a) stop doing sth; give up or abandon sth 不再做某事; 放弃某事物: Business is terrible I might as well pack up. 生意很不好做--我还是关门算了. (b) (of a machine, engine, etc) stop working or operating; break down (指机器、 发动机等)不工作或不运转, 出毛病, 有故障: My car has packedup. 我的汽车坏了. pack (sth) up put (one's possessions) into cases, etc before leaving a place 将(东西)装箱打包离开某地: He packed up his things and left. 他把东西装进箱子里就动身了.

  packer

  n person, company or machine that packs goods, esp food 包装工人, 包装公司, 包装机(尤指包装食品的).

  package

  / 5pAkIdV; `pAkIdV/ n 1 (a) object or objects wrapped in paper or packed in a box; parcel 用纸包裹或用箱、 盒所盛之物; 包裹: The postman brought me a large package. 邮递员给我送来了一个大包裹. (b) box, etc in which things are packed 盒、 箱等包装用物. 2 (US) = packet. =>Usage at packet 用法见packet. 3 (also `package deal) set of proposals offered or accepted as a whole 整批交易; 一揽子交易: Ministers are trying to put together a package that will end the dispute. 大臣们力图搞个一揽子交易结束这场争论.

  package

  v [Tn] make (sth) into or put (sth) in a package, eg for selling 将(某物)包装(如为出售): Their products are always attractively packaged. 他们的产品总是包装得非常精美. packaging n [U] (design and manufacture of) materials for packing goods 包装材料; 包装材料的设计与生产. =>Usage at packet 用法见 packet.

  package store

  (US) = off-licence.

  package holiday, package tour

  holiday/tour organized by a travel agent, for which one pays a fixed price that includes the cost of transport, accommodation, etc 一切由旅行社代办而费用固定的假日旅游.

  packet

  / 5pAkIt; `pAkIt/ n 1 [C] (a) (US usu 美式英语通常作 package) small paper or cardboard container in which goods are packed for selling (包装商品的)小包, 小盒, 小袋: a packet of biscuits, cigarettes, tea, etc 一小包饼乾、 香烟、 茶叶等. (b) small package or parcel 用小包、 小箱、 小盒所盛之物; 小包裹. 2 [sing] (infml 口) large amount of money (used esp in the expressions shown) 大笔款项(尤用於以下示例): make (ie earn) a packet 挣一大笔钱 * cost (sb) a packet 花(某人)一大笔钱. 3 [C] (also `packet-boat) boat that carries mail and passengers on a fixed short route (短途)定期邮船, 班轮. 4 (idm 习语) cop a packet => cop2.

  packet

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: Some things in shops are sold in packets (US pack) 商店中某些商品以packet(小包装)形式出售(美式英语用pack): a packet of sweets, crisps, cigarettes 小包的糖果、 炸土豆片、 香烟 * a six-pack of beer 半打装啤酒. Note that a packet/pack of cigarettes contains some cigarettes but a cigarette packet/pack may be empty. 注意a packet/pack of cigarettes(一盒香烟)有一定数量的香烟, 而a cigarette packet/pack(一个香烟盒)可能是空的. A parcel (US also package) is something wrapped, often in brown paper, so that it can be sent by post. *parcel(美式英语亦作package)指包起来(常指用牛皮纸包裹)邮寄的物品: The postman rang the bell because he had a parcel/package to deliver. 邮递员按门铃叫门投递包裹. A package in British English is usually carried and not sent. 英式英语中package通常指携带的而不是寄送的包裹. Packaging is the material used to wrap and protect products sold in shops or sent through the post. *packaging是指商店售出商品或邮递物品的包装材料.

  packing

  / 5pAkIN; `pAkIN/ n [U] 1 process of packing goods (货物)包装, 包装法. 2 material used for packing (esp fragile objects) 包装材料; (尤指)包装易碎物品的材料: pay extra for postage and packing, ie when ordering goods by post 另付邮费和包装费.

  packing-case

  n wooden box or case used for storing or transporting goods 装货木箱.

  pact

  / pAkt; pAkt/ n agreement (between people, groups,countries, etc); treaty (人、 团体、 国家等间的)契约, 协议, 条约, 公约: They made a pact not to tell anyone. 他们 约定好绝不告诉任何人. * a non-aggression pact 互不侵犯条约.

  pad

  / pAd; pAd/ n 1 thick piece of soft material used to protect sth from rubbing, jarring or blows, to improve the shape or increase the size of sth, or to absorb liquid 垫料; 垫块: put a pad of cotton wool and gauze over a wound 在伤口上敷脱脂棉和纱布 * `shoulder pads, ie to give shape to a jacket or dress 垫肩(衣服的). 2 (usu pl 通常作复数) piece of flexible padded material worn in certain sports (esp cricket) to protect the legs and ankles (在某些运动中保护胫和踝的)护垫(尤指板球运动用的): `shin pads, ie worn by footballers, etc to protect the shins 护腿(足球运动员的). =>illus at cricket见cricket插图. 3 number of sheets of writing-paper or drawing-paper fastened together at one edge 便笺本; 拍纸簿: a `writing pad 拍纸簿. 4 = `ink-pad. 5 soft fleshy under-part of the foot of certain animals, eg dogs, foxes (某些动物的)肉趾(如狗、 狐的). 6 flat surface from which spacecraft are launched or helicopters take off 航天器发射台; 直升飞机升降处: a `launching pad 发射台. 7 (sl 俚) place where sb lives 住处: Come back to my pad. 回到我的住处.

  pad

  / pAd; pAd/ v (-dd-) 1 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] fill or cover (sth) with soft material, esp in order to protect it or give it a particular shape or increase its size 用软物填塞、 覆盖、 垫或衬(某物): a padded envelope, ie for sending fragile objects in 有垫料夹层的封套(用以邮寄易碎物品) * a jacket with padded shoulders 带垫肩的外衣 * a padded bra, ie one worn to make the breasts appear larger 带衬垫的乳罩. 2 (phr v) pad sth out (a) put soft material into (a garment) in order to give it a particular shape 给(衣服)衬软物使成形: pad out the shoulders of a jacket to make them look square 给外衣衬上垫肩显得挺括. (b) make (a book, an essay, a speech, etc) longer by adding unnecessary material (用空话)拉长, 充斥(书、 文章、 讲话等): I padded out my answer with plenty of quotations. 我用了大量引文把答案拉长.

  padding

  n [U] 1 soft material used to pad things (软的)垫料, 衬料. 2 unnecessary material in a book, an essay, a speech, etc (书、 文章、 讲话等的)凑篇幅的材料: There's a lot of padding in this novel. 这部小说有大量空洞无物的内容.

  padded cell

  room in a mental hospital that has soft walls to prevent violent patients from injuring themselves 软墙病房; (墙上装有衬垫以防精神病人自伤的)软垫小室.

  pad

  / pAd; pAd/ v (-dd-) (phr v) pad about, along, around, etc walk in the specified direction with a soft steady sound of steps 放轻脚步走: The dog padded along next to its owner. 那狗跟在主人身旁轻轻地走著. * pad about the house in one's slippers 穿著拖鞋在家中轻轻走来走去.

  paddle

  / 5pAdl; `pAdl/ n 1 [C] short oar with a broad blade at one end or both ends, used to move a canoe through the water 短桨, 双叶桨(划独木舟的). =>illus at canoe 见canoe插图. 2 [sing] act or period of paddling (paddle 1) 划桨; 荡桨. 3 [C] instrument shaped like a paddle, esp one used for beating, mixing or stirring food 桨形工具(尤指用於击打、 混合或搅拌食物的).

  paddle

  v [Ipr, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] 1 (a) move (a canoe) through the water using a paddle 用桨划(独木舟): We paddled (the canoe) slowly upstream. 我们慢慢地划著(独木舟)逆流而上. (b) row (a boat) with light easy strokes 轻轻地划(船); 荡桨. 2 (idm 习语) ,paddle one's ,own `canoe (infml 口) depend on oneself and no one else; be independent 自力更生; 独立自主.

  paddle-boat

  n boat moved by a paddle-wheel 明轮船.

  paddle-steamer

  n steam vessel moved by paddle-wheels 明轮汽船.

  paddle-wheel

  n wheel with boards round its rim which make a boat move forwards by pressing against the water as the wheel revolves 明轮; 桨轮.

  paddle

  / 5pAdl; `pAdl/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Ip] walk with bare feet in shallow water 戏水; 涉水: paddling (about) at the water's edge 在水边 水玩. Cf 参看 wade. 2 [Tn] move (one's feet or hands) gently in water 用(脚或手)轻轻划水或拨水: paddle one's toes in the water 用脚趾撩水玩.

  paddle

  n [sing] act or period of paddling 戏水; 涉水.

  paddling pool (US wading pool)

  shallow pool in which children may paddle (供儿童嬉水的)浅水池.

  paddock

  / 5pAdEk; `pAdEk/ n 1 small field where horses are kept or exercised (放牧和驯马用的)小围场. 2 enclosure at a racecourse or race-track where horses or racing-cars are brought together and paraded before a race (准备参赛的马或车的)检阅场.

  paddy

  / 5pAdI; `pAdI/ n 1 (also `paddy-field) [C] field where rice is grown 稻田. 2 [U] rice that is still growing or in the husk 稻; 稻谷.

  paddy

  / 5pAdI; `pAdI/ n (Brit infml 口) fit of anger or temper 大怒; 发脾气: There's no need to get into such a paddy. 不必这麽大动肝火.

  Paddy

  / 5pAdI; `pAdI/ n (infml offensive 口, 蔑) Irish person 爱尔兰人.

  padlock

  / 5pAdlCk; `pAd9lBk/ n detachable lock with a U-shaped bar or chain that fastens through the loop of a staple or ring 挂锁; 扣锁. =>illus at chain 见chain插图.

  padlock

  v [Tn, Tn.pr] fasten (sth) with a padlock 用挂锁锁(某物): The gate was padlocked. 大门用挂锁锁著. * She padlocked her bike to the railings. 她用挂锁把自行车和栏杆锁在一起.

  padre

  / 5pB:dreI; `pBdre/ n (infml 口) (used esp as a form of address 尤用作称呼语) 1 clergyman in the armed forces 随军牧师: Good morning, padre! 牧师, 早上好! Cf 参看 chaplain. 2 (Brit) priest or parson 神父; 牧师.

  paean

  (US pean) / 5pi:En; `piEn/ n (fml 文) song of praise or triumph 赞歌; 凯歌: a paean of praise 赞歌.

  paed(o)-

  (US ped(o)-) comb form 构词成分 child or children 儿童: paediatrics.

  paederasty

  = pederasty.

  paediatrics

  (US pediatrics) / 9pi:dI5AtrIks; 9pidI`AtrIks/ n [sing v] branch of medicine concerned with children and their illnesses 儿科学.

  paediatric (US pediatric)

  adj relating to paediatrics 儿科学的: a paediatric ward, ie for sick children 儿科病房.

  paediatrician (US pediatrician)

  / 9pi:dIE5trIFn; 9pidIE`trIFEn/ n doctor who specializes in paediatrics 儿科医师; 儿科学家.

  paedophilia (US pedophilia)

  / 9pi:dE5fIlIE; 9pidE`fIlIE/ n [U] condition of being sexually attracted to children 恋童癖.

  paella

  / paI5elE; pB`ZlE/ n [U] Spanish dish of rice, chicken, seafood, vegetables, etc cooked and served in a large shallow pan 西班牙什锦饭(有米、 鸡肉、 海味、 菜蔬等).

  pagan

  / 5peIgEn; `pe^En/ n 1 person who is not a believer in any of the world's chief religions, esp one who is neither a Christian, a Jew nor a Moslem 异教徒(尤指非基督教、 犹太教或回教教徒). 2 (formerly) person who did not believe in Christianity; heathen (旧时)非基督教徒, 异教徒. Cf 参看 atheist (atheism).

  pagan

  adj of or relating to pagans 异教徒的; 无宗教信仰者的: pagan worship of the sun 异教徒对太阳的崇拜.

  paganism

  / -IzEm; -IzEm/ n [U] beliefs and practices of pagans 异教信仰.

  page

  / peIdV; pedV/ n 1 (a) (abbr 缩写 p) one side of a sheet of paper in a book, magazine, etc (书、 杂志等的)页: read a few pages of a book 看几页书 * You'll find the quotation on page 35. 引文见第35页. (b) this sheet of paper itself (纸的)张: Several pages have been torn out of the book. 书中有几页撕掉了. 2 episode or period of history that might be written about in a book 可写入书中的历史事件或时期: a glorious page of English history 英国历史上光荣的一页.

  page

  v [Tn] number the pages of (sth) 标明(某物)的页数.

  page

  / peIdV; pedV/ (also `page-boy) n (a) (US `bellboy) boy or young man, usu in uniform, employed in a hotel or club to carry luggage, open doors for people, etc (旅馆或俱乐部雇用的、 通常为穿制服的)年轻男侍. (b) boy attendant of a person of rank or a bride 年轻的男侍从或傧相.

  page

  v [Tn] call the name of (sb) over a loudspeaker(eg in an airport) in order to give him a message (用扩音喇叭)呼叫(某人).

  pageant

  / 5pAdVEnt; `pAdVEnt/ n 1 public entertainmentconsisting of a procession of people in costume, or an outdoor performance of scenes from history 盛装的游行; 露天演出的历史剧: (fig 比喻) the pageant of history, ie history as a succession of colourful events 丰富多彩的历史. 2 brilliant display or spectacle 壮丽的场面; 伟观.

  pageantry

  / 5pAdVEntrI; `pAdVEntrI/ n [U] spectacular display 壮丽的展示; 盛况: all the pageantry of a coronation 加冕盛典.

  paginate

  / 5pAdVIneIt; `pAdVE9net/ v [Tn] number the pages of (a book, etc) 标明(书等)的页码.

  pagination

  / 9pAdVI5neIFn; 9pAdVE`neFEn/ n [U] (figures used in) numbering the pages of a book, etc 标记页数(的数字); 页码.

  pagoda

  / pE5gEUdE; pE`^odE/ n religious building in India and E Asia, usu a tall tower with several storeys each of which has its own overhanging roof (印度和东亚的)塔, 宝塔.

  paid

  pt, pp of pay2.

  pail

  / peIl; pel/ n (a) bucket 桶: a pail of water 一桶水. (b) amount contained in this 一桶的量.

  pailful

  / 5peIlfUl; `pel9fJl/ n amount a pail contains 一桶的量.

  paillasse

  = palliasse.

  pain

  / peIn; pen/ n 1 (a) [U] physical suffering or discomfort caused by injury or disease (肉体上的)疼, 痛, 疼痛: be in (great) pain (剧)痛 * feel some, no, not much, a lot of, etc pain 感到有些、 不、 不很、 非常...疼 * a cry of pain 疼痛的叫喊 * scream with pain 疼得尖叫 * suffer from acute back pain 患剧烈的背痛 * Her back causes/gives her a lot of pain. 她背痛得厉害. (b) [C] feeling of suffering or discomfort in a particular part of the body 身体某部分的疼痛或不适: have a pain in one's back, chest, shoulder, etc 背痛、 胸痛、 肩痛 * stomach pains 胃痛. (c) [U] mental suffering or distress (精神上的)痛苦, 苦痛: His harsh words caused her much pain. 他说话很刺耳, 她听了很不舒服. * the pain of separation 分离的苦痛. 2 [C] (infml 口) annoying or boring person or thing 令人厌烦的人或事物: She's been complaining again she's a real pain! 她又发牢骚了--真烦人! * We've missed the last bus what a pain! 我们没赶上末班公共汽车--真倒霉! 3 (idm 习语) a pain in the neck (infml 口) annoying or boring person or thing; pain (2) 令人厌烦的人或事物. on/under pain/penalty of sth (fml 文) with the risk of incurring a particular punishment 违则受某种惩罚: Prisoners were forbidden to approach the fence under pain of death. 犯人严禁接近围栏, 违者格杀勿论.

  pain

  v [Tn no passive 不用於被动语态] cause pain to (sb) 使(某人)痛苦: My foot is still paining me. 我的脚还痛. * It pains me to have to tell you that... 我以沉痛的心情告诉你.... pained adj showing pain or distress 显示痛苦的或难过的: a pained look, expression, glance, etc 痛苦的样子、 表情、 目光等.

  painful

  / -fl; -fEl/ adj 1 causing or suffering pain 令人疼痛的; 痛苦的; 疼的: a painful blow on the shoulder 肩上挨的一击很疼 * Her shoulder is still painful. 她的肩还很痛. 2 causing distress or embarrassment 令人痛苦的; 令人难堪的: a painful experience, memory 痛苦的经历、 记忆 * His incompetence was painful to witness. 他很无能, 让人看著难受. * It was my painful duty to tell him he was dying. 要我把他即将去世的事告诉他, 这使我十分为难. * Her performance was painful, ie very bad. 她的表演拙劣得令人难堪. 3 difficult or tedious 困难的; 麻烦的; 费事的: the painful process of stripping the paint off the wall 剥除墙壁漆皮的麻烦事.

  painfully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv: Her thumb is painfully swollen. 她的大拇指肿痛难忍. * become painfully aware of sth 意识到某事而感到痛苦.

  painfulness

  n [U].

  painless

  adj not causing pain or distress 无痛的; 不引起痛苦的: a painless injection 无痛注射.

  painlessly

  adv.

  painlessness

  n [U].

  pain-killer

  n drug that reduces pain 止痛药: She's on (ie taking) pain-killers. 她在服用止痛药.

  pains

  / peInz; penz/ n [pl] (idm 习语) be at pains to do sth take great care or make a particular effort to do sth 费尽苦心, 努力做某事: She was at pains to stress the benefits of the scheme. 她极力强调该计画的好处. * He was at great pains to deny the rumour of redundancies. 他煞费苦心平息裁员的谣言. be a fool for one's pains => fool1. for one's pains as a response to one's efforts or trouble 作为辛劳的报酬; 费尽苦心的结果: She looked after her sick mother for 10 years and all she got for her pains was ingratitude, ie she received no thanks for her efforts. 她母亲生病, 她照顾了十年, 到头来却是费力不讨好. spare no pains doing/to do sth => spare2. take (great) pains (with/over/to do sth) take great care or make a careful effort to do sth 小心谨慎地做某事: She takes great pains with her work. 她工作兢兢业业. * Great pains have been taken to ensure the safety of passengers. 为确保乘客安全而不遗余力.

  painstaking

  / 5peInzteIkIN; `penz9tekIN/ adj done with, requiring or taking great care or trouble 极小心的; 辛勤的; 辛苦的: a painstaking job, investigation 艰苦的工作、 调查 * painstaking accuracy 高度的精确性 * a painstaking student, worker, etc 勤奋的学生、 工人等.

  painstakingly

  adv.

  paint

  / peInt; pent/ n 1 (a) [U] substance applied to a surface in liquid form to give it colour 涂料: red, green, yellow, etc paint 红的、 绿的、 黄的等涂料 * give the door two coats of paint, ie put two layers of paint on it 给门油两层漆 * wet paint, eg written on a notice to warn people not to touch it 油漆未乾 * [attrib 作定语] paint marks 带颜色的记号. (b) [U] layer of dried paint on a surface (已乾燥的)涂层, 漆层. 2 paints [pl] (set of) tubes or blocks of paint (一套)管装或块状的颜料: The artist brought his paints with him. 那画家自带颜料. * a set of oil-paints 一套油画颜料. 3 [U] (usu derog 通常作贬义) cosmetics for applying to the face 化妆品: She wears far too much paint. 她化妆太浓.

  paintbox

  n box containing a set of paints 颜料盒.

  paintbrush

  n brush used for applying paint 画笔; 漆刷.

  paintwork

  n [U] painted surface or surfaces 已涂颜料或油漆的表面: The paintwork is in good condition. 漆面良好. * A stone hit the car and damaged the paintwork. 有个石子击到汽车上, 打坏了漆面.

  paint

  / peInt; pent/ v 1 [Tn, Cn.a] put paint onto (sth) 在(某物)上涂颜料或油漆: paint a door, wall, room 给门、 墙、 房间上漆 * paint a house blue 把房子刷成蓝色. 2 [I, Ipr, Tn] make (a picture) using paints; portray or represent (sb/sth) in paint 用颜料绘画; 画像; 画(某人[某事物]): She paints well. 她善於绘画. * paint in oils/water-colours 画油画[水彩画] * paint a picture, a portrait, a still life, etc 画图画、 肖像画、 静物画等 * paint flowers, a girl, a landscape 画花卉、 女孩、 风景 * (fig 比喻) In her latest novel she paints a vivid picture of life in Victorian England. 她在最新的一部小说里生动描绘了维多利亚时代的英国生活. 3 [Tn, Cn.a] (often derog 常作贬义) put powder, lipstick, etc onto (the face, etc) 涂或搽(脂粉、 口红等): She spends hours painting her face. 她一化妆就是几个小时. * paint one's nails red 把指甲涂成红的. 4 (idm 习语) not as black as it/one is painted => black1. paint the `town red (infml 口) go out and enjoy a lively, boisterous time in bars, night-clubs, etc 到酒吧、 夜总会等处寻欢作乐. 5 (phrv) paint sth in add sth to a picture using paint 在画上添画某物. paint sth out cover (a part of a painting) by putting paint on top of it 用涂料覆盖或涂掉(部分画面). paint over sth cover sth with paint 用涂料覆盖某物: We'll have to paint over the dirty marks on the wall. 我们得用涂料把墙壁上的污斑遮盖住.

  painter

  / 5peIntE(r); `pentL/ n 1 person whose job is painting buildings, walls, etc 粉刷工; 油漆工: He is a painter and decorator. 他是油漆装饰工. 2 artist who paints pictures 画家: a famous painter 名画家.

  painter

  / 5peIntE(r); `pentL/ n rope fastened to the front of a boat, used for tying it to a quay, ship, etc 艇首缆; 系艇索.

  painting

  / 5peIntIN; `pentIN/ n 1 [U] action or skill of painting sth 涂色; 上油漆; 粉刷; 油漆技巧; 绘画. 2 [C] picture that has been painted 图画: a painting by Rembrandt 伦勃朗的画 * famous paintings 名画.

  au pair

  / 9EU 5peE(r); o`pZr/ person (usu from overseas) who receives board and lodging with a family in return for helping with the housework, etc 以帮做家务事等换取食宿(通常为来自海外)的人; 换工: We've got a German au pair for six months. 我们找到了一个可以干六个月的德国换工. * [attrib 作定语] an au pair girl 做换工的姑娘.

  pair

  / peE(r); pZr/ n 1 [C] two things of the same kind, usu used together 两件一起使用的同类东西: a pair of gloves, shoes, socks, ear-rings 一副手套、 一双鞋、 一双袜子、 一对耳环 * a huge pair of eyes 一双大眼睛. 2 [C] object consisting of two parts joined together 由两部分组成的单件物品: a pair of spectacles, tights, scissors, compasses 一副眼镜、 一双裤袜、 一把剪子、 一个圆规 * My spectacles are broken I'll need to buy another pair. 我的眼镜坏了--我要再买一副. * These trousers cost 30 a pair. 这种裤子30英镑一条. 3 [pl v] two people closely connected or doing sth together 关系密切的或共做某事的两人: the happy pair, ie the newly married couple 燕尔新婚的一对 * (infml 口) You've behaved very badly, the pair of you! 你们表现得糟极了, 你们俩! 4 [CGp] one male and one female animal of the same species that mate with each other 雌雄一对的动物: a pair of swans nesting by the river 栖息河边的一对天鹅. 5 [C] two horses harnessed together to pull a carriage, etc 套在同一马车上的两匹马: a coach and pair 双驾马车. 6 [C] (either of) two Members of Parliament of opposing parties who agree that neither will vote in a division, so that neither need attend 议会中相约放弃投票权的对立两党的两名议员或其中一方. 7 (idm 习语) in `pairs two at a time; in twos 一次两个; 两个一组: Cuff-links are only sold in pairs. 袖扣论对卖. show a clean pair of heels => show2. > pair v 1 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] ~ A with B arrange (people or things) in a pair or pairs 使(人或物)成对或成双: I've been paired with Bob (ie Bob and I will play together as partners) in the next round of the competition. 下一轮比赛我和鲍勃搭档. 2 [I] (of animals) mate (指动物)交配, 交尾. 3 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] ~ with sb; ~ A with B (in Parliament) (cause sb to) form a pair(6) (在议会中)(使敌对两党各一议员)相约放弃投票权. 4 (phr v) pair (sb/sth) off (with sb) (cause to) form a pair or pairs (使)成对, 成双: The students had all paired off by the end of term. 到学期末学生都已成双结对的了. * Her parents tried to pair her off with a rich neighbour. 她的父母想让她和一个有钱的邻居结婚. pair up (with sb) form a pair or pairs in order to work, play a game, etc together (为工作、 比赛等)结成对或搭档.

  Paisley

  / 5peIzlI; `pezlI/ adj having a detailed pattern of curved petal-shaped figures 佩斯利涡旋纹图案的: a Paisley tie, dressing-gown, etc 佩斯利涡旋花纹领带、 晨衣等.

  pajamas

  (esp US) = pyjamas.

  pal

  / pAl; pAl/ n (infml 口) 1 friend 朋友: We've been pals for years. 我们是多年的朋友. 2 (sometimes ironic 有时作反语) (used as a form of address 用作称呼语) man; fellow 老兄; 老弟; 兄弟: Now look here, pal, you're asking for trouble! 我说, 兄弟, 你是自找麻烦哪!

  pal

  v (-ll-) (phr v) pal up (with sb) (infml 口) become friendly (with sb) (与某人)结交, 为友.

  pally

  / 5pAlI; `pAlI/ adj ~ (with sb) (infml 口) friendly 友好的: She's become very pally with the boss/They've become very pally (with each other). 她和老板关系非常好了[他们(彼此)非常要好了].

  palace

  / 5pAlIs; `pAlIs/ n 1 official home of a sovereign, an archbishop or a bishop 宫殿; 皇宫; (大主教的)宅第: Buckingham Palace 白金汉宫 * The palace (ie A spokesman for the king, queen, etc) has just issued a statement. 王宫发言人刚宣布了一项声明. * [attrib 作定语] a palace spokesman 王宫发言人. 2 any large splendid house 豪华住宅: Compared to ours their house is a palace. 他们的房子和我们的相比简直太豪华了.

  palace revolution

  overthrow of a monarch, president, etc by people in positions of power working closely with him 宫廷革命.

  palae(o)- (also esp US pale(o)-)

  comb form 构词成分 of ancient times; very old 古代的; 非常古老的: palaeolithic * palaeontology.

  palaeography

  / 9pAlI5CgrEfI; 9pelI`B^rEfI/ (also esp US paleography / 9peIl-; 9pel-/) n [U] study ofancient writing and documents 古文学; 古文书学.

  palaeographer (also esp US paleographer)

  / -grEfE(r);-^rEfL/ n.

  palaeographic

  / 9pAlIEU5grAfIk; 9pelIE`^rAfIk/ (also esp US paleographic / 9peIl-; 9pel-/) adj.

  palaeolithic

  / 9pAlIEU5lIWIk; 9pelIE`lIWIk/ (also esp US paleolithic / 9peIl-; `pel-/) adj of or relating to the early part of the Stone Age 旧石器时代的.

  palaeontology

  / 9pAlICn5tClEdVI; 9pelIBn`tBlEdVI/ (also esp US paleontology / 9peIl-; 9pel-/) n [U] study of fossils as a guide to the history of life on earth 古生物学.

  palaeontologist (also esp US paleontologist)

  /-EdVIst; -EdVIst/ n.

  palatable

  / 5pAlEtEbl; `pAlEtEbl/ adj (a) pleasant to taste 可口的; 美味的. (b) (fig 比喻) pleasant or acceptable to the mind 合意的; 认可的; 认同的: The truth is not always very palatable. 事实真相并非尽如人意.

  palatably

  / -blI; -blI/ adv.

  palatal

  / 5pAlEtl or, rarely, 罕读作 pE5leItl; `pAlEtl/ adj 1 of the palate 腭的. 2 (phonetics 语音) (of a speech sound) made by placing the tongue against or near the palate (usu the hard palate) (指语音)腭音的.

  palatal

  n (phonetics 语音) palatal speech sound (eg / j, V, F, dV/) 腭音(如 /j/, /V/, /F/, /dV/).

  palate

  / 5pAlEt; `pAlIt/ n 1 roof of the mouth 腭: the hard/soft palate, ie its front/back part 硬腭[软腭]. =>illus at throat 见throat插图. 2 (usu sing 通常作单数) sense of taste; ability to distinguish one taste from another 味觉; 品味的能力: a refined palate 精於品味 * have a good palate for fine wine 善於品尝好酒.

  palatial

  / pE5leIFl; pE`leFEl/ adj (a) like a palace 像宫殿的. (b) extremely large or splendid 极大的; 富丽的: a palatial dining room, hotel, residence 富丽堂皇的餐厅、 旅馆、 居所.

  palatinate

  / pE5lAtInEt; ?@ -tEnEt; pE`lAtnEt/ n area (formerly) ruled over by an earl or a count having some of the privileges of a sovereign 巴拉丁领地(旧时指欧洲享有特权的伯爵的领地).

  palaver

  / pE5lB:vE(r); ?@-5lv-; pE`lAvL/ n [U, sing] 1 (infml derog 口, 贬) fuss or bother, often with a lot of talking 忙乱, 烦恼, 麻烦(常指交涉): What a palaver there was about paying the bill! 付帐的事真费口舌呀! 2 (often joc 常作戏谑语) discussion 商量; 商议.

  pale

  / peIl; pel/ adj (-r, -est) 1 (of a person, his face, etc) having little colour; having less colour than usual (指人、 面色等)苍白的, 气色不如平时的: She has a pale complexion. 她面色苍白. * Are you feeling all right? You look rather pale. 你身体好吗? 你气色不太好. * He went/turned deathly pale at the news. 他得知这一消息後, 吓得面如土色. * pale with anger, fear, shock, etc 气得、 吓得、 震惊得...脸色发白. 2 (a) (of colours) not bright or vivid (指颜色)浅的, 淡的, 暗淡的: pale blue eyes 淡蓝色的眼睛 * a pale sky 灰蒙蒙的天空. (b) (of light) dim; faint (指光)微弱的, 暗淡的: the pale light of dawn 晨曦的微光.

  pale

  v 1 [I, Ipr] ~ (with sth) (at sth) become pale 变苍白: She paled with shock at the news. 她听到那消息大惊失色. 2 (phr v) pale before, beside, etc sth become less important in comparison with sth 相形见绌; 相形失色: Her beauty pales beside her mother's. 她的美貌和她母亲相比就逊色了. * Their other problems paled into insignificance beside this latest catastrophe. 最近发生这一灾祸後, 他们其他的问题都显得无关重要了.

  palely

  / 5peIllI; `pellI/ adv.

  paleness

  n [U].

  pale-face

  n (derog 贬) (said to have been used by N American Indians 据说为北美印第安人用语) white man 白脸(白种人).

  pale

  / peIl; pel/ n 1 (a) pointed piece of wood forming part of a fence; stake (围栏的)尖木条. (b) fence or boundary 篱笆; 栅栏; 界限. 2 (idm 习语) be,yond the `pale considered unacceptable or unreasonable by people in general 越轨的; 社会不容的: Those remarks he made were quite beyond the pale. 他说的那些话太出圈了.

  pale(o)-

  => palae(o)-.

  palette

  / 5pAlEt; `pAlIt/ n thin board on which an artist mixes colours when painting, with a hole for the thumb to hold it by 调色板.

  palette-knife

  n (a) thin flexible knife used by artists for mixing (and sometimes spreading) oil-paints 调色刀; 画刀. (b) knife with a long flexible round-ended blade used for spreading and smoothing soft substances in cooking 软铲(摊平软食物的炊具).

  palimpsest

  / 5pAlImpsest; `pAlImp9sZst/ n (usu old) manuscript from which the original writing has been removed in order to create space for new writing (通常指旧的)手稿(已除去原文以供书写新内容).

  palindrome

  / 5pAlIndrEUm; `pAlIn9drom/ n word or phrase that reads the same backwards as forwards, eg madam or nurses run 回文(正读反读皆同的词或词组, 如 madam 或 nurses run).

  paling

  / 5peIlIN; `pelIN/ n fence made of pales (pale2 1a) 栅栏; 木栅.

  palisade

  / 9pAlI5seId; 9pAlE`sed/ n 1 [C] strong fence made of pointed wooden stakes or iron poles, esp one used to defend a building 尖木栅, 铁栅栏(尤指护围建筑物的). 2 palisades [pl] (US) line of steep high cliffs, esp along a river 峭壁(尤指河边的).

  palisade

  v [Tn] enclose (sth) with a palisade, esp in order to defend it 设栅栏护卫(某物).

  palish

  / 5peIlIF; `pelIF/ adj rather pale 稍苍白的.

  pall

  / pR:l; pRl/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (on sb) become uninterestingor boring by being experienced too often (因过多或过久)生厌, 感到乏味, 厌烦: The pleasures of sunbathing began to pall (on us) after a week on the beach. 我们在沙滩待了一周之後, 对日光浴已兴致大减.

  pall

  / pR:l; pRl/ n 1 cloth spread over a coffin 柩衣; 墓布; 棺罩. 2 (fig 比喻) dark or heavy covering (used esp as in the expression shown) 深色的或厚重的覆盖物(尤用於以下示例): A pall of smoke hung over the town. 市镇上空笼罩著烟幕.

  pallbearer

  n one of a group of people who walk beside or carry the coffin at a funeral (出殡时)护柩者, 抬棺者.

  pallet

  / 5pAlIt; `pAlIt/ n large wooden or metal tray or platform for carrying goods, esp one that can be raised using a fork-lift truck (木或金属的)托盘或平台; (尤指可用铲运车叉起的)货板. =>illus at box 见 box 插图.

  pallet

  / 5pAlIt; `pAlIt/ n 1 mattress filled with straw 草荐; 草垫. 2 hard narrow bed 窄小的硬床.

  palliasse (also paillasse)

  / 5pAlIAs; ?@ 9pAlI5As;9pAl`jAs/ n mattress filled with straw; pallet 草荐; 草垫.

  palliate

  / 5pAlIeIt; `pAlI9et/ v [Tn] (fml 文) 1 make(esp a pain or disease) less severe or unpleasant, withoutremoving its cause; alleviate 减轻, 缓和(尤指疼痛或疾病). 2 make (a crime, an offence, etc) seem less serious; excuse or extenuate 减轻, 掩饰(罪行、 过失等); 为(罪行、 过失等)辩解.

  palliation

  / 9pAlI5eIFn; 9pAlI`eFEn/ n [U] palliating or being palliated 减轻; 缓和; 掩饰; 辩解.

  palliative

  / 5pAlIEtIv; `pAlI9etIv/ n, adj 1 (medicine) that reduces pain without removing its cause 减轻的; 缓和的; 姑息剂; 治标剂: Aspirin is a palliative (drug). 阿斯匹林是一种缓解剂. 2 (thing) that reduces the harmful effects of sth without removing its cause 缓和物; 减轻的; 缓和的: Security checks are only a palliative (measure) in the fight against terrorism. 安全检查仅是反恐怖主义的一种消极措施.

  pallid

  / 5pAlId; `pAlId/ adj (of a person, his face, etc) pale, esp because of illness (指人、 面色等)苍白的(尤指因病): a pallid complexion 苍白的面色 * You look a bit pallid do you feel all right? 你脸色有点苍白--你没事儿吧?

  pallidly

  adv.

  pallidness

  n [U].

  pallor

  / 5pAlE(r); `pAlL/ n [U] (esp unhealthy) paleness of the face (尤指不健康所致的)脸色苍白: Her cheeks have a sickly pallor. 她面色苍白带有病容.

  pally

  => pal.

  palm

  / pB:m; pBm/ n 1 (a) inner surface of the hand between the wrist and the fingers 掌; 手掌; 掌心; 手心: sweaty palms 有汗的手掌 * read sb's palm, ie tell sb's fortune by looking at the lines on his palm 看某人的手相 * He held the mouse in the palm of his hand. 他把那老鼠放在手心上. =>illus at hand 见hand插图. (b) part of a glove that covers this (手套的)掌部: gloves with leather palms 掌部为皮革的手套. 2 (idm 习语) cross sb's palm with silver => cross2. grease sb's palm => grease v. have sb in the ,palm of one's `hand have complete power or control over sb 完全掌握某人; 完全控制某人. have an itching palm => itch v.

  palm

  v 1 [Tn] hide (a coin, card, etc) in the hand when performing a conjuring trick (变戏法时)将(硬币、 纸牌等)藏於手中. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] hit (a ball) with the palm of the hand 用手掌击(球): The goalkeeper just managed to palm the ball over the crossbar. 守门员用手掌勉强把球挡过球门横木. 3 (phr v) palm sb off (with sth) (infml 口) dishonestly persuade sb to accept sth 诓骗某人接受某事物: He tried to palm me off with some excuse about the bus being late. 他托词公共汽车晚点骗我原谅他. palm sb/sth off (on sb) (infml 口) get rid of (an unwanted person or thing) by persuading sb else to accept him/it 将(自己不想要的人或物)劝说别人接受: They palmed their unwelcome guests off on the neighbours. 他们花言巧语哄得邻居同意, 便把不喜欢的客人打发到他们那里去了.

  palm

  / pB:m; pBm/ n 1 (also `palm-tree) any of several types of tree growing in warm or tropical climates, with no branches and a mass of large wide leaves at the top 棕榈树: a `date palm 枣椰树 * a `coconut palm 椰子树 * [attrib 作定语] palm fronds 棕榈叶. =>illus 见插图. 2 leaf of such a tree as a symbol of victory or success (象徵胜利的)棕榈叶: the victor's palm 胜利者的棕榈叶.

  palmy

  adj (-ier, -iest) 1 full of palm trees 多棕榈的; 棕榈树成林的. 2 [esp attrib 尤作定语] flourishing; prosperous 繁荣的; 兴盛的: in my palmy days 在我春风得意时.

  palm-oil

  n [U] oil obtained from the nuts of various types of palm 棕榈油.

  Palm Sunday

  the Sunday before Easter 棕枝主日(即复活节前的星期日).

  palmetto

  / pAl5metEU; pAl`mZto/ n (pl ~s) type of small palm-tree with fan-shaped leaves 矮棕榈.

  palmist

  / 5pB:mIst; `pBmIst/ n person who claims to be able to interpret sb's character or tell sb's future by looking at the lines on the palm of his hand 看手相者.

  palmistry

  / 5pB:mIstrI; `pBmIstrI/ n [U] (skill of) doing this 手相术.

  palpable

  / 5pAlpEbl; `pAlpEbl/ adj 1 that can be felt or touched 可触知的; 摸得出的. 2 (fml 文) clear to the mind; obvious 明显的; 明白的: a palpable lie, error 明显的谎言、 错误.

  palpably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv.

  palpate

  / 5pAlpeIt; `pAlpet/ v [Tn] (medical 医) examine (sth) by feeling with the hands, esp as part of a medical examination 触摸检查(某物); (尤指)触诊.

  palpation

  / pl5peIFn; pAl`peFEn/ n [U].

  palpitate

  / 5pAlpIteIt; `pAlpE9tet/ v 1 [I] (of the heart) beat rapidly (指心脏)急速跳动. 2 [I, Ipr] ~ (with sth) (of a person or a part of his body) tremble or quiver because of fear, excitement, etc (指人或身体某部分)颤抖, 颤动(因恐惧、 激动等): palpitating with terror 吓得发抖.

  palpitation

  / 9pAlpI5teIFn; 9pAlpE`teFEn/ n 1 [U] act of palpilating 心悸; 颤动. 2 palpitations [pl] (periodof) rapid beating of the heart 心悸(期): I get palpitationsif I run too fast. 我跑得太快时就心悸. * (fig 比喻) The thought of flying gives me palpitations, ie makes me very nervous. 一想到飞行我心情就紧张.

  palsy

  / 5pR:lzI; `pRlzI/ n [U] paralysis, esp with trembling of the limbs 麻痹, 瘫痪(尤指伴有四肢颤动者): cerebral palsy 大脑性麻痹.

  palsied

  / 5pR:lzId; `pRlzId/ adj affected with palsy 麻痹的; 瘫痪

  paltry

  / 5pR:ltrI; `pRltrI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 very small; unimportant 微小的; 不重要的: a paltry amount, sum,etc 微不足道的数量、 金额等. 2 worthless; contemptible无价值的; 可鄙的: a paltry excuse 可鄙的藉口.

  pampas

  / 5pAmpEs; ?@ -Ez; `pAmpEz/ n the pampas [pl] extensive grassy treeless plains in S America 南美无树木的大草原. Cf 参看 prairie, savannah, steppe, veld.

  pampas-grass

  n [U] type of tall ornamental grass with a silver-white feathery flower 蒲苇.

  pamper

  / 5pAmpE(r); `pAmpL/ v [Tn] (often derog 常作贬义) treat (a person or an animal) with too much kindness or indulgence; spoil 纵容(某人或动物); 宠; 娇养: the pampered children of the rich 有钱人家娇生惯养的子女 * pamper oneself after a hard day at work 劳累工作一日之後放纵自己.

  pamphlet

  / 5pAmflIt; `pAmflIt/ n small book with a paper cover, usu containing information on a subject of public interest or expressing a political opinion 小册子(通常指有关时事或政治见解的).

  pamphleteer

  / 9pAmflE5tIE(r); 9pAmflI`tIr/ n person who writes pamphlets (上述的)小册子作者.

  pan

  / pAn; pAn/ n (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) 1 (a) wide flat (usu metal) container, with a handle or handles, used for cooking food in 锅; (通常为金属的)盘状器皿: a `frying-pan 煎锅 * a saucepan 长柄炖锅 * pots and pans 锅壶盆罐. =>illus 见插图. (b) amount contained in this 一锅之量: a pan of hot fat 一锅热脂油. 2 any of various types of bowl-shaped containers 盆状器皿: a lavatory pan, ie its porcelain bowl 瓷便池 * a `bedpan 床上便盆 * a `dustpan 簸箕. 3 either of the dishes on a pair of scales (天平的)秤盘.=>illus at scale 见scale插图. 4 metal dish in which gravel is washed to separate it from gold or othervaluable minerals (淘沙金等的)淘盘. 5 = salt-pan (salt).6 = hard-pan (hard). 7 small cavity for gunpowder in the lock of an old type of gun (旧式枪上的)火药池.8 (idm 习语) a flash in the pan => flash1.

  pan

  v (-nn-) 1 [I, Ipr] ~ (for sth) wash gravel in a pan in order to find gold or other valuable minerals 用淘盘淘: prospectors panning for gold 淘金的人. 2 [Tn] (infml 口) criticize (sth) severely 严厉批评(某事): The film was panned by the critics. 影片受到评论家的严厉批评. 3 (phr v) pan sth off/out wash (gravel) in a pan, to separate gold or other valuable minerals from it 用淘盘淘洗(含金或贵重矿物的砂砾). pan out (a) (of gravel, a river, an area, etc) yield gold or other valuable minerals (指砂砾、 河流、 地区等)产金或其他贵重矿物. (b) (infml 口) (of events or circumstances) develop; turn out (指事情或环境)发展, 结果: It depends how things pan out. 那得看事情结果怎样了.

  pan-fish

  n (pl unchanged 复数不变) (US) fish, usu caught for one's own use, that can be fried whole in a pan 可整条放入锅中煎的鱼(通常指自钓的).

  pan

  / pAn; pAn/ v (-nn-) (cinema or broadcasting 影或播) (a) [Tn, Tn.pr] move (a camera) to the right or left to follow a moving object or to show a wide view (为拍摄动景或全景)向右或向左移动(摄影机). (b) [I, Ipr] (of a camera, etc) move in this way (指摄影机等)移动拍摄: The shot panned slowly across the room. 镜头慢慢移动拍摄房间全景.

  pan-

  comb form 构词成分 of or relating to all or the whole of 全的; 总的; 泛的: panchromatic * pan-African * pantheism.

  pan-pipes

  / 5pAn paIps; `pAn9paIps/ n [pl] musical instrument made of a series of reeds or pipes fixed together and played by blowing across the open ends 排箫; 潘神箫.

  panacea

  / 9pAnE5sIE; 9pAnE`sIE/ n ~ (for sth) remedy for all diseases or troubles 治百病的药; 万灵药: There's no single panacea for the country's economic ills. 国家经济弊病百出, 并无万灵药可以医治.

  panache

  / pA5nAF; ?@ pE-; pE`nAF/ n [U] confident stylish manner 神气十足; 炫耀自负: She dresses with great panache. 她穿著十分浮华.

  panama

  / 5pAnEmB:; `pAnE9mB/ n (also ,panama `hat) hat made of fine woven straw-like material 巴拿马草帽. =>illus at hat 见hat插图.

  panatella

  / 9pAnE5telE; 9pAnE`tZlE/ n long thin cigar 细长的雪茄烟.

  pancake

  / 5pANkeIk; `pAN9kek/ n 1 [C] thin cake of batter fried on both sides and (usu) eaten hot, sometimes rolled up with a filling 烙饼; 薄饼. 2 [U] make-up for the face consisting of powder pressed into a flat solid cake (化妆品的)粉饼. 3 (idm 习语) flat as a pancake => flat2.

  Pancake Day

  Shrove Tuesday, when pancakes are traditionally eaten 薄饼日(忏悔节前一日, 按传统吃薄饼).

  pancake landing

  landing (usu made in an emergency) in which an aircraft descends vertically in a level position (飞机的)平坠著陆(通常为紧急降落).

  panchromatic

  / 9pAnkrEU5mAtIk; 9pAnkro`mAtIk/ adj (of photographic film) sensitive to all colours and able to reproduce them accurately (指摄影胶片)全色胶片

  pancreas

  / 5pANkrIEs; `pANkrIEs/ n gland near the stomach that produces substances which help in the digestion of food 胰; 胰腺. =>illus at digestive 见digestive插图.

  pancreatic

  / 9pANkrI5AtIk; 9pANkrI`AtIk/ adj of or relating to the pancreas 胰脏的; 胰腺的: ,pancreatic `juice 胰液.

  panda

  / 5pAndE; `pAndE/ n 1 (also ,giant `panda) large rare bear-like black and white animal living in the mountains of SW China 大猫熊, 大熊猫(产於中国西南山区). 2 Indian animal like a raccoon, with brown fur and a long bushy tail 小猫熊, 小熊猫(产於印度, 似浣熊, 毛棕色, 尾长蓬松).

  panda car

  (Brit) police patrol car 警察巡逻车.

  pandemic

  / pAn5demIk; pAn`dZmIk/ n, adj disease occurring over a whole country or the whole world 全国或全世界流行的(疾病). Cf 参看 endemic, epidemic.

  pandemonium

  / 9pAndI5mEUnIEm; 9pAndI`monIEm/ n [U] wild and noisy disorder or confusion 大混乱; 喧闹: There was pandemonium when the news was announced. 消息宣布後一片混乱. * Pandemonium reigned in the classroom until the teacher arrived. 教师来到之前教室里乱哄哄的.

  pander

  / 5pAndE(r); `pAndL/ v (phr v) pander to sth/sb (derog 贬) try to satisfy (a vulgar, weak or immoral desire, or sb having this); gratify sth/sb 迎合(他人的低级趣味或淫欲); 纵容某人; 迁就某事物: newspapers pandering to the public love of scandal 迎合公众喜好而报道丑闻的报纸.

  pander

  n = pimp.

  pane

  / peIn; pen/ n single sheet of glass in a window窗户上的单块玻璃: a pane of glass 一块窗玻璃 * a `window-pane 一块窗玻璃. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page vi.

  panegyric

  / 9pAnI5dVIrIk; 9pAnE`dVIrIk/ n (fml 文) speech or piece of writing praising sb/sth 颂词; 颂文.

  panel

  / 5pAnl; `pAnl/ n 1 [C] separate, usu rectangular, part of the surface of a door, wall, ceiling, etc, usu raised above or sunk below the surrounding area (门、 墙、 天花板等的)镶板, 嵌板(通常为矩形, 高出或低於周围部分): a ceiling with carved panels 带刻花镶板的天花板. =>illus 见插图. 2 [C] piece of metal forming a section of the bodywork of a vehicle (车身的)金属板. 3 [C] strip of material inserted into a garment (衣服上的)镶条, 饰片, 嵌料. 4 [C] vertical board on which the controls and instruments of an aircraft, a car, etc are mounted (飞行器、 汽车等的)控制面板, 仪表板: an `instrument panel 仪表板 * a con`trol panel 控制板. 5 [CGp] group of people chosen to take part in a quiz, discussion, etc with an audience (esp of listeners to a radio or TV programme) (广播、 电视中)与观众或听众一起进行智力竞赛、 讨论等的一组人: a panel of experts 专家小组 * [attrib 作定语] a `panel game 小组智力竞赛节目. 6 (a) [C] list of people chosen to serve on a jury 陪审团成员名单. (b) [CGp] jury 陪审团. 7 [C] (Brit) list of doctors who treat patients in a certain area as part of the National Health Service 国民保健署医生名单.

  panel

  v (-ll-; US -l-) [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] cover or decorate (sth) with panels (用镶板)镶嵌(某物); (用饰条)镶饰(衣服): a panelled room, ceiling, wall, etc 有镶板的房间、 天花板、 墙壁等. panelling (US paneling) n [U] 1 series of panels, eg on a wall 镶板细工; 镶板饰面: a room with fine oak panelling 带栎木细工镶板的房间. 2 wood used for making panels 镶板木料.

  panellist (US panelist)

  / 5pAnElIst; `pAnlIst/ n member of a panel(5) (电台、 电视台的)智力竞赛、 专题讨论等的参加者.

  panel-beater

  n person whose job is removing dents from the bodywork of motor vehicles with a hammer 汽车板金工.

  panel truck

  (US) small enclosed van for delivering goods, etc 小型货

  pang

  / pAN; pAN/ n (usu pl 通常作复数) (a) sudden sharp feeling of pain 突然的剧痛: pangs of hunger/hunger pangs 饥饿引起的胃疼. (b) feeling of painfulemotion 悲痛: pangs of jealousy, remorse, guilt, conscience,etc 一阵阵忌妒、 悔恨、 负咎、 自责等的痛苦.

  panhandle

  / 5pAnhAndl; `pAn9hAndl/ n (US) narrow piece of land projecting from a larger area (从一大片地向外伸出的)狭长地带.

  panhandle

  v [I, Tn] (infml 口) beg for money from (sb) in the street 在街上行乞; 向(路人)乞讨.

  panic

  / 5pAnIk; `pAnIk/ n [C, U] 1 (a) sudden irrational feeling of great fear 恐慌; 惊惶: be in a (state of) panic (about sth) (对某事)惊惶失措 * I got into a panic when I found the door was locked. 我发觉门锁上了, 十分惊慌. * The thought of flying fills me with panic. 我一想到飞行便吓得战战兢兢. * [attrib 作定语] a panic decision, ie one resulting from panic 慌乱中作出的决定. (b) fear that spreads quickly through a group of people (迅速传开的)大恐慌: There was (an) immediate panic when the alarm sounded. 警报响起时立刻引起一片恐慌. * The collapse of the bank caused (a) panic on the Stock Exchange, ie the value of shares fell quickly. 那银行倒闭, 证券市场上惶恐万状. 2 (idm 习语) `panic stations (infml 口) state of alarm or panic 惶惶不安; 惊慌: It was panic stations when the police arrived to search the building. 警方来搜查大楼时, 大家都很惊慌.

  panic

  v (-ck-) [I, Tn] 1 (cause a person or an animal to) be affected with panic (使人或动物)受惊: Don't panic! 别慌! * The gunfire panicked the horses. 枪声惊吓了马. 2 (phr v) panic sb into doing sth (often passive 常用於被动语态) make sb do (sth unwise or hasty) because of panic 使某人(因惊惶)仓促做(蠢事): The banks were panicked into selling sterling. 银行因恐慌而抛售英国货币.

  panicky

  / 5pAnIkI; `pAnIkI/ adj (infml 口) affected or caused by panic 受惊吓的; 由惊慌引起的: Don't get panicky! 不要惊慌! * a panicky reaction, feeling, etc 惊慌的反应、 感觉等.

  panic-stricken

  adj in a state of panic; terrified 惊慌失措的; 万分恐慌的: You look panic-stricken! 看你惊惶失措的样子!

  panjandrum

  / pAn5dVAndrEm; pAn`dVAndrEm/ n (joc 谑) pompous self-important person 自命不凡的人.

  pannier

  / 5pAnIE(r); `pAnIL/ n 1 one of a pair of bags on either side of the back wheel of a bicycle or motor cycle (挂在自行车或摩托车後轮两侧的)挂篮, 挂包. 2 one of a pair of baskets carried on either side of its back by a horse or donkey (挂在马或驴两侧的)驮篮.

  pannikin

  / 5pAnIkIn; `pAnEkIn/ n (Brit) (a) small metal cup 小金属杯. (b) its contents 小杯中之物.

  panoply

  / 5pAnEplI; `pAnEplI/ n (fml 文) 1 complete or splendid display of sth (某物的)全部的或华丽的展示; 气派; 盛况. 2 (formerly) complete suit of armour (旧时的)全副甲胄.

  panoplied

  / 5pAnEplId; `pAnEplId/ adj (fml 文) having a panoply 华丽的; 盛装的; 披挂甲胄的.

  panorama

  / 9pAnE5rB:mE; ?@ -5rAmE; 9pAnE`rAmE/ n 1 (a) view of a wide area 全景: From the summit there is a superb panorama of the Alps. 从峰巅俯瞰, 阿尔卑斯山壮丽的景色尽收眼底. (b) picture or photograph of this 全景画; 全景照片. 2 view of a constantly changing scene or series of events (不断变化的)一连串景象或事情: The book presents a panorama of British history since the Middle Ages. 该书概述了中世纪以来的英国历史.

  panoramic

  / 9pAnE5rAmIk; 9pAnE`rAmIk/ adj: a panoramic view from the top of the tower 自塔顶俯瞰的全景.

  pansy

  / 5pAnzI; `pAnzI/ n 1 garden plant with a short stem and broad flat brightly-coloured petals 三色堇. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page ii. 2 (infml derog 口, 贬) effeminate man; homosexual 女性化的男子; 同性恋男子.

  pant

  / pAnt; pAnt/ v [I, Ipr] 1 breathe with short quick breaths 喘; 喘息; 气喘: He was panting heavily as he ran. 他气喘吁吁地跑著. 2 (phr v) pant along, down, etc walk or run in the specified direction while panting 气喘吁吁地走或跑: The dog panted along (the road) beside me. 那狗一路跟在我身旁边喘边跑. pant for sth (used only in the continuous tenses 只用於进行时态) (a) show by one's rapid breathing that one needs to drink, catch one's breath, etc 呼吸急促显示渴、 喘不过气来等: panting for breath, a cool drink 喘不过气来、 喘著要冷饮. (b) have or show a strong desire for sth 渴望某事物: panting for revenge 渴望复仇 * He was panting with desire for her. 他拼命地追求她. pant sth out say sth with difficulty, while panting 气喘吁吁地说出某事: He panted out the message. 他上气不接下气地说出此事.

  pant

  n short quick breath 喘; 喘息; 气喘: breathe in short pants 气喘吁吁.

  pantingly

  adv.

  pantaloon

  / 9pAntE5lu:n; 9pAntl`un/ n 1 pantaloons[pl] (US; Brit joc 谑) trousers 裤子. 2 (also Pantaloon)(in pantomime) foolish old man on whom the dame plays tricks (童话剧中的)傻老头(常遭滑稽老太婆捉弄).

  pantechnicon

  / pAn5teknIkEn; pAn`tZknI9kEn/ n (Brit) large van used for moving furniture from one house to another 家具搬运车.

  pantheism

  / 5pAnWIIzEm; `pAnWi9IzEm`/ n [U] 1 belief that God is everything and everything is God 泛神论. 2 belief in and worship of all gods 泛神信仰和崇拜.

  pantheist

  / -WIIst; -WiIst/ n believer in pantheism 泛神论者.

  pantheistic

  / 9pAnWI5IstIk; 9pAnWi`IstIk/ adj of, like or relating to pantheism (似)泛神论的; 关於泛神论的.

  pantheon

  / 5pAnWIEn; ?@ -WICn; `pAnWI9Bn/ n 1 (esp in ancient Greece and Rome) temple dedicated to all the gods (尤指古希腊和罗马的)万神庙. 2 all the gods of a nation or people (一国或一民族信奉的)众神: the ancient Egyptian pantheon 古埃及众神. 3 building in which the famous dead of a nation are buried or have memorials 先贤祠; 伟人祠.

  panther

  / 5pAnWE(r); `pAnWL/ n 1 leopard, esp a black one 豹; (尤指)黑豹: a black panther 黑豹. 2 (US) puma 美洲狮.

  panties

  / 5pAntIz; `pAntIz/ n [pl] (infml 口) short close-fitting knickers worn by women (女用)紧身短衬裤.

  pantihose (also pantyhose)

  / 5pAntIhEUz; `pAntI9hoz/ n [pl v] (US) = tights.

  pantile

  / 5pAntaIl; `pAn9taIl/ n curved roof-tile 波形瓦: [attrib 作定语] a pantile roof 波形瓦屋顶.

  panto

  / 5pAntEU; `pAnto/ n (pl pantos / 5pntEUz; `pAntoz/) (infml 口) =pantomime 1.

  pantograph

  / 5pAntEgrB:f; ?@ -grAf; `pAntE9^rAF/ n 1 instrument used to draw an exact copy of a plan, map, etc on any scale 缩放仪; 比例绘图仪. 2 device for carrying an electric current from overhead wires to a train (电气列车顶上的)导电弓架.

  pantomime

  / 5pAntEmaIm; `pAntE9maIm/ n 1 (a) [C] type of play with music, dancing and clowning, based on a traditional story or fairy-tale and usu performed at Christmas 童话剧(通常於圣诞节期间演出): Let's take the children to the pantomime! 咱们带孩子去看童话剧吧! * [attrib 作定语] a pantomime dame, horse 童话剧中的滑稽老太婆、 马. (b) [U] plays of this type 童话剧(总称): She's acted in a lot of pantomime. 她演过很多童话剧. 2 [U] expressive movements of the face and body used to tell a story (讲故事时)面部和身体的表意动作.

  pantry

  / 5pAntrI; `pAntrI/ n 1 small room in a house where food is kept; larder 食品储藏室或柜. 2 (in a hotel, ship, large house, etc) room where glass, silver, table-linen, etc are kept (旅馆、 轮船、 大宅第等的)餐具室.

  pantingly

  adv.

  pant(o)-

  comb form 构词成分 all; universal 全部; 所有; 每: pantograph * pantomime.

  pants

  / pAnts; pAnts/ n [pl] 1 (a) (Brit) men's underpants; women's or children's knickers (贴身的)裤衩(男用的、 女用的或儿童用的): a clean pair of pants 一条乾净的短内裤. (b) (esp US) trousers 长裤; 裤子. 2 (idm 习语) bore, scare, etc the `pants off sb (infml 口) bore, scare sb extremely 使某人厌烦透顶、 吓得要死等. by the seat of one's pants => seat1. catch sb with his pants/trousers down => catch1. have ants in one's pants => ant. in long/short pants (US) grown-up/not grown-up 成年[未成年]: I've known him since he was in short pants. 我从他小时候就认识他. wear the pants/trousers => wear2.

  pap

  / pAp; pAp/ n [U] 1 soft or semi-liquid food suitable for babies or invalids (幼儿或病人的)软食, 半流质食物. 2 undemanding, trivial or worthless reading-matter 浅显的、 无聊的或无价值的读物: How can you bear to read such pap! 这样无聊的读物你怎能看得下去!

  papa

  / pE5pB:; ?@ 5pB:pE; `pBpE/ n (dated infml 旧, 口) (esp used by children 尤作儿语) father 爸爸. Cf 参看 pop2, poppa.

  papacy

  / 5peIpEsI; `pepEsI/ n 1 the Papacy [sing] position or authority of the Pope 教皇的职位或权力. 2 (a) [U] system of government of the Roman Catholic Church by popes 罗马教廷. (b) [C] period of time when a pope is in office 教皇的任期: during the papacy of John Paul II 约翰·保罗二世在位期间.

  papal

  / 5peIpl; `pepl/ adj of the Pope or the Papacy 教皇的; 教皇的职位或权力的; 罗马教廷的; 教皇任期的: papal authority 教皇的权力.

  papaw (also pawpaw)

  / pE5pR:; ?@ 5pR:pR:; `pRpR/ n 1 (a) (also papaya / pE5paIE; pE`paIE) [C] tropical American tree similar to a palm tree 番木瓜树(似棕榈的热带美洲树). (b) [C, U] its edible oblong orange-coloured fruit 木瓜. 2 (a) [C] small N American evergreen tree 北美产矮小的常绿树. (b) [C, U] its small fleshy edible fruit 上述树结的可食小果.

  paper

  / 5peIpE(r); `pepL/ n 1 (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) [U] substance made in thin sheets from wood pulp or rags and used for writing, printing or drawing on, or for wrapping and packing things 纸:a piece/sheet of paper 一张纸 * `writing paper 书写用纸* `tissue paper 薄棉纸 * [attrib 作定语] a paper bag, handkerchief, towel, etc 纸袋、 纸巾、 纸面巾等. 2 [C] newspaper 报纸: Where's today's paper? 今天的报纸在哪儿? * a daily, an evening, a Sunday paper 日报、 晚报、 星期日报. 3 [C, U] wallpaper 壁纸; 墙纸: a pretty striped paper for the bedroom 卧室用的精美的条纹壁纸. 4 papers [pl] (a) official documents, esp showing sb's identity, nationality, etc 文件(尤指身分、 国籍等证明材料): Immigration officials will ask to see your papers. 移民局的官员将要求你出示证件. (b) pieces of paper which have been written on 写有字的纸: His desk is always covered with papers. 他的办公桌上老是堆满写著字的纸. 5 [C] (a) set of examination questions on a particular subject 试卷(试题): The geography paper was difficult. 地理试题很难. * The French paper was set by our form teacher. 法语试卷是我们的班主任出的. (b) written answers to examination questions 试卷(答卷): She spent the evening marking examination papers. 她一晚上都在批试卷. 6 article or essay, esp one read to an audience of academics or specialists 文章; (尤指)论文: He read a paper at a medical conference on the results of his research. 他在医学会议上宣读了他的研究论文. 7 (idm 习语) on paper (a) in writing 以书面形式: Could you put a few ideas down on paper? 把你的一些想法写出来可以吗? (b) when judged from written or printed evidence; in theory 据书面材料; 在理论上; 从道理上说: It's a fine scheme on paper, but will it work in practice? 那计画不错, 不过实践上是否可行? * She looks good on paper, ie has good qualifications. 她看来资历很好. a ,paper `tiger person or thing that is less powerful or threatening than he/it seems or claims to be 纸老虎(外强中乾的人或事物). put pen to paper => pen.

  paper

  v 1 [Tn] put wallpaper on (the walls of a room) 用壁纸裱糊(墙壁): We're papering the bathroom. 我们正给浴室贴壁纸. 2 (idm 习语) paper over the cracks (in sth) hide a disagreement, fault or difficulty, esp quickly or imperfectly 隐瞒或掩饰分歧、 错误或困难(尤指仓促或有漏洞): Critics of government policy argue that the new measures introduced to fight crime are simply papering over the cracks. 批评政府政策的人指责反犯罪活动新措施, 认为纯粹是为掩盖过错而制定的. 3 (phr v) paper sth over (a) cover sth with wall paper 用壁纸覆盖某物: We papered over the stains on the wall. 我们贴上壁纸盖住了墙上的污斑. (b) hide (a disagreement, fault or difficulty), esp quickly or imperfectly 隐瞒或掩饰(分歧、 错误或困难)(尤指仓促或有漏洞).

  papery

  / 5peIpErI; `pepEri/ adj like paper in texture (质地)像纸的: wrinkled, papery skin 像皱纹纸似的皮肤.

  paperback

  n [C, U] book bound in a flexible paper cover 简装书; 平装书: a cheap paperback 廉价简装书 * When is the novel coming out in paperback? 那部小说的平装本什麽时候出版? * [attrib 作定语] a paperback book, edition 平装的书、 版本. Cf 参看 hardback (hard1).

  paper-boy (fem 阴性作 `paper-girl)

  n boy/girl who delivers newspapers to people's houses 送报的男孩[女孩].

  paper-chase

  n cross-country run in which the leader drops a trail of pieces of paper for the other runners to follow 追纸游戏(领头者作越野跑, 沿途撒纸屑供他人循踪追逐).

  paper-clip

  n piece of bent wire or plastic used for holding sheets of paper together 回形针.

  paper-knife

  n knife used for cutting the pages of books, opening envelopes, etc 裁纸刀.

  paper-mill

  n factory where paper is made 造纸厂.

  paper money

  money in the form of banknotes 纸币.

  paperweight

  n small heavy object placed on top of loose papers to keep them in place 镇纸.

  paperwork

  n [U] written work in an office, such as filling in forms, writing letters and reports, etc 文书工作: She's good at paperwork. 她善做文书工作.

  papier mache

  / 9pApIeI 5mAFeI; ?@ 9peIpEr mE5FeI;`pepLmE`Fe/ (French 法) moulded paper pulp used for making boxes, trays, ornaments, etc 制型纸浆(用以制纸盒、 纸盘、 纸装饰物等的).

  papist

  / 5peIpIst; `pepIst/ n (derog 贬) (used esp by Protestants 尤为新教徒用语) Roman Catholic 天主教徒.

  papoose

  / pE5pu:s; ?@ pA5pu:s; pA`pus/ n 1 type of bag fixed to a frame, used for carrying a young baby onthe back (背负幼儿用的)有框架的背袋. 2 N AmericanIndian baby 北美印第安人的幼儿.

  paprika

  / 5pAprIkE; ?@ pE5pri:kE; pE`prikE/ n (a) [C] type of sweet pepper 一种甜辣椒. (b) [U] red powder made from this and used as a spice 辣椒粉.

  papyrus

  / pE5paIErEs; pE`paIrEs/ n 1 [U] tall reed-like water-plant with thick fibrous stems used by the Ancient Egyptians to make paper 纸莎草(古埃及人用以制纸的). 2 [U] this paper 纸莎草纸. 3 [C] (pl papyri / pE5paIEri:; pE`paIraI/) manuscript written on this paper (纸莎草纸上的)文献, 手稿.

  par

  / pB:(r); pBr/ n 1 [sing] (also par value) price that is printed on stocks and shares; face value (证券与股票的)票面价值, 面值: sell shares above/at/below par 以高於[等於/低於]面值的价值出售股票. 2 [sing] (also par of exchange) recognized value of one country's currency in terms of another's 汇兑平价; 外汇牌价. 3 [sing] (in golf) number of strokes considered necessary for a first-class player to complete a hole or course (高尔夫球的)(一洞或一场球的)标准杆数: Par for the course is 72. 该球场规定的标准杆数是72. * She went round the course in three below (ie three strokes less than) par. 她用比标准杆数少三杆打完该场. Cf 参看 birdie 2, bogey 1, eagle 2. 4 (idm 习语) below `par (infml 口) less well, alert, etc than usual 一般水平以下; 不大好: I'm feeling a bit below par today. 我今天不大舒服. be ,par for the `course (infml 口) be what one would expect to happen or expect sb to do 不出所料;料到某人要做某事: She was an hour late, was she? That's about par for the course for her. 她晚了一个钟头了吧? 她就是这样. on a par with sb/sth equal in importance, quality, etc to sb/sth 与某人[某事物]同等重要、 同水平等: As a writer she was on a par with the great novelists. 她是与伟大小说家齐名的作家. up to `par (infml 口) as good/well as usual 达到平常的高水平: I didn't think her performance was up to par. 我认为她表现得不及平时.

  par (also para / 5prE; `pArE/)

  abbr 缩写= paragraph: see par 19 见第19段 * paras 39-42, eg in a contract 第39至第42段.

  par excellence

  / 9pB:r 5eksElB:ns; ?@ 9eksE5lB:ns; pBr`ZksE9lBns/ adv (French 法) (used after a n 用於名词後) more than all others of its kind; to the highest degree 出众地; 超群地; 最高级: He is the elder statesman par excellence. 他是最优秀的年长的国务活动家. * the fashionable quarter par excellence 上流社会高级住宅区.

  para-

  pref 前缀 (forming ns 用以构成名词) 1 beside; near 旁; 侧; 近: parameter * paramilitary. 2 beyond 外; 超: parapsychology * paranormal.

  para-

  comb form 构词成分 protecting from 保护; 防护: parachute * parasol.

  parable

  / 5pArEbl; `pArEbl/ n (esp in the Bible) story told to illustrate a moral or spiritual truth (尤指《圣经》中)寓言故事: Jesus taught in parables. 耶稣以寓言讲道. * the parable of the prodigal son 浪子回头的故事.

  parabola

  / pE5rAbElE; pE`rAbElE/ n (geometry 几) plane curve formed by cutting a cone on a plane parallel to its side 抛物线. =>illus at hyperbola 见hyperbola插图.

  parabolic

  / 9pArE5bClIk; 9pArE`bBlIk/ adj 1 of or expressed in a parable 寓言的; 以寓言故事表达的. 2 of or like a parabola (似)抛物线的.

  parachute

  / 5pArEFu:t; `pArE9Fut/ n device for making people or objects fall slowly and safely when dropped from an aeroplane, consisting of an umbrella-shaped canopy attached to a harness 降落伞: land by parachute 跳伞著陆 * [attrib 作定语] a parachute jump/drop 跳伞[空投].

  parachute

  v [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] (cause sb/sth to) drop by parachute from an aircraft (使某人)跳伞; 用降落伞空投(某物): She enjoys parachuting. 她喜爱跳伞运动. * We parachuted into enemy territory. 我们跳伞空降到敌占区. * Supplies were parachuted into the earthquake zone. 救援物资已空投到地震区.

  parachutist

  / -Ist; -Ist/ n person who drops from an aircraft using a parachute 跳伞者.

  parade

  / pE5reId; pE`red/ n [C] 1 formal gathering of troops for inspection, a roll-call, etc (部队的)检阅、 点名等: a drill parade 阅兵训练 * ceremonial parades 阅兵式. 2 = parade-ground. 3 procession of people or things (人的)游行, 行进; (物的)展示: a parade of players before a football match 足球赛前队员列队出场 * a fashion parade, ie one in which models display new clothes to an audience 时装表演. 4 (esp in names) public promenade or street of shops (尤指用於名称中的)广场, 商业街: He lives in North Parade. 他住在伦敦北街. 5 (idm 习语) make a parade of sth (esp derog 尤作贬义) display sth in order to impress people 炫示; 卖弄: He's always making a parade of his knowledge. 他老爱炫耀知识. on parade taking part in a parade; being paraded 接受检阅; 参加游行; 展示: The regiment is on parade. 该团正接受检阅. * A number of new hats were on parade at the wedding. 在婚礼上见到有些人戴著新式的帽子.

  parade

  v 1 [I, Tn] (cause sb to) gather together for inspection, a roll-call, etc (使某些人)集合接受检阅、 点名等: The colonel paraded his troops. 上校检阅自己的部队. 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] march or walk in a procession or in order to display sth 游行; 列队行进; 为展示某事物而行进或行走: The strikers paraded through the city centre. 罢工者游行通过市中心. * She paraded up and down in her new hat. 她戴著新帽子在人前走来走去. 3 [Tn] display (sth); show (sth) off 展示, 炫耀(某事物): She was parading her new fur coat yesterday, ie wearing it to show it off to others. 昨天她向人炫耀她那件新的毛皮大衣.

  parade-ground

  n place where soldiers gather for inspection, a roll-call, etc 阅兵场.

  paradigm

  / 5pArEdaIm; `pArE9daIm/ n 1 set of all the different forms of a word (一词的)词形变化表: verb paradigms 动词的词形变化表. 2 type of sth; pattern; model 范例; 样式; 模范: a paradigm for others to copy 供他人效法的范例.

  paradigmatic

  / 9pArEdIg5mAtIk; 9pArEdI^`mAtIk/ adj.

  paradise

  / 5pArEdaIs; `pArE9daIs/ n 1 [sing, without a or the 不用冠词a或the] heaven 天堂; 天国. 2 (a) [C] ideal or perfect place 理想的或完美的地方; 乐园; 乐土: This island is a paradise for bird-watchers. 这个岛是鸟类观察者的理想去处. (b) [U] state of perfect happiness 完美快乐的境界; 至福; 极乐: Being alone is his idea of paradise. 他认为一人独处最美. 3 Paradise [sing, without a or the 不用冠词a或the] (in the Bible) the Garden of Eden, where Adam and Eve lived in a state of innocence. (《圣经》中的)伊甸园. 4 (idm 习语) a fool's paradise => fool1.

  paradisaical

  / 9pArEdI5zaIEkl; 9pArEdI`seIkl/ adj of or like (a) paradise (似)天堂的, 极乐的, 乐园的.

  paradox

  / 5pArEdCks; `pArE9dBks/ n 1 (a) [C] statement that seems to be absurd or contradictory but is or may be true 似非而是的隽语; 看似矛盾而实际(或可能)正确的说法: `More haste, less speed' is a well-known paradox. `欲速不达'是人所熟知的隽语. (b) [U] use of this in talking or writing 用於语言文字中的上述隽语或说法: Paradox and irony are characteristics of her style. 她善於运用似非而是的隽语和反语. 2 [C] person, thing or situation displaying contradictory features 有矛盾特点的人、 事物或情况: It is a paradox that such a rich country should have so many poor people living in it. 如此富足的国家竟有如此多的穷人, 这是个矛盾的现实.

  paradoxical

  / 9pArE5dCksIkl; 9pArE`dBksIkl/ adj.

  paradoxically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  paraffin

  / 5pArEfIn; `pArEfIn/ n [U] 1 (also `paraffin oil) (Brit) (US `coal oil, kerosene) oil obtained from petroleum, coal, etc and used as a fuel in heaters and lamps and as a solvent 煤油: [attrib 作定语] a paraffin lamp, stove 煤油灯、 炉. 2 (also `paraffin wax) wax-like substance obtained from petroleum, used esp for making candles 石蜡.

  paragon

  / 5pArEgEn; ?@ -gCn; `pArE9^Bn/ n (a) ~ of sth person who is a perfect example of a quality (used esp in the expression shown) 有某品质的典范人物(尤用於以下示例): a paragon of virtue 美德的典范. (b) completely perfect person 完人: I make no claim to be a paragon. 我绝不认为自己是完人.

  paragraph

  / 5pArEgrAB:f; ?@ -grf; `pArE9^rAf/ n 1 distinct section of a written or printed text, usu consisting of several sentences dealing with a single theme and starting on a new (usu indented) line 段落: begin a new paragraph 开始一个新段落. 2 (also `paragraph mark) sign () used to show where a new paragraph is to begin or as a reference mark 段落号 (表示新段落开始处). 3 short report in a newspaper (报纸上的)短篇报道: There's a paragraph on the accident in the local paper. 当地报纸对该事故有一短篇报道.

  paragraph

  v [Tn] divide (sth) into paragraphs 将(某篇文字)分成段落.

  parakeet

  / 5pArEki:t; `pArE9kit/ n any of various types of small long-tailed parrot 长尾鹦鹉.

  parallel

  / 5pArElel; `pArE9lZl/ adj 1 (a) (of two or more lines) having the same distance between each other at every point (指至少两条线)平行的: parallel lines 平行线. =>illus at converge 见converge插图. (b) [pred 作表语] ~ to/with sth (of a line) having this relationship with another one (指一条线)与另一条线平行: The road runs parallel with the railway. 该公路与铁路平行.* The road and the railway are parallel to each other. 该公路与铁路相互平行. 2 exactly corresponding; similar 相对应的; 相同的; 类似的: a parallel case, career, development 相同的事例、 职业、 发展.

  parallel

  n 1 [C] (also ,parallel `line) line that is parallel to another 平行线. 2 (also ,parallel of `latitude) [C] imaginary line on the earth's surface, or a corresponding line on a map, parallel to and passing through all points the same distance north or south of the equator (地球或地图的)纬线, 纬度圈: the 49th parallel 第49纬度线. 3 [C, U] person, situation, event, etc that is exactly similar to another 极相似的人、 情况、 事情等: a career without parallel in modern times 当代无匹的业迹. 4 [C] (a) comparison (used esp in the expression shown) 对比, 比较(尤用於以下示例):draw a parallel between A and B 把A和B相比较.(b) similarity 相似处: I see parallels between the two cases. 我看这两种情况有相似处. 5 (idm 习语) in parallel (of an electric current) having the negative terminals attached to one conductor and the positive ones to another (指电流)并联. Cf 参看 series 2.

  parallel

  v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] 1 be equal to (sth); match (sth) 与(某事物)相当, 相匹敌:His performance has never been paralleled. 他的表演举世无匹. 2 be comparable or similar to (sth) 可与(某事物)相比; 与(某事物)相似: Her experiences parallel mine in many instances. 她的经历多与我的相似.

  parallelism

  / -IzEm; -9IzEm/ n [U] state of being parallel; similarity 平行; 相同; 相似; 类似; 对应: Don't exaggerate the parallelism between the two cases. 不要夸大那两件事的相似性.

  parallel bars

  pair of bars on posts, used for gymnastic exercises 双杠.

  parallelogram

  / 9pArE5lelEgrAm; 9pArE`lZlE9^rAm/ n (geometry 几) four-sided plane figure with its opposite sides parellel to each other 平行四边形. =>illus at quadrilateral 见quadrilateral 插图.

  paralyse (US paralyze)

  / 5pArElaIz; `pArE9laIz/ v 1 [Tn] affect (sb) with paralysis 使(某人)瘫痪或麻痹: The accident left her paralyzed from the waist down. 事故後她腰部以下瘫痪了. * She is paralysed in both legs. 她两腿麻痹. 2 [Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ sb (with sth) prevent sb from moving or acting normally 使某人不能正常活动: be paralysed with fear, horror, shock, etc 恐惧、 恐怖、 惊骇...得不知所措.

  paralysis

  / pE5rAlEsIs; pE`rAlEsIs/ n (pl paralyses / -si:z; -9siz/) 1 [C, U] loss of feeling in or control of a part of the body, caused by a disease of or an injury to the nerves 麻痹; 瘫痪: suffer from paralysis of the right leg 右腿麻痹 * The paralysis affects his right leg and he can only walk with difficulty. 他右腿瘫痪步履维艰. 2 [U] (fig 比喻) total inability to move, act, operate, etc (活动、 运行等)瘫痪: the complete paralysis of industry caused by the electricians' strike 电气工人罢工造成的工业完全瘫痪.

  paralytic

  / 9pArE5lItIk; 9pArE`lItIk/ adj 1 suffering from paralysis(1) 患麻痹的; 瘫痪的. 2 (Brit infml 口) very drunk 烂醉如泥的: She was/got completely paralytic last night. 她昨天晚上喝得酩酊大醉.

  paralytic

  n person suffering from paralysis 麻痹症患者; 瘫痪病人.

  paramedical

  / 9pArE5medIkl; 9pArE`mZdIkl/ adj (of services) supporting and supplementing the work of doctors (指服务)辅助医务的, 护理的.

  parameter

  / pE5rAmItE(r); pE`rAmEtL/ n 1 (mathematics数) quantity that does not vary in a particular case but does vary in other cases 参量; 参数. 2 characteristic or feature, esp one that can be measured or quantified 特点, 特性(尤指可以衡量或计量的). 3 (usu pl 通常作复数) limiting factor or characteristic; limit (限定性的)因素, 特性; 界限: We have to work within the parameters of time and budget. 我们工作受时间和财力所限.

  paramilitary

  / 9pArE5mIlItrI; ?@ -terI; 9pArE`mIlI9tZrI/ adj (relating or belonging to a military force that is) organized like but not part of the official armed forces 准军事的; 辅助军事的: a paramilitary organization 准军事组织 * paramilitary activity 辅助性军事行动.

  paramilitary

  n member of a paramilitary group or organization 准军事部队或组织的成员.

  paramount

  / 5pArEmaUnt; `pArE9maJnt/ adj (fml 文) having the greatest importance or significance; supreme最重要的; 最重大的; 至上的: This matter is of paramountimportance. 此事至关重大. * The reduction of unemployment should be paramount in the government's economic policy. 降低失业率应是政府经济政策的头等大事.

  paramountcy

  / -tsI; -tsI/ n [U] (fml 文) (state of) being paramount 至关重要; 至关重大; 至上.

  paranoia

  / 9pArE5nRIE; 9pArE`nRIE/ n [U] 1 mental illness in which a person is obsessed by mistaken beliefs, esp that he is being badly treated by others or that he is somebody very important 偏执狂; 妄想狂. 2 (infml 口) abnormal tendency to suspect and mistrust other people 多疑.

  paranoiac

  / 9prE5nRIk; 9pArE`nRIAk/ n, adj = paranoid.

  paranoid

  / 5pArEnRId; `pArE9nRId/ (also paranoiac) adj of, like, suffering from or showing paranoia (似) (患)有偏执狂或妄想狂的; 多疑的: paranoid fears 偏执恐惧症 * paranoid schizophrenia 妄想型精神分裂症 * She's getting paranoid about what other people think of her. 她越来越怀疑别人对自己有什麽看法. * I don't think she likes me or am I just being paranoid? 我认为她不喜欢我--难道只是我多心吗?

  paranoid

  n paranoid person (似)(患)有偏执狂或妄想狂的人; 多疑的人.

  paranormal

  / 9pArE5nR:ml; 9pArE`nRrmEl/ adj unable to be explained scientifically or rationally 超常的(无法用科学或常理解释的): paranormal phenomena 超常现象.

  parapet

  / 5pArEpIt, -pet; `pArEpIt, -9pZt/ n 1 low protective wall along the edge of a balcony, bridge, roof, etc 矮护墙; 女(儿)墙. 2 (in war) protective bank of earth, stones, etc along the front edge of a trench 胸墙.

  paraphernalia

  / 9pArEfE5neIlIE; 9pArEfE`nelIE/ n [U] numerous small articles or personal belongings, esp the equipment needed for a hobby or sport 零星物品, 个人随身物品(尤指业余爱好或体育活动所需的): skiing, climbing, jogging, etc paraphernalia 滑雪、 登山、 慢跑等用的随身物品. =>Usage at data 用法见data.

  paraphrase

  / 5pArEfreIz; `pArE9frez/ n re-wording of a piece of writing, statement, etc, esp in order to make it easier to understand (对一段文字等的)释义, 意译(尤指为易於理解): a paraphrase of the sonnet 该十四行诗的意译.

  paraphrase

  v [Tn] express the meaning of (a piece of writing, statement, etc) in different words, esp in order to make it easier to understand 将(一段文字等)释义或意译(尤指为易於理解): paraphrase a speech in colloquial English 用通俗英语意译一篇讲稿.

  paraplegia

  / 9pArE5pli:dVE; 9pArE`plidVE/ n [U] paralysisof the legs and part or all of the trunk(2) 截瘫; 下身麻痹.

  paraplegic

  / 9pArE5pli:dVIk; 9pArE`plidVIk/ n, adj (person) suffering from paraplegia 患截瘫或下身麻痹的(人): She's (a) paraplegic. 她下身麻痹. * [attrib 作定语] ,paraplegic `sports, ie of or for paraplegics 截瘫患者体育运动会.

  paraquat

  / 5pArEkwCt; `pArE9kwBt/ n [U] (propr 专利名) extremely poisonous weed-killer 百草枯, 对草快(除草剂, 极毒).

  parasite

  / 5pArEsaIt; `pArE9saIt/ n 1 animal (eg a flea, louse) or plant (eg mistletoe) that lives on or in another and gets its food from it 寄生物(如寄生虫或寄生植物). 2 (derog 贬) person who lives off others and gives nothing in return 靠他人为生的人: live as a parasite on society 像寄生虫似的靠社会为生.

  parasitic

  / 9pArE5sItIk; 9pArE`sItIk/, parasitical / 9pArE5sItIkl; 9pArE`sItIkl/ adjs (a) living as a parasite; like a parasite 寄生的; 似寄生物的; 靠他人为生的: a parasitic plant, worm 寄生的植物、 蠕形动物 * (fig 比喻) He lives a parasitic existence, borrowing money from his friends. 他靠向友人借贷过寄生生活. (b) caused by a parasite 寄生物引起的: a parasitic disease 寄生性病害.

  parasitically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  parasol

  / 5pArEsCl; ?@ -sR:l; `pArE9sRl/ n light umbrella used to give shade from the sun 阳伞. Cf 参看 sunshade (sun). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page vii.

  paratroops

  / 5pArEtru:ps; `pArE9trups/ n [pl] soldiers trained to drop from an aircraft by parachute 伞兵部队.

  paratrooper

  / 5pArEtru:pE(r); `pArE9trupL/ n one of these soldiers 伞兵.

  paratyphoid

  / 9pArE5taIfRId; 9pArE`taIfRId/ n [U] type of fever similar to typhoid, but less dangerous 副伤寒.

  parboil

  / 5pB:bRIl; `pBr9bRIl/ v [Tn] boil (food) until it is partly cooked 将(食物)煮到半熟: Potatoes can be parboiled before roasting. 土豆可先煮至半熟再烤.

  parcel

  / 5pB:sl; `pBrsl/ n 1 (US also package) thing or things wrapped up for carrying or sending by post 包裹: The postman has brought a parcel for you. 邮递员给你送来了一个包裹. * She was carrying a parcel of books under her arm. 她胳膊下夹著一包书. =>Usage at packet 用法见packet. 2 piece of land, esp on an estate (used esp in the expression shown) 一块地(尤指产业之一部分)(尤用於以下示例): a parcel of land 属产业上的一片地. 3 (idm 习语) part and parcel of sth => part1.

  parcel

  v (-ll-; US -l-) (phr v) parcel sth out divide sth into parts or portions 将某物分成若干部分: He parcelled out the land into small plots. 他把那片土地分成小块. parcel sth up make sth into a parcel; wrap sth up 将某物打包; 包起某物: She parcelled up the books. 她把书包了起来.

  parcel bomb

  bomb wrapped up to look like a normal parcel and sent by post 邮包炸弹.

  parcel post

  system of sending parcels by post 包裹邮递: send sth (by) parcel post 用包裹邮寄某物.

  parch

  / pB:tF; pBrtF/ v [Tn esp passive尤用於被动语态] 1 make (sth) very dry and hot 使(某物)极乾极热: earth parched by the sun 被太阳晒得乾热的土地 * the parched deserts of N Africa 北非乾热的沙漠 * parched lips, eg of a person with a fever 乾裂的嘴唇(如发烧病人的). 2 make (sb) very thirsty 使(某人)极渴: Give me a drink I'm parched. 给我点喝的--我渴死了.

  parchment

  / 5pB:tFmEnt; `pBrtFmEnt/ n 1 (a) [U] heavy paper-like material made from the skin of sheep or goats and used for writing on 羊皮纸. (b) [C] piece of this material which has been written on 羊皮纸文稿. 2 [U] type of paper similar to parchment 仿羊皮纸.

  pardon

  / 5pB:dn; `pBrdn/ n 1 [U] ~ (for sth) forgiveness 原谅; 宽恕: ask/seek sb's pardon for sth就某事请求某人原谅. 2 [C] (a) cancellation of a punishment incurred for a crime 赦免: He was granted a pardon after new evidence had proved his innocence. 有新证据证明他无辜, 因而他获得赦免. (b) document on which this is written 赦免令; 赦免状. 3 (idm 习语) beg sb's pardon => beg. I beg your pardon => beg.

  pardon

  / 5pB:dn; `pBrdn/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tsg] ~ sb (for sth/doing sth) (esp fml 尤作郑重语) forgive or excuse sb for (sth) 就(某事)宽恕或原谅某人: He begged her to pardon him (for his rudeness). 他求她原谅他(无礼). * pardon an offence, a fault, etc 宽恕罪过、 错误等 * Pardon me (for) asking/Pardon my asking, but isn't that my hat you're wearing? 对不起冒昧问一下, 您戴的是不是我的帽子? 2 (idm 习语) excuse/pardon my French => French.

  pardon

  interj (US also ,pardon `me) (used to ask sb to repeat sth because one didn't hear it 用以请求某人重复所说). =>Usage at excuse2 用法见 excuse2.

  pardonable

  / 5pB:dnEbl; `pBrdnEbl/ adj that can be forgiven or excused 可宽恕的; 可原谅的: a pardonable error 可原谅的错误.

  pardonably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv (fml 文) understandably 可理解地; 可谅解地: She is pardonably proud of her wonderful cooking. 她对自己出色的烹调技术感到骄傲, 是可以理解的.

  pardoner

  n (in the Middle Ages) person who was allowed to sell papal indulgences (indulgence 4b) (中世纪时)获准出售天主教赎罪券的人.

  pare

  / peE(r); pZr/ v [Tn] 1 trim (sth) by cutting away the edges 修剪(某物)边缘: pare one's finger-nails 修剪指甲. 2 cut away the skin or outer covering from (sth); peel 剥或削(某物)的皮: pare an apple 削苹果. 3 (phr v) pare sth down reduce sth considerably 大量削减某物: We have pared down our expenses to a bare minimum. 我们已最大限度地削减了开支. pare sth off (sth) remove (skin, peel, etc) from sth in thin strips 一条条地剥去或削掉(外皮): She pared off the thick peel with a sharp knife. 她用一把锋利的刀削去厚厚的果皮. =>Usage at clip2 用法见clip2.

  parings

  / 5peErINz; `pZrINz/ n [pl] pieces that have been pared off 修剪、 剥或削下之物: `nail parings 剪下的指甲.

  parent

  / 5peErEnt; `pZrEnt/ n 1 (usu pl 通常作复数) father or mother 父或母: May I introduce you to my parents (ie my father and mother)? 我把你介绍给我的父母行吗? * Denise and Martin have recently become parents. 丹尼斯和马丁最近当爸爸妈妈了. * Do you get on with your parents? 你和父母合得来吗? * the duties of a parent 为人父母者的责任. =>App 8 见附录8. 2 animal or plant from which others are produced (动植物的)亲代, 亲本, 父本, 母本: [attrib 作定语] the parent bird, tree 亲代的鸟、 树.

  parentage

  / -IdV; -IdV/ n [U] descent from parents; origin; ancestry 父母的身分; 家世; 世系; 出身: a person of unknown parentage, ie having parents whose identity is not known 家世不明的人 * of humble parentage 出身卑贱.

  parental

  / pE5rentl; pE`rZntl/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] of or relating to a parent or parents 父的; 母的; 父母的: parental affection, love, support, etc 父母的疼爱、 爱、 养育等 * children lacking parental care 缺乏父母关怀的儿童.

  parentally

  / pE5rentElI; pE`rZntlI/ adv.

  parenthood

  / 5peErEnthUd; `pZrEnt9hJd/ n [U] (state of) being a parent 做父母的身分: the responsibilities of parenthood 父母的责任.

  parent company

  commercial company that owns or controls one or more other companies 母公司; 总公司.

  parent-teacher association (abbr 缩写 PTA)

  organization of teachers and schoolchildren's parents, formed to improve relations and understanding between them 家长教师联谊会.

  parenthesis

  / pE5renWEsIs; pE`rZnWEsIs/ n (pl parentheses /-Esi:z; -E9siz/) 1 [C] additional word, phrase or sentence inserted into a passage which would be complete without it, and usu separated from it by brackets, dashes or commas 插入成分, 插入词语, 插入句(通常置於括号内或以破折号或逗号隔开). 2 [C usu pl 通常作复数] either of a pair of round brackets (like these) used to enclose an additional word, phrase, etc (圆)括号(一边或一对). =>App 3 见附录3. 3 in parenthesis enclosed between parentheses 在(圆)括号里: The statistics were given in parenthesis. 统计数字在括号里. * (fig 比喻) Let me add, in parenthesis, ..., ie as an aside... 让我加一句题外话....

  parenthetic

  / 9pArEn5WetIk; 9pArEn`WZtIk/, parenthetical / -Ikl; -Ikl/ adjs of, relating to or inserted as a parenthesis (有关)插入词语的, 括号的, 括号里的: parenthetical remarks 插入的词语.

  parenthetically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  in loco parentis

  / In 9lEUkEU pE5rentIs; In9lokopE`rZntIs/ (Latin 拉) acting for or instead of a parent; having the responsibility of a parent 代替父或母; 代尽人父或人母之责: I stand towards her in loco parentis. 我对她代尽其父母亲的责任.

  pariah

  / pE5raIE, 5prIE; pE`raIE, `pArIE/ n 1 social outcast 社会的遗弃者; 贱民: be treated as a pariah 被待作贱民. 2 (in India) person of no caste or of very low caste (印度的)贱民, 帕利亚(洁净种姓以外的社会阶层的人).

  parietal

  / pE5raIEtl; pE`raIEtl/ adj (anatomy 解) of either of the bones (parietal bones) forming part of the sides and top of the skull 颅腔壁的; 顶骨的.

  parish

  / 5pArIF; `pArIF/ n 1 [C] area within a diocese, having its own church and clergyman 牧区: He is vicar of a large rural parish. 他是农村一大牧区的牧师. * [attrib 作定语] a parish church 牧区教堂 * a parish priest 牧区牧师 * parish boundaries 牧区范围. 2 (also civil `parish) [C] (in England) area within a county, having its own local government (英国)郡以下的行政区. Cf 参看 borough 1. 3 [CGp] people living in a parish, esp those who attend church regularly 牧区的居民; (尤指)牧区内按时上教堂的教徒: The parish objected to some of the vicar's reforms. 牧区教徒反对牧师的某些改革措施. 4 (idm 习语) ,parish `pump [attrib 作定语] of or relating to local affairs 地方事务的; 区域性的: parish-pump affairs, politics, gossip 区域性的事务、 政治、 流言蜚语.

  parishioner

  / pE5rIFEnE(r); pE`rIFEnL/ n inhabitant of a parish, esp one who attends church regularly 牧区居民; (尤指)牧区内按时上教堂的教徒.

  parish clerk

  official with various duties in connection with a parish church 牧区执事.

  parish council

  administrative body in a parish(1) 牧区管理委员会.

  parish register

  book recording the christenings, marriages and burials that have taken place at the parish church 牧区记事录(记载牧区居民的洗礼、 婚丧等事).

  Parisian

  / pE5rIzIEn; ?@ -IVn; pE`rIVEn/ adj of or relating to Paris 巴黎的; 关於巴黎的.

  Parisian

  n native or inhabitant of Paris 巴黎人; 巴黎居民.

  parity

  / 5pArEtI; `pArEtI/ n [U] (fml 文) 1 state of being equal; equality 同等; 相等; 平等: parity of status, pay, treatment 地位、 工资、 待遇的平等 * Primary school teachers are demanding parity with (ie as much pay as) those in secondary schools. 小学教师要求与中学教师同酬. 2 (finance 财) equivalence of one currency inanother; being at par 平价; 价值对等: The two currencieshave now reached parity, ie are at par. 这两种货币现已达到同等价值.

  parity of exchange

  official rate of currency exchange agreed by governments 平价汇率.

  park

  / pB:k; pBrk/ n 1 public garden or recreation ground in a town 公园: The children have gone to play in the park. 孩子们到公园玩耍去了. 2 enclosed area of grassland, usu planted with trees, attached to a large country house (乡间巨宅的)庭园, (通常指)园林. 3 (US) sports ground or playing-field 运动或游戏场地. 4 (in compounds 用以构成复合词) (large) area of land used for recreation by the public 公共游乐场地: a, national `park 国家公园 * a safari park 野生动物园 * an amusement park 游乐场.

  parkland

  / -lnd; -lAnd/ n [U] open grassland with clumps of trees 有树丛的开阔草地: The house stands in 500 acres of rolling parkland. 那所房子周围有500英亩起伏不平的草地.

  parkway

  n (US) wide road with trees, shrubs, etc along the sides and/or the central strip 林荫大道.

  park

  / pB:k; pBrk/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] stop and leave (a vehicle) in a place for a time 停放(车): Where can we park (the car)? 我们在哪儿可以停(车)啊? * You can't park in this street. 这条街不准停车. * You are/Your car is very badly parked. 你的汽车停放得很不好. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] (infml 口) (a) leave (sb/sth) in a place for a time (暂时)留下(某人); 寄存(某物): Park your luggage here while you buy a ticket. 你去买票, 行李就先放在这儿吧. (b) ~ oneself sit down 坐下: Park yourself in that chair while I make you a cup of tea. 你坐在那张椅子上, 我给你沏茶去.

  parka

  / 5pB:kE; `pBrkE/ n 1 jacket made from skin and with a hood, worn by Eskimos (爱斯基摩人穿的)带风帽的皮外套. 2 jacket or coat shaped like this and worn by mountaineers, etc (登山者穿的类似上述式样的)外套, 大衣, 皮猴儿.

  parkin

  / 5pB:kIn; `pBrkIn/ n [U] type of cake made with ginger, oatmeal and treacle 麦片糖姜饼.

  parking

  / 5pB:kIN; `pBrkIN/ n [U] (a) stopping a motor vehicle at a place and leaving it there for a time 机动车停放: There is no parking between 9 am and 6 pm. 上午9时至下午6时禁止停放机动车辆. * [attrib 作定语] a parking fine, ie one incurred for parking illegally 违章停车罚款. (b) space or area for leaving vehicles 停车场: Is there any parking near the theatre? 剧院附近有停车场吗?

  parking-lot

  n (US) = car-park (car).

  parking-meter

  n meter into which one inserts coins to pay for parking a car beside it for a certain time 停车计时收费器.

  parking-ticket

  n notice of a fine imposed for parking illegally 违章停车罚款通知单: I got a parking-ticket today! 今天我接到一张违章停车罚款通知单!

  Parkinson's disease

  / 5pB:kInsnz dIzi:z; `pBrkInsEnz dI9ziz/ (also Parkinsonism / 5pB:kInsEnIzEm; 9pBrkInsEn9Izm/ n [U]) chronic disease of the nervous system causing tremors and weakness of the muscles 帕金森(氏)病; 震颤性麻痹.

  Parkinson's law

  / 5pB:kInsnz lR:; 9pBrkInsEnz `lR/ (joc 谑) idea that work will always take as long as the time available for it 帕金森定律(只要时间许可, 工作总得拖拉到最後).

  parky

  / 5pB:kI; `pBrkI/ adj [usu pred 通常作表语] (Brit dialect infml 方, 口) (of the air, weather, etc) cold; chilly (指空气、 天气等)冷, 寒冷.

  parlance

  / 5pB:lEns; `pBrlEns/ n [U] (fml 文) particular way of speaking or use of words; phraseology 说法; 用语; 措辞; 术语: in common parlance 用普通的说法 * in legal parlance 用法律术语.

  parley

  / 5pB:lI; `pBrlI/ n (pl ~s) (esp formerly) meeting between enemies or opponents to discuss terms for peace, etc (尤指旧时)敌对双方的和谈: arrange/hold a parley with sb 安排和某人讲和.

  parley

  v [I, Ipr] ~ (with sb) have a parley 与某人谈判.

  parliament

  / 5pB:lEmEnt; `pBrlEmEnt/ n 1 [CGp] assembly that makes the laws of a country 议会; 国会: the French, Spanish, etc parliament 法国、 西班牙等的议会. 2 Parliament chief law-making assembly of the United Kingdom, consisting of the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the sovereign 英国国会(包括下议院、 上议院和英王): the ,Houses of `Parliament 国会两院 * a ,Member of `Parliament 国会议员 * The issue was debated in Parliament. 这问题在国会中辩论过. * get into (ie be elected a Member of) Parliament 被选为议员 * adjourn, dissolve (a) Parliament 国会休会、 解散国会 * the State Opening of Parliament, ie the ceremony in which the sovereign opens a new session of Parliament (君主参加的新的一届)国会会议开幕式. 3 [C] Parliament as it exists during the period of time between one General Election and the next 两次大选之间的一届议会或国会: The government is unlikely to get the bill through within (the lifetime of) this Parliament. 政府不大可能在本届国会(会期)内通过该项法案. 4 [C] building where a parliament meets 议会或国会的大厦.

  parliamentarian

  / 9pB:lEmEn5teErIEn; 9pBrlEmZn`tZrIEn/ n person who is skilled at debating in parliament议会中的雄辩家: one of our most eminent parliamentarians 我国议会中数一数二的雄辩家.

  parliamentary

  / 9pB:lE5mentrI; 9pBrlE`mZntErI/ adj 1 [usu attrib 通常作定语] of or relating to parliament 国会的; 议会的; 关於议会或国会的: parliamentary debates 议会辩论 * parliamentary procedure 议会程序 * a parliamentary recess 国会休会期. 2 (of behaviour, language, etc) polite enough and suitable for parliament (指举止、 语言等)符合议会礼节的.

  parlour (US parlor)

  / 5pB:lE(r); `pBrlL/ n 1 (formerly) sitting-room in a private house, esp one where people may receive visitors or talk privately (旧时)起居室, 客厅, 会客室. 2 (in compounds 用以构成复合词) (esp US) shop providing certain goods or services (出售商品或提供服务的)店, 馆: a `beauty/an ice-`cream/a `funeral parlor 美容院、 冷食店、 殡仪馆.

  parlour car

  = Pullman.

  parlour game

  game played in the home, eg a word-game 家中玩的游戏(如填字游戏).

  parlous

  / 5pB:lEs; `pBrlEs/ adj (fml or rhet 文或修辞) full of danger or uncertainty; dangerous; very bad 充满危险或不定因素的; 危险的; 恶劣的: the parlous state of international relations 国际关系危机四伏 * English tennis is in a parlous condition. 英国网球运动不堪设想.

  Parmesan

  / 5pB:mIzAn; ?@ 9pB:rmI5zAn; 9pBrmE`zAn/ n [U] (also ,Parmesan `cheese) type of hard cheese made in Italy, usu grated and served on pasta dishes 帕尔马乾酪(意大利产的硬乾酪, 通常磨碎佐面食用).

  parochial

  / pE5rEUkIEl; pE`rokIEl/ adj 1 [usu attrib 通常作定语] (fml 文) of or relating to a church parish 牧区的; 关於牧区的: parochial matters 牧区事务. 2 (derog 贬) showing interest in a limited area only; narrow 偏狭的; 狭隘的: a parochial person, attitude, event 心胸狭隘的人、 偏狭的态度、 地方事件 * He is rather too parochial in his outlook. 他的眼界未免过於狭隘了.

  parochialism

  / -IzEm; -9Izm/ n [U]

  parochially

  /-kIElI; -kIElI/ adv.

  parody

  / 5pArEdI; `pArEdI/ n 1 [C, U] ~ (of sth) (piece of) speech, writing or music that imitates the style of an author, composer, etc in an amusing and often exaggerated way; comic imitation 诙谐模仿的言语、 文字或音乐(作品): a parody of a Shakespearian sonnet, an operatic aria, a well-known politician 对莎士比亚十四行诗、 歌剧咏叹调、 著名政治家演说的滑稽模仿 * She has a gift for parody. 她有模仿他人风格的天才. 2 [C] thing that is done so badly that it seems to be an intentional mockery of what it should be; travesty 做得极糟的事物(迹近荒谬); 拙劣的模仿: The trial was a parody of justice. 那场审判是对正义的嘲弄.

  parodist

  / -Ist; -Ist/ n person who writes parodies 滑稽模仿作品作者: a gifted parodist 有才华的滑稽模仿作品作者.

  parody

  v (pt, pp -died) [Tn] make a parody(1) of (sb/sth); imitate comically 滑稽地模仿(某人[某事物]): parody an author, a style, a poem 滑稽地模仿一作家、 一种风格、 一首诗.

  parole

  / pE5rEUl; pE`rol/ n 1 [C, U] promise made by a prisoner that he will not try to escape if released for a limited time, or commit another crime if released before the end of his sentence (used esp in the expressions shown) (为获假释而作刑满前不逃跑或不犯罪的)誓言(尤用於以下示例): be on parole, ie have been released after making this promise 宣誓後获假释 * let sb out/release sb on parole 让某人宣誓後出狱[获假释] * break (one's) parole, ie commit a crime after being released from prison or fail to return to prison at the specified time 违誓(假释期间犯新罪或逾期不返监狱). 2 [sing] release of a prisoner after he has made this promise of good behaviour 假释: He's hoping to get parole. 他希望获得假释.

  parole

  v [Tn] release (a prisoner) on parole 准许(犯人)宣誓後获假释.

  paroxysm

  / 5pArEksIzEm; `pArEks9IzEm/ n sudden attack or outburst (of anger, laughter, pain, etc) (愤怒、 大笑、 疼痛等的)发作: He went into a paroxysm of rage, ie became very angry. 他勃然大怒. * paroxysms of coughing, giggling, etc 一阵咳嗽、 傻笑等.

  parquet

  / 5pB:keI; ?@ pB:r5keI; pBr`ke/ n [U] flooring made of wooden blocks arranged in a pattern 拼花地板: [attrib 作定语] a parquet floor 拼花地板.

  parr

  / pB:(r); pBr/ n (pl unchanged or ~s 复数或不变或作 parrs) young salmon 幼鲑.

  parricide

  / 5pArIsaId; `pArE9saId/ n 1 [C, U] (act of) killing one's father or a close relative 杀父或杀近亲(的行为). 2 [C] person guilty of this 杀父者; 杀近亲者. Cf参看 patricide.

  parricidal

  / 9prI5saIdl; `pArE9saIdl/ adj .

  parrot

  / 5pArEt; `pArEt/ n 1 any of various types of tropical bird with hooked beaks and brightly-coloured feathers, some of which can be trained to imitate human speech 鹦鹉. =>illus 见插图. 2 (esp derog 尤作贬义) person who repeats sb else's words or imitates his actions without thinking 盲目重复他人的话或模仿他人行为的人. 3 (idm 习语) sick as a parrot => sick.

  parrot

  v [Tn] repeat (the words or actions of sb else) without thinking 盲目重复(某人的话); 盲目模仿(某人的行为).

  parrot-fashion

  adv (derog 贬) without thinking about or understanding the meaning of sth 鹦鹉学舌般地: learn/repeat sth parrot-fashion 机械地学习[重复]某事物.

  parry

  / 5prI; `pArI/ v (pt, pp parried) [Tn] 1 turn aside or ward off (a blow or an attack) by using one's own weapon or one's hand to block it (用手中武器或徒手)格开, 挡开(打击). =>illus at fencing (fence) 见fencing插图. 2 (fig 比喻) avoid having to answer (sth) 对(某事)避而不答, 支吾搪塞: parry an awkward question 回避一令人尴尬的问题.

  parry

  n act of parrying, esp in fencing and boxing 挡开, 闪避(尤指击剑和拳击中).

  parse

  / pB:z; ?@ pB:rs; pBrs/ v [Tn] (grammar) 1 describe the grammatical form and function of (a word), giving its part of speech, case1(8), etc 对(一词)作语法分析. 2 divide (a sentence) into parts and describe them grammatically 对(句子)作语法分析.

  Parsee

  / 9pB:5si:; pBr`si/ n member of a religious sect in India whose ancestors originally came from Persia; believer in Zoroastrianism 琐罗亚斯德教教徒(祖先来自波斯的印度教派).

  parsimony

  / 5pB:sImEnI; ?@ -mEUnI; `pBrsE9monI/ n [U] (fml 文) excessive carefulness in spending money or using resources; meanness 吝啬; 小气; 过分节俭.

  parsimonious

  / 9pB:sI5mEUnIEs; 9pBrsE`monIEs/ adj (fml 文) very careful in spending money or using resources; mean 吝啬的; 小气的; 非常节俭的: aparsimonious old man 非常节俭的老头.

  parsimoniously

  adv.

  parsimoniousness

  n [U] = parsimony.

  parsley

  / 5pB:slI; `pBrslI/ n [U] herb with crinkled green leaves used for flavouring and decorating food 欧芹: [attrib 作定语] parsley sauce 欧芹沙司.

  parsnip

  / 5pB:snIp; `pBrsnIp/ n (a) [C] plant with along, pale yellow, edible root 欧洲防风(根长, 淡黄色, 可食). =>illus at turnip 见turnip插图. (b) [C, U] this root cooked as a vegetable 欧洲防风根: [attrib 作定语] parsnip soup 欧洲防风根汤.

  parson

  / 5pB:sn; `pBrsn/ n 1 (in the Church of England) parish priest; vicar or rector (英国国教的)牧区牧师, 牧区教堂牧师. 2 (infml 口) any Protestant clergyman 新教教士.

  parsonage

  / -IdV; -IdV/ n parson's house; vicarage or rectory 牧区牧师住宅; 牧区教堂牧师的住所.

  parson's nose (US pope's nose)

  (infml 口) piece of flesh at the tail end of a cooked bird, esp a chicken (烹调过的禽类的)屁股肉(尤指鸡的).

  part

  / pB:t; pBrt/ n (often without a when singular 用作单数时, 常不用冠词a) 1 [C] ~ (of sth) some but not all of a thing or number of things 部分: We spent (a) part of our holiday in France. 我们假期一段时间是在法国度过的. * The early part of her life was spent in Paris. 她早年住在巴黎. * She had a miserable holiday she was ill for part of the time. 她假日过得很不痛快--因为病了一段时间. * The film is good in parts. 这部影片有些部分还不错. * Parts of the book are interesting. 这部书有些地方写得很有趣. * We've done the difficult part of the job. 我们已把工作中的困难部分做完了. * The police only recovered part of the stolen money. 警方只追回了部分赃款. * Part of the building was destroyed in the fire. 建筑物有一部分已烧毁. 2 [C] ~ (of sth) (a) distinct portion of a human or animal body or of a plant (人或动植物可区分的)部分: the parts of the body 身体各部 * Which part of your leg hurts? 你腿上哪儿痛? (b) (usu essential) piece or component of a machine or structure (机器或结构的)部件, (通常指)组成部分: lose one of the parts of the lawn-mower 丢失刈草机上的一个零件 * the working parts of a machine 机器的操作部件 * spare parts 备件. (c) area or region of a country, town, etc (国家、 市镇等的)地区, 区域: Which parts of France have you visited? 你去过法国哪些地方? * Which part of London do you come from? 你是伦敦什麽地方的人? * Do come and visit us if you're ever in our part of the world. 什麽时候到我们这一带来, 一定来和我们见见面. (d) member of sth 成员: We'd like you to feel you're part of the family. 希望你能感到像一家人一样. * work as part of a team 作为小组中一员进行工作. 3 [C] division of a book, broadcast serial, etc, esp as much as is published or broadcast at one time (书、 广播连续节目等)部, 集(尤指长短适合於一次出版或播出者): a TV serial in 10 parts, ie instalments 十集电视连续剧 * an encyclopaedia published in 25 weekly parts 每周出一次, 分25个星期出齐的一套百科全书 * Henry IV, Part II 《亨利四世·第二部分》. 4 [C] each of several equal portions of a whole (整体的若干等份中的)一部分: a sixtieth part of a minute 一分钟的六十分之一 * She divided the cake into three parts. 她把饼分成三份. 5 [C usu sing 通常作单数] ~ (in sth) person's share in an activity; role (活动中的)个人部分, 作用, 本分: Everyone must do his part. 大家都要做好分内的事. * He had no part in the decision. 他并未参予那一决定. * I want no part in this sordid business. 我不想和这一肮脏勾当有任何瓜葛. 6 [C] (a) role played by an actor in a play, film, etc (戏剧、 电影等中的)人物, 角色: He took/played the part of Hamlet. 他去哈姆雷特这个角色. * He was very good in the part. 这个角色他扮演得十分出色.* (fig 比喻) He's always acting/playing a part, ie pretending to be what he is not. 他老是装模作样. (b) words spoken by an actor playing a particular role 角色的台词: Have you learnt your part yet? 你的台词背熟了吗? 7 [C] (music 音) melody or other line of music given to a particular voice or instrument 部; 声部; 段: sing in three parts 三部合唱 * the piano, violin, cello, etc part 钢琴、 小提琴、 大提琴等部. 8 parts [pl] region or area 地区; 地域: She's not from these parts. 她不是这一带的人. * He's just arrived back from foreign parts. 他刚从国外归来. 9 [C] (US) =parting 2. 10 (idm 习语) the best part of sth most of sth (esp a period of time) (某事物的)绝大部分(尤指一段时间): I spent the best part of an hour trying to find my car keys. 我花了近一个小时找汽车钥匙. * You must have drunk the best part of a bottle of wine last night. 你昨天晚上喝了准有一瓶葡萄酒. the better part of sth more than half of sth (某事物的)大半, 多半: We've lived here for the better part of a year. 我们在这里住了多半年了. discretion is the better part of valour => discretion. for the `most part on the whole; usually; mostly 整体上; 通常; 多半: Japanese TV sets are, for the most part, of excellent quality. 日本电视机大多质量优良. for `my part as far as I am concerned 就我来说: For my part, I don't mind where we eat. 对我来说, 到哪儿吃饭都无所谓. the greater part of sth => great. in `part to a certain extent; partly 在某种程度上; 部分地: His success was due in part to luck. 他成功的部分原因是运气好. look the part wear clothes or have an appearance suitable for a job, role, position, etc 在什麽场合就有什麽扮相: At her wedding the new princess certainly looked the part. 王妃在婚礼上还挺是那麽回事. a man/woman of (many) `parts person with many skills or talents 多面手; 多才多艺的人. on the part of sb/on sb's part made or done by sb 由某人做出: It was an error on my part. 那是我的过失. * The agreement has been kept on my part but not on his, ie by me but not by him. 我一直遵守协议, 但他并不遵守. part and parcel of sth an essential part of sth 主要部分; 重要部分: Keeping the accounts is part and parcel of my job. 我的工作主要是记帐. play a part (in sth) (a) be involved in an activity 参加某活动: She plays an active part in local politics. 她积极参与地方政治活动. (b) make a contribution to sth; have a share in sth 对某事起作用、 有贡献; 参与: She played a major part in the success of the scheme. 她对该计画的成功起了重要作用. * We all have a part to play in the fight against crime. 在与犯罪活动的斗争中人人有责. * Economic factors have played a significant part in Britain's decline as a world power. 英国在世界强国中的地位逐渐衰弱, 主要是经济因素造成的. take sth in good `part react to sth in a good-natured way; not be offended by sth 对某事物往好处想; 不计较; 不介意: He took the teasing in good part. 他认为逗弄他并无恶意. take part (in sth) have a share or role in sth with others; be involved in sth; participate in sth 参加, 参与(某事物): take part in a discussion, demonstration, game, fight, celebration 参加讨论、 游行、 比赛、 战斗、 庆祝 * How many countries will be taking part (in the World Cup)? 有多少国家要参加(世界杯赛)? take sb's `part support sb (eg in an argument) 支持某人(如在辩论中): His mother always takes his part. 他母亲总是站在他一边. > part adv partly 部分地: She is part French, part English. 她有法国血统, 也有英国血统. * The dress is part silk, part wool. 这件连衣裙是丝毛混纺的. * Her feelings were part anger, part relief. 她既感愤怒又觉宽慰.

  partly

  adv to some extent 在一定程度上: She was only partly responsible for the accident. 这次事故她只有几分责任. * It was partly her fault. 有一部分是她的错.

  part-exchange

  n [U] method of buying sth in which an article (eg a car) is given as part of the payment for a more expensive one 部分抵价交易法(用旧物抵一部分价款购买较昂贵同类物品的方法, 如将旧汽车作价): offer/take sth in part-exchange 以部分抵价交易法出售[购买]某物.

  part of speech

  (grammar) one of the classes into which words are divided in grammar, eg noun, adjective, verb, etc 词类(如名词、 形容词、 动词等).

  part-owner

  n person who shares the ownership of sth with sb else 共有者(与他人共同所有某事物者): Tim is part-owner of the flat. 蒂姆有该居住单位的部分产权.

  part-ownership

  n [U].

  part-singing

  n [U] singing part-songs 多声部合唱.

  part-song

  n song with three or more parts (part1 7) 合唱曲.

  part-time

  adj, adv for only a part of the working day or week (一天或一星期中)部分时间工作的; 兼职的:,part-time `work/em`ployment 兼职工作[非全职雇佣] * She's looking for a ,part-time `job. 她在寻找兼职工作. * ,part-time `workers 兼职工作人员 * work part-time 兼职工作.

  part-timer

  n part-time worker 兼职工作者. Cf 参看 full-time (full).

  part

  / pB:t; pBrt/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (from sb); ~ sb (from sb) (cause sb to) go away or separate from sb (使某人)离开或与某人分离: I hope we can part (as) friends, ie leave one another with no feeling of anger or resentment, eg after a quarrel. 希望我们能像朋友般和气分手. * They exchanged a final kiss before parting. 他们最後相互亲吻而分离. * She has parted from her husband/She and her husband have parted, ie started to live apart. 她和丈夫已分居了. * The children were parted from their father. 孩子们和父亲分开了. 2 [I, Tn] (cause sb/sth to) divide or form separate parts (使某人[某物])分开, 分成部分: Her lips parted in a smile. 她绽唇微笑. * The crowd parted to let them through. 人群分开好让他们通过. * The clouds parted and the sun shone through. 云开日出. * The police parted the crowd. 警察驱散了人群. 3 [Tn] separate (the hair of the head) along a line and comb the hair away from it 将(头发)梳成分头: He parts his hair in the middle. 他的头发是中分的. 4 (idm 习语) a fool and his money are soon parted => fool1. part `company (with sb/sth) (a) go different ways or separate after being together 分手; 各奔东西; 各奔前程: We parted company at the bus-stop. 我们在公共汽车站分手了. * He and his agent have parted company/He has parted company with his agent. 他和他的代理人散伙了. * (joc 谑) Her blouse had parted company with her skirt, ie become untucked. 她的上衣从裙子里出来了. * (fig 比喻) It is on political questions that their views part company, ie are different. 他们在政治问题上见解不同. (b) disagree with sb 与某人意见不合: I'm afraid I have to part company with you there. 看来在这一点上我不敢苟同. 5 (phr v) part with sth give away or relinquish sth 放弃或出让某物: Despite his poverty, he refused to part with the family jewels. 他尽管贫穷, 却不肯变卖家中的珠宝. * He hates parting with (ie spending) his money. 他很不喜欢花钱.

  partake

  / pB:5teIk; pBr`tek/ v (pt partook / -5tUk; -`tJk/, pp partaken / -5teIkEn; -`tekEn/) [I, Ipr] ~ (of sth) (fml or rhet 文或修辞) eat or drink a part or portion of sth 吃; 喝: They invited us to partake of their simple meal. 他们邀请我们吃便饭. * Will you partake of a glass of sherry? 你要喝杯雪利酒吗?

  parterre

  / pB:5teE(r); pBr`tZr/ n level space in a large garden, with ornamental flower beds separated by lawns or paths (花园中的)花坛区.

  parthenogenesis

  / 9pB:WInEU5dVenEsIs; 9pBrWEno`dVZnEsIs/ n [U] (biology 生) type of reproduction in some insects and plants, in which the ovum develops without being fertilized by the male 单性生殖; 孤雌生殖.

  Parthian shot

  / 9pB:WIEn 5FCt; 9pBrWIEn `FBt/ sharp or telling remark made by sb as he leaves 临别所说的刻薄话. Cf 参看 a parting shot (parting).

  partial

  / 5pB:Fl; `pBrFEl/ adj 1 of or forming a part; not complete 部分的; 不完全的: a partial recovery, eg after an illness 部分复原 * Our holiday was only a partial success. 我们的假日过得只能说是差强人意. * a partial eclipse of the sun 日偏食. 2 [usu pred 通常作表语] ~ (towards sb/sth) showing too much favour to one person or side; biased 偏心; 偏向; 偏袒: The referee was accused of being partial (towards the home team). 裁判受指责(对本地队)偏心. Cf 参看 impartial. 3 [pred 作表语] ~ to sb/sth having a strong liking for sb/sth 偏爱某人[某事物]的: He's (rather) partial to a glass of brandyafter dinner. 他(很)爱饭後喝一杯白兰地.

  partiality

  / 9pB:FI5AlEtI; 9pBrFI`AlEtI/ n 1 [U] ~ (towards sb/sth) being partial(2); bias; favouritism 偏向; 偏见; 偏袒: He judged the case without partiality. 他判决该案十分公正. 2 [C] ~ for sb/sth liking or fondness for sb/sth 偏爱、 爱好某人[某事物]: She has a partiality for French cheese. 她偏爱法国乾酪.

  partially

  / 5pB:FElI; `pBrFElI/ adv 1 not completely; partly 不完全地; 部分地: He is partially paralysed. 他身体有一部分瘫痪了. 2 in a partial(2) manner 偏心地; 偏向地; 偏袒地.

  participate

  / pB:5tIsIpeIt; pBr`tIsE9pet/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (in sth) take part or become involved (in an activity) 参加, 参与(某活动): participate in a competition, discussion, meeting 参加竞赛、 讨论、 会议 * She actively participates in local politics. 她积极参与本地政治活动. * How many countries will be participating (in the Olympic Games)? 有多少国家要参加(奥林匹克运动会)?

  participant

  / pB:5tIsIpEnt; pBr`tIsEpEnt/ n ~ (in sth) person or group of people who participate in sth 参加者: All the participants in the debate had an opportunity to speak. 所有参加辩论的人都有机会发言.

  participation

  / pB:9tIsI5peIFn; pBr9tIsE`peFEn/ n [U] ~ (in sth) (action of) participating in sth 参加: Union leaders called for the active participation of all members in the day of protest. 工会领袖号召抗议那天全体会员积极参加.

  participle

  / 5pB:tIsIpl; `pBrtE9sIpl/ n (grammar) word formed from a verb, ending in -ing (present participle) or -ed, -en, etc (past participle) and used in verb phrases (eg She is going or She has gone) or as an adjective (eg a fascinating story) 分词: `Hurrying' and `hurried' are the present and past participles of `hurry'. hurrying 和 hurried 是 hurry 的现在分词和过去分词.

  participial

  / 9pB:tI5sIpIEl; 9pBrtE`sIpIEl/ adj consistingof or being a participle 由分词组成的; 分词的: `Loving' in `a loving mother' and `polished' in `polished wood'are participial adjectives. *loving mother中的loving和polished wood中的polished是分词形容词.

  particle

  / 5pB:tIkl; `pBrtIkl/ n 1 very small bit or piece (of sth) 微粒; 粒子: particles of dust/dust particles 尘埃 * He choked on a particle of food. 他让一小粒食物噎住了. 2 smallest possible amount 极少量: There's not a particle of truth in her story. 她讲的没有一句实话. 3 (also ad,verbial `particle) (grammar) word (eg away, back, down) used esp after a verb to show position, direction of movement, etc 副词小词(如away、 back、 down, 尤用於动词後, 表示位置、 运动方向等): In `break down' and `tell sb off', `down' and `off' are adverbial particles. 在break down和tell sb off两词组中, down和off都是副词小词.

  particoloured

  / 5pB:tIkQlEd; `pBrtI9kQlLd/ (US -colored) adj having different colours in different parts 杂色的; 斑驳的.

  particular

  / pE5tIkjUlE(r); pL`tIkjElL/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] relating to one person or thing rather than others; individual 个别的; 个人的: in this particular case 在此个别情况中 * his particular problems 他个人的问题 * Is there any particular colour you would prefer? 你有什麽特别喜欢的颜色吗? 2 [attrib 作定语] more than usual; special; exceptional 非一般的; 特别的; 特殊的: a matter of particular importance 特别重要的事情 * for no particular reason 无特殊原因 * She took particular care not to overcook the meat. 她特别小心不把肉烹调过火. * He is a particular friend of mine. 他是我的特殊朋友. 3 ~ (about/over sth) giving close attention to detail; difficult to please; fussy 非常讲究的; 难以满足的; 挑剔的; 吹毛求疵的: She's very particular about what she wears. 她对衣著很讲究. * She's a very particular person. 她这个人很挑剔. * particular about cleanliness, money matters, one's appearance 对清洁、 钱财、 个人仪表很认真. 4 (idm 习语) in par`ticular especially or specifically尤其; 特别: The whole meal was good but the wine in particular was excellent. 整顿饭都很好, 尤其是葡萄酒更好. * `Is there anything in particular you'd like for dinner?' `No, nothing in particular.' `正餐你有什麽特别喜欢的菜吗?`没有, 什麽都行. '

  particular

  n (often pl 常作复数) piece of information; detail; fact 信息; 细节; 事项: Her account is correct in every particular/all particulars. 她的帐目笔笔无误. * He gave full particulars of the stolen property. 他详细列出全部被盗的财物. * The policewoman wrote down his particulars, ie his name, address, etc. 女警记下了他的个人资料.

  particularity

  / pE9tIkjU5lArEtI; pL9tIkjE`lArEtI/ n [U] (a) quality of being individual or particular(1) 个别的特性; 个性. (b) attention to detail; exactness 仔细; 精细; 详细; 精确.

  particularize, particularise

  / pE5tIkjUlEraIz; pL`tIkjElE9raIz/ v [I, Tn] name or state (sth) specially or one by one; specify (items) 逐一列举或具体说明(某事物).

  particularization, particularisation

  / pE9tIkjUlEraI5zeIFn; pL9tIkjElErE`zeFEn/ n [U].

  particularly

  adv especially 尤其; 特别地; 特殊地: I like all her novels, but her latest is particularly good. 她的小说我都喜欢, 最新的一部尤其好. * Be particularly careful when driving at night. 晚上开车要特别小心. * I particularly want to see that film. 我特别想看那部电影

  parting

  / 5pB:tIN; `pBrtIN/ n 1 [C, U] (act of) leaving sb; departure 离开某人; 分别; 分手: a tearful parting 洒泪而别 * [attrib 作定语] a parting kiss 离别一吻. 2 [C] (US part) line where the hair is combed away in different directions (头发的)分缝. =>illus at hair 见hair插图. 3 (idm 习语) a/the ,parting of the `ways (a) place where a road, etc divides into two (道路等的)一分为二的地方; 三岔路口; 丁字街. (b) point at which one has to decide between two courses of action 须在两者间做出抉择之点. a ,parting `shot action or comment, esp an unfriendly or unkind one, made by a person as he departs 临别的言行(尤指不友好的或恶意的). Cf 参看 Parthian shot.

  partisan

  / 9pB:tI5zAn, 5pB:tIzAn; ?@ 5pB:rtIzn; `pBrtEzn/ n 1 enthusiastic and often uncritical supporter of a person, group or cause (对某人、 团体或事业)热心的而常为盲目的拥护者. 2 member of an armed resistance movement in a country occupied by enemy forces 沦陷区内的武装抗敌分子; 游击队员: [attrib 作定语] partisan warfare 游击战.

  partisan

  adj uncritically supporting a person, group or cause; biased 盲从的; 帮派性强的; 偏袒的: partisan attitudes, feelings, thinking, etc 朋党的看法、 情绪、 见解等 * You must listen to both points of view and try not to be partisan. 你必须兼听双方观点, 尽量做到不偏不倚.

  partisanship

  / -FIp; -9FIp/ n [U].

  partition

  / pB:5tIFn; pBr`tIFEn/ n 1 (a) [U] action of dividing or state of being divided into parts, esp the division of one country into two or more nations 分割, 划分, 分裂(尤指国家): the partition of India in 1947 1947年印度的分裂. (b) [C] part formed in this way; section (以上述方式形成的)部分. 2 [C] structure that divides a room or space into two parts, esp a thin wall in a house 将房间或空间分成两部分的结构; (尤指房子中的)隔断, 板壁, 隔扇.

  partition

  v 1 [Tn] divide (sth) into parts 将(某事物)分成部分; 分割: India was partitioned in 1947. 印度於1947年分裂. 2 (phr v) partition sth off separate (one area, part of a room, etc) from another with a partition (用分隔物)分隔, 隔开(某处); 打隔断: We've partitioned off one end of the kitchen to make a breakfast room. 我们已把厨房的一头隔开作吃早饭的房间.

  partitive

  / 5pB:tItIv; `pBrtEtIv/ adj (grammar) (of a word or phrase) referring to or indicating a part or quantity of sth (指词或词组)表示部分的.

  partitive

  n (grammar) partitive word or phrase 表示部分的词或词组: `Some' and `any' are partitives. some 和 any 是表示部分的词.

  partner

  / 5pB:tnE(r); `pBrtnL/ n 1 person who takes part in an activity with another or others, esp one of several owners of a business 伙伴; 同伙; (尤指)合伙人, 股东: She was made a partner in the firm. 她当上了该商行的股东. * a senior/junior partner in a firm of solicitors 律师事务所中资深[资浅]的合伙人 * They were partners in crime. 他们是共犯. 2 either of two people dancing together or playing tennis, cards, etc on the same side (跳舞、 打网球、 玩纸牌等的)同伴, 搭档: dancing partners 舞伴 * Take your partners for the next dance. 现在开始下一舞曲, 请找好舞伴. * be sb's partner at bridge, badminton, etc 作某人的搭档打桥牌、 羽毛球等. 3 either of two people who are married to one another or having a sexual relationship with one another 配偶; 性伴侣; 情人: He doesn't have a regular (sexual) partner at the moment. 他现在没有固定的(性)伴侣.

  partner

  v 1 [Tn] act as or be the partner of (sb) 做(某人的)同伴或搭档: partner sb at bridge, tennis, etc 在桥牌、 网球等中做某人的搭档 * partner sb in a tango 和某人共跳探戈舞. 2 (phr v) partner (sb) off (with sb)(cause two people to) become partners (partner 2) (使两人)配成对, 作搭档: We (were) partnered off for the next dance. 下一舞曲我们两人一起跳.

  partnership

  / -FIp; -FIp/ n ~ (with sb) (a) [U] state of being a partner or partners, esp in business 合伙人身分; 合股; 合伙经营: She worked in partnership with her sister/They worked in partnership. 她和妹妹合股经营[他们合伙经营]. * He went/entered into partnership with his brother. 他和弟弟合伙做生意. * He and his brother went/entered into partnership. 他和弟弟合伙做生意. (b) [C] two or more people working, playing, etc together as partners (在一起工作、 游戏等的)两人, 一伙人: a successful partnership 配合默契的人.

  partook

  pt of partake.

  partridge

  / 5pB:trIdV; `pBrtrIdV/ n (a) [C] (pl unchanged or ~s 复数或不变或作 partridges) any of various types of game-bird with brown feathers, plump bodies and short tails 山鹑. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page v. (b) [U] its flesh eaten as food 山鹑肉.

  parturition

  / 9pB:tjU5rIFn; ?@ -tFU-; 9pBrtFJ`rIFEn/ n [U] (medical 医) process of giving birth; childbirth 分娩.

  party

  / 5pB:tI; `pBrtI/ n 1 [C] (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) social gathering to which people are invited, esp in order to celebrate sth 社交集会; (尤指)庆祝会, 纪念会: a `birthday party 生日庆祝会 * a `dinner party 宴会 * a `garden party 游园会 * I'm giving/having/holding a party next Saturday night. 星期六我举行晚会. * [attrib 作定语] a `party dress 宴会服. 2 [CGp] (used esp in compounds or attributively with ns 尤用以构成复合词或用以修饰名词) group of people working or travelling together (一起工作、 同行的)群, 组, 团, 队: a `search party 搜索组 * The Government set up a working party to look into the problem. 政府成立了工作组调查那个问题. * a party of schoolchildren, tourists, etc 一群小学生、 游客等. 3 [CGp] (used esp in compounds or attributively with ns 尤用以构成复合词或用以修饰名词) political organization with stated aims and policies that puts forward candidates in elections 党; 政党; 党派: The main political parties in the United States are the Democrats and the Republicans. 美国的主要政党是民主党和共和党. * She's a member of the `Communist Party. 她是共产党员. * [attrib 作定语] the party `leader, `policy, mani`festo 党的领袖、 政策、 宣言 * party `interests, `funds, `members 党的利益、 基金、 成员 * the `party system, ie government based on political parties 政党制度(即政党统治). 4 [C] (law 律) person or people forming one side in a legal agreement or dispute (契约或争论中的)一方, 当事人: the guilty party, ie the person who is to blame for sth 有罪过的一方 * Is this solution acceptable to all parties concerned? 这个解决办法有关各方是否都能接受? 5 [C] (dated infml 旧, 口) person 人. 6 (idm 习语) be (a) party to sth participate in, knowabout or support (an action, a plan, etc) 参与、 了解或支持(某行动、 计画等): be party to an agreement, a crime, a decision ?i参与协议、 犯罪活动、 决定 * They refused to be party to any violence. 他们拒不参加任何暴力活动.

  party line

  telephone line shared by two or more customers who each have their own number 电话合用线; 同线电话.

  party line

  official policies of a political party 政党的路线: Some MPs refused to follow/toe the party line on defence. 有些议员拒不遵循党的防务政策.

  party politics

  political activity carried out through, by or for parties 政党政治.

  party political

  of or relating to a political party or parties 政党政治的: a party political broadcast by the Labour Party 工党的政治广播节目.

  party spirit

  1 strong liking for parties (party 1) 对社交聚会的喜爱. 2 loyalty to a political party 党性.

  party-wall

  n wall that divides one property from another and is the joint responsibility of the owners of those properties 界墙; 共用墙.

  parvenu

  / 5pB:vEnju:; ?@ -nu:; `pBrvE9nu/ n (derog 贬) person who has suddenly risen from a low social or economic position to one of wealth or power 暴发户; 新贵.

  faux pas

  / 9fEU 5pB:; `fo`pB/ (pl faux pas / 9fEUpB:z;`fo `pBz/) (French 法) embarrassing mistake; indiscreet remark, etc 失态; 失言; 失礼.

  paschal

  / 5pAskl, also 5pB:skl; `pAskl/ adj (religion 宗) 1 of the Jewish Passover 逾越节的. 2 of Easter 复活节的.

  pass

  / pB:s; ?@ pAs; pAs/ n 1 success in an examination 及格: get a pass in French 法语及格 * 2 passes and 3 fails 两门及格, 三门不及格. 2 (a) paper or card giving sb permission, eg to enter, leave or be absent from a place 通行证; 许可证: All visitors must show their passes before entering the building. 参观者须出示许可证方可进入该建筑物. * There is no admittance without a pass. 无通行证者不得入内. (b) any of various types of bus ticket or train ticket, esp one allowing sb to travel regularly along a particular route over a specified period of time or to travel at a reduced fare or free of charge (公共汽车或火车的)乘车券(尤指在某期间在某固定路线上使用的或优待或免费搭乘的票据): a monthly bus pass, ie one that is valid for a month 公共汽车月票. 3 ~ (to sb) (in football, hockey, Rugby, etc) act of kicking, hitting or throwing the ball to a player of one's own side (足球、 曲棍球、 橄榄球等中的)传球: a long pass to the striker 给前锋的长传. 4 (route through a) gap or low point in a range of mountains 关隘; 山口; 山道; 山路. 5 (in card-games) act of not playing a card or making a bid when it is one's turn (纸牌戏中)不出牌, 不叫牌, 弃权. 6 (esp in conjuring) movement of the hand or of sth held in the hand over or in front of sth (尤指变戏法时)用手或手中物对某物施遮眼法的动作, 手法: The conjuror made a few passes with his hand over the hat. 魔术师用手在帽子上方来回移动了几下. 7 (in fencing) thrust or lunge (击剑中的)戳刺, 滑刺, 滑剑. 8 (idm 习语) bring sth to `pass (fml 文) cause sth to happen 使某事发生. come to `pass (fml 文) actually occur as predicted, planned or hoped for 实现; 发生: Many people would like the electoral system to be reformed but I don't believe this will ever come to pass. 很多人都想要改革选举制度, 但我认为不可能实现. come to such a `pass/a pretty `pass reach a sad or critical state 处境不妙; 情况危急: Things have come to a pretty pass when the children have to prepare their own meals. 要孩子自己动手做饭, 事情就一塌糊涂了. make a pass at sb (infml 口) try to attract sb sexually 向某人调情. sell the pass => sell.

  passbook

  n (a) book recording the amounts of money a customer pays into or takes out of an account with a bank or building society 银行存摺; 房屋建筑协会借贷簿. Cf 参看 bank-book (bank3). (b) (in S Africa) official document giving details of one's race, residence and employment, which must be carried at all times by non-Whites (南非的)有色人种身分证明书.

  pass degree

  (in British universities) degree awarded to a student whose work is thought to be acceptable but not of a good enough standard to qualify for honours (honour1 6) (英国大学的)普通学士学位.

  passkey

  n (a) key to a door or gate given to people who have a right to enter 专用钥匙(给予有权进入某处者持有). (b) =master-key (master1).

  pass law (in S Africa)

  any of a group of laws restricting the movement of non-Whites and requiring them to carry identification at all times (南非的)有色人种旅行法.

  password (also watchword)

  n secret word or phrase used by sb to indicate to sb else (eg a sentry) that he is a friend rather than an enemy 口令: give the password 答口令.

  pass

  / pB:s; ?@ pAs; pAs/ v 1 [I, Tn] move forward or to the other side of (sb/sth) 前行, 穿行, 越过(某人[某物]): The street was so crowded that cars were unable to pass. 街道十分拥挤, 汽车无法通行. * pass a barrier, sentry, checkpoint, etc 通过障碍、 哨卡、 检查站等 * (fig 比喻) Not a word passed her lips, ie She said nothing. 她一言不发. 2 [I, Tn] leave (sb/sth) on one side or behind as one goes forward; go past (sb/sth) 越过, 经过(某人[某物]): Turn right after passing the Post Office. 过了邮局向右拐. * She passed me in the street without even saying hello. 她在街上从我身旁走过, 连招呼都不打. * I pass the church on my way to work. 我上班时经过教堂. * A car passed (ie overtook) me at 90 mph on the motorway. 在高速公路上有一辆汽车以每小时90英里的速度越过了我. 3 [Ipr, Ip] go or move in the specified direction 沿某方向行进或移动: The procession passed slowly down the hill. 队伍从山上慢慢向山下移动. * We passed through Oxford on our way to London. 我们在去伦敦的路上经过牛津. * He glanced at her and then passed on, ie continued to walk forward. 他看了她一眼, 然後继续朝前走. 4 [Tn.pr] cause sth to move in the specified direction or to be in a certain position 使某物沿某方向移动; 使某物移至某位置: She passed her hand across her forehead. 她用手抹了一下额头. * pass a thread through the eye of a needle 引线穿针 * pass a rope round a post 把绳子绕在柱子上. 5 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) give sth to sb by handing it to him 将某物递给某人: Pass (me) the salt, please. 请把盐递给我. * They passed the photograph round, ie from one person to the next. 他们传看照片. * Pass me (over) that book. 把书递给我. * She passed the letter to Mary. 她把信转交给玛丽了. 6 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) (in football, hockey, Rugby, etc) kick, hit or throw (the ball) to a player of one's own side (在足球、 曲棍球、 橄榄球中)将球传、 踢、 击、 掷给己方队员: He passed (the ball) to the winger. 他传给边锋(一个球). 7 [Ipr] ~ to sb be transferred from one person to another, esp by inheritance 传; (尤指)继承, 遗传: On his death, the title passed to his eldest son. 他死後, 爵位传给了长子. 8 [Ipr] ~ from sth to/into sth change from one state or condition to another 从一种状况变成另一种状况: Water passes from a liquid to a solid state when it freezes. 水结冰是由液态变为固态. * pass from boyhood to manhood (他)从童年长到成年. 9 (a) [I] (of time) go by; be spent (指时间)消逝, 过去: Six months had passed, and we still had no news of them. 六个月过去了, 我们仍然没有他们的消息. * The holidays passed far too quickly. 假期过得太快了. (b) [Tn] occupy or spend (time) 消磨, 打发, 度过(时间): What did she do to pass the time (ie to make the period of boredom less tedious) while she was convalescing? 她在康复期间做些什麽来消磨时间呢? * How did you pass the evening? 你晚上是怎麽过的? 10 [I] come to an end; be over 结束; 完结: They waited for the storm to pass. 他们等待暴风雨过去. * His anger will soon pass. 他生气一会儿就完. 11 (a) [I, Tn] achieve the required standard in (an examination, a test, etc) 考(试)及格; 测验合格: You'll have to work hard if you want to pass (the exam). 要想考(试)及格就得用功. * She hasn't passed her driving test yet. 她驾驶测验没合格. (b) [Tn] examine (sb/sth) and declare to be satisfactory or acceptable 考核(某人[某事物])後宣布合格或通过: The examiners passed all the candidates, ie decided that their work was of the required standard. 主考人评定全部考生合格. 12 (a) [Tn] approve (a bill, law, proposal, etc) by voting 表决通过(法案、 法规、 建议等): Parliament passed the bill. 议会通过了该法案. * The motion was passed by 12 votes to 10. 那动议以12票对10票通过. (b) [I, Tn] (esp of a bill, law, proposal, etc) be approved or accepted by (a parliament, an assembly, etc) (尤指法案、 法规、 建议等)被(议会、 大会等)通过或批准: The bill passed and became law. 该法案已通过成为法规. * This film will never pass the censors, eg because it is too sexually explicit. 这部电影一定不能通过审查这一关(如因色情过於露骨). 13 [I] be allowed or tolerated 许可; 容忍; 放过: I don't like it, but I'll let it pass, ie will not make objections. 我不喜欢, 但就让它过去吧. * His rudeness passed without comment, ie People ignored it. 他粗鲁无礼而未受到批评. * Such behaviour may pass in some circles but it will not be tolerated here. 这种行为在某些圈子里可能行得通, 但在这里是不允许的. 14 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (on sb/sth) pronounce or utter sth (used esp as in the expressions shown) 宣布某事(尤用於以下示例): pass sentence (on sb found guilty of a crime) (对罪名成立的人)宣判 * pass judgement on a matter 宣布对某事的裁决 * pass a remark 作评论. 15 [I, Ipr] ~ (between A and B) happen; be said or done 发生; 说出或做出: after all that has passed between them 尽管他们之间有过这些事. 16 [Tn] go beyond the limits of (sth) (used esp in the expressions shown) 超越、 超出(某事物)的限度(尤用於以下示例): pass belief, ie be unbelievable 难以相信 * pass one's comprehension, ie be impossible for one to understand 难以理解. 17 [I] (in card-games) not play a card or make a bid when it is one's turn (纸牌戏中)不出牌, 不叫牌, 弃权. 18 [Tn] send (sth) out from the body as or with urine or faeces 排(大小便); (随大小便)排出: If you're passing blood you ought to see a doctor. 要是便血, 就该找医生看看. 19 (idm 习语) make/pass water => water1. ,pass the `buck (to sb) (infml 口) shift the responsibility or blame for sth to sb else 将某事的责任或过失推委给别人. pass the `hat round (infml 口) collect money, esp for a colleague who is ill or to pay for a celebration 集资, 筹款(尤指为生病的同事或搞庆祝活动). pass `muster be accepted as adequate or satisfactory 被认为符合要求; 过得去. pass the time of `day (with sb) greet sb and have a short conversation with him 与某人打招呼和寒暄. ships that pass in the night => ship1. 20 (phr v) pass as sb/sth = pass for sb/sth.

  pass away

  (euph 婉) die 死: His mother passed away last year. 他母亲去年去世了.

  pass by (sb/sth)

  go past 走过; 经过: I saw the procession pass by. 我看见队伍走过. * The procession passed right by my front door. 队伍就在我家门前经过. pass sb/sth by (a) occur without affecting sb/sth 对某人[某事物]无影响或不起作用: The whole business passed him by, ie he was hardly aware that it was happening. 整件事情都已过去了, 他却未曾察觉到. * She feels that life is passing her by, ie that she is not profiting from or enjoying the opportunities and pleasures of life. 她觉得生活与她形同陌路(未能从生活中得到好处、 机会与乐趣). (b) pay no attention to sb/sth; ignore or avoid sb/sth 不注意某人[某事物]; 忽视或避免接触某人[某事物]: We cannot pass this matter by without protest. 我们不能对此事听之任之.

  pass sth down

  (esp passive 尤用於被动语态) pass sth from one generation to the next 将某物从一代传给下一代: knowledge which has been passed down over the centuries 世代相传的知识.

  pass for sb/sth

  be accepted as sb/sth 被认为或被当作某人[某事物]: He speaks French well enough to pass for a Frenchman. 他法语流利得使人以为他是法国人.

  pass in (to sth)

  be admitted (to a school, college, etc) by passing an examination 考试及格获准(入学等).

  pass into sth

  become a part of sth 成为某事物的一部分: Many foreign words have passed into the English language. 有很多外来语已成为英语的一部分. * Hisdeeds have passed into legend, ie because of their bravery,importance, etc. 他的事迹已成为人间传奇.

  pass off

  (a) (of an event) take place and be completed (指事情)发生并完成: The demonstration passed off without incident. 游行自始至终未发生意外. (b) (of pain, the effects of a drug, etc) come to an end gradually; disappear (指疼痛、 药效等)慢慢消失, 消退: The numbness in your foot will soon pass off. 你脚上的麻木感一会儿就会消失. pass sb/sth off as sb/sth represent sb/sth falsely as sb/sth 冒充某人[某物]: She passed him off as (ie pretended that he was) her husband. 她把他假充作自己的丈夫. * He escaped by passing himself off as a guard. 他冒充警卫逃走了.

  pass on

  = pass away. pass on (to sth) move from one activity, stage, etc to another 从一活动、 阶段等进入另一活动、 阶段等: Let's pass on to the next item on the agenda. 咱们进行议事日程的下一个项目吧. pass sth on (to sb) hand or give sth (to sb else), esp after receiving or using it oneself 将某物传、 交、 给(某人)(尤指自己收到或用过後): Pass the book on to me when you've finished with it. 那本书你看完给我. * I passed her message on to his mother. 我把她的口信带给他母亲了. * She caught my cold and passed it on to (ie infected) her husband. 我感冒传染了她, 她又传给她丈夫了.

  pass out

  lose consciousness; faint 失去知觉; 昏厥.

  pass out (of sth)

  leave (a military college) after completing a course of training 完成(军校)学业: a passing-out ceremony/parade, ie for cadets who have completed their training 军校毕业典礼[阅兵式].

  pass sb over

  not consider sb for promotion (esp when he is or thinks he is eligible) 不考虑提升某人(尤指合格者或自以为合格者): He was passed over in favour of a younger man. 没考虑提升他而提升了一个小伙子. pass over sth ignore or disregard sth; avoid sth 忽略或不理会某事物; 回避某事: They chose to pass over her rude remarks. 他们对她的粗话不予理会. * Sex is a subject he prefers to pass over, eg because it embarrasses him. 关於性这一问题他尽量回避(如因使他尴尬).

  pass through

  go through a town, etc, stopping there for a short time but not staying 经过市镇等(逗留但不长久): We came to say hello as we were passing through. 我们路经此镇, 顺便来看你. pass through sth experience (a period of time) 经历(一段时间): She passed through a difficult period after her marriage failed. 她婚姻破裂後一度十分困难.

  pass sth up

  (infml 口) refuse to accept (a chance, opportunity, etc) 放弃, 放过(机会等): Imagine passing up an offer like that! 真想不到竟放弃这样好的条件!

  passer-by

  / 9pB:sE 5baI; ?@ 9pAsEr; `pAsL`baI/ n (pl passers-by / 9pB:sEz 5baI; `pAsLz`baI/) person who is going past sb/sth, esp by chance 过路人; (尤指)偶然路过的人: Police asked passers-by if they had seen the accident happen. 警察询问过路的人是否见到事故发生的经过.

  passable

  / 5pB:sEbl; ?@ 5pAs-; `pAsEbl/ adj 1 [usu pred 通常作表语] (a) (of roads) clear of obstructions (esp snow) and therefore able to be driven on (指道路)可通行(尤指清除积雪後): The mountain roads are not passable until late spring. 山路要到春季末期才能通行. (b) (of a river) that can be crossed (指河流)可以横渡. 2 fairly good but not excellent; adequate 还好的; 尚可的; 过得去的: a passable knowledge of German 粗通德语.

  passably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv adequately or acceptably 还好; 尚可; 过得去.

  passage

  / 5pAsIdV; `pAsIdV/ n 1 [U] (a) process of passing 过; 经过: the passage of time 时间的推移. (b) action of going past, through or across sth 通过; 穿过; 横过: The passage of motor vehicles is forbidden. 机动车禁止通行. (c) freedom or right to go through or across sth 通行权; 通行自由: They were denied passage through the occupied territory. 他们被禁止穿越占领区. 2 [C usu sing 通常作单数] way through sth 通路; 通道: force a passage through the crowd 在人群中挤出一条通路. 3[C] (cost of a ticket for a) journey from one place to another by ship or plane; voyage (乘船或飞机的)航程, 旅行, 旅费: book one's passage to New York 订购去纽约的票 * He worked his passage to Australia, eg paid for the journey by doing jobs on the ship he was travelling on. 他在去澳大利亚旅行的船上做工偿付船费. 4 (also `passageway) [C] narrow way through sth, esp with walls on both sides; corridor 通道; (尤指)走廊. 5 [C] tube-like structure in the human body, through which air, secretions, etc pass (人体内的)管道(如气管、 分泌管道等): the nasal passages 鼻腔通道 * (infml 口) the back passage, ie the anus 肛门. 6 [C] short section from a book, speech, piece of music, etc quoted or considered on its own (书、 讲话、 音乐等的)一段, 一节: a passage from the Bible 《圣经》的一段经文. 7 [U] passing of a bill1(4) by a parliament so that it becomes law (法案的)通过.

  en passant

  / 9Cn 5pAsCn; 9BnpB`sBn/ (French 法) in passing; by the way 顺便: He mentioned en passant that he was going away. 他顺便提到他要离开的事.

  passe

  / 5pAseI; ?@ pA5seI; pA`se/ adj [usu pred 通常作表语] (French 法) (a) out of date; old-fashioned 过时; 陈旧; 旧式: I'm beginning to find her novels rather passe. 我逐渐觉得她的小说格调陈旧. (b) past his/her/its best 全盛期已过: He was a fine actor but he's a bit passe now. 他曾是优秀演员, 但现在最红时期已过.

  passenger

  / 5pAsIndVE(r); `pAsndVL/ n 1 person travelling in a car, bus, train, plane, ship, etc, other than the driver, the pilot or a member of the crew 乘客: The driver of the car was killed in the crash but both passengers escaped unhurt. 事故中汽车司机丧生, 但两名乘客幸未受伤. * [attrib 作定语] the passenger seat, ie the seat next to the driver's seat in a motor vehicle (司机座旁的)客座 * a passenger train, ie one carrying passengers rather than goods 铁路的客车. 2 (infml 口 esp Brit) member of a team, crew, etc who does not do as much work as the others (团体中的)闲散人员: This firm can't afford (to carry) passengers. 这家商行养不起闲散人员.

  passim

  / 5pAsIm; `pAsIm/ adv (Latin 拉) (of phrases, etc) occurring throughout or at several points in a book, an article, etc (指词语等)(在某书、 某文章等中出现於)各处, 到处, 多处.

  passing

  / 5pB:sIN; ?@ 5pAs-; `pAsIN/ adj 1 lasting for a short time; brief; fleeting 短暂的; 短促的; 飞逝的: a passing thought, fancy 闪现的念头、 幻想. 2 casual; cursory 随便的; 不经意的; 粗略的: a passing glance, reference, remark 顺便的看一眼、 一提、 一说.

  passing

  n [U] 1 process of going by 经过: the passing of time, the years 时间、 年月的流逝. 2 (fml 文) (a) end 末尾; 尽头: the passing of the old year, ie on New Year's Eve 除夕. (b) (euph 婉) death 去世: They all mourned his passing. 大家都对他的逝世表示悲痛. 3 (idm 习语) in passing casually; incidentally 随便地; 碰巧地; 顺便地: mention sth in passing 顺便提某事.

  passion

  / 5pAFn; `pAFEn/ n 1 (a) [U, C] strong feeling, eg of hate, love or anger 强烈的情感(如恨、 爱、 怒): She argued with great passion. 她争论时情绪很激动. * Passions were running high at the meeting, ie people were in an angry or emotional state. 会上群情鼎沸. (b) [sing] angry state; rage (used esp in the expressions shown) 愤怒, 盛怒(尤用於以下示例): be in a passion 在盛怒中 * get/fly into a passion, ie become very angry 勃然大怒. 2 [U] ~ (for sb) intense, esp sexual, love 强烈的爱(尤指性爱): His passion for her made him blind to everything else. 他强烈地爱著她, 对其他一切都已熟视无睹. 3 [sing] (a) ~ for sth strong liking or enthusiasm for sth 酷爱; 热爱: a passion for chocolate, detective stories, tennis 很喜欢巧克力、 侦探小说、 网球. (b) thing for which sb has a strong liking or enthusiasm 酷爱或热中的事物: Horse-racing is her passion. 赛马是她最喜爱的运动. * Music is a passion with him. 他酷爱音乐. 4 the Passion [sing] (religion 宗) the suffering and death of Christ 耶稣的受难.

  passion-flower

  n any of several types of climbing plant with brightly-coloured flowers 西番莲.

  passion-fruit

  n [C, U] edible fruit of certain types of passion-flower 西番莲果实: [attrib 作定语] passion-fruit ice-cream 西番莲果冰激凌.

  passion-play

  n play in which the Passion of Christ is re-enacted 耶稣受难复活剧.

  Passion Sunday

  (in the Christian Church) the fifth Sunday in Lent (基督教的)受难主日(大斋期中的第五个星期日).

  Passion Week

  (in the Christian Church) the week between Passion Sunday and Palm Sunday (基督教的)受难周(从受难主日到棕枝主日的一周).

  passionate

  / 5pAFEnEt; `pAFEnIt/ adj 1 (a) caused by or showing intense sexual love 出於或表现强烈性爱的: a passionate kiss, lover, relationship 热恋的吻、 情人、 关系. (b) caused by or showing strong feelings 出於或表现强烈感情的: a passionate plea for mercy 恳切的求情 * her passionate support for our cause 她对我们事业的热情支持 * a passionate defender of civil liberties 公民自由权利的积极捍卫者. 2 dominated or easily affected by strong feelings 受强烈感情支配的; 易受强烈感情影响的: a passionate nature, temperament, woman 易动感情的天性、 脾气、 女子.

  passionately

  adv (a) in a passionate(1a) way (指性爱)强烈地: He loved her passionately. 他热烈地爱著她. (b) (used before adjs 用於形容词之前) intensely; very 非常; 极度地: She is passionately fond of tennis.她热爱网球. * He is passionately opposed to racial discrimination. 他极端反对种族歧视.

  passive

  / 5pAsIv; `pAsIv/ adj 1 not active; submissive 被动的; 消极的: play a passive role in a marriage 在婚姻中扮演被动的角色 * passive obedience, acceptance 消极的服从、 接受 * passive smoking, ie breathing in fumes from tobacco being smoked by others 被动吸烟(吸进他人喷出的烟). 2 showing no interest, initiative or forceful qualities 冷淡的; 不主动的: a passive audience 无精打采的听众 * He had a passive expression on his face. 他脸上有一种漠然的表情. 3 of the form of a verb used when the grammatical subject is affected by the action of the verb, as in Her leg was broken and He was bitten by a dog 被动的, 被动语态的(如Her leg was broken和He was bitten by a dog两句中的动词形式): a passive sentence 被动句. Cf 参看 active.

  passive

  n [sing] (also ,passive `voice) (grammar) passive(3) form of a verb (phrase) or sentence 动词被动形式; 被动句; 被动语态: In the sentence `He was seen there', `was seen' is in the passive. 在 He was seen there 句中的 was seen 是被动形式. Cf 参看 active voice (active).

  passively

  adv.

  passiveness (also passivity / pA5sIvEtI; pA`sIvEtI/)

  n [U] state or quality of being passive(1,2) 消极; 被动; 无兴趣; 冷淡.

  passive resistance

  resistance to an enemy who has occupied one's country, or to a government, by refusing to co-operate or obey orders 消极抵抗.

  Passover

  / 5pB:sEUvE(r); ?@ 5pAs-; `pAs9ovL/ n Jewish religious festival commemorating the freeing of the Jews from their slavery in Egypt 逾越节(犹太教节日).

  passport

  / 5pB:spR:t; ?@ 5pAs-; `pAs9pRrt/ n 1 official document issued by the government of a particular country, identifying the holder as a citizen of that country and entitling him to travel abroad under its protection 护照: a British passport 英国护照. 2 ~ to sth thing that enables one to achieve sth (获得某事物的)手段, 保障: The only passport to success is hard work. 通往成功的唯一途径是努力奋斗.

  past

  / pB:st; ?@ pAst; pAst/ adj 1 gone by in time 过去的; 以前的: in past years, centuries, ages 在过去的年月、 世纪、 年代里 * The time for discussion is past. 讨论的时间已经过去. * in times past 在过去. 2 gone by recently; just finished or ended 刚过去的; 刚完成的; 刚结束的: The past month has been a difficult one for him. 上个月他很困难. * I've seen little of her in the past few weeks. 近几周我很少见到她. 3 belonging to an earlier time 先前的; 前期的; 以往的: past happiness 昔日的快乐 * past and present students of the college 该学院的校友和在校学生 * past achievements, failures, generations, presidents 以前的成就、 失败、 世代、 总统. 4 (grammar) (of a verb form) indicating a state or an action in the past (指动词形式)过去式的: The past tense of `take' is `took'. take的过去式是took. * a past participle, eg passed, taken, gone 过去分词(如 passed, taken, gone).

  past

  n 1 the past (a) [sing] time that has gone by 往时; 昔时; 过去: I've been there many times in the past.我从前去过那儿很多次. (b) [sing] things that happenedin an earlier time; past events 往事: memories of the past 对往事的记忆 * look back on, remember, regret the past 回顾、 缅怀、 追悔往事 * We cannot change the past. 往事无可改变. 2 [C] person's past life or career, esp one that is discreditable 过去的生活或职业经历(尤指不名誉的): We know nothing of his past. 我们对他的经历一无所知. * She's a woman with a `past'. 她早年生活放荡. 3 [sing] (also past tense) (form of a verb) used to describe actions in the past 过去式的(动词形式): The past of the verb `take' is `took'. take的过去式是took. 4 (idm 习语) a thing of the past => thing. live in the past => live2.

  past master ~ (in/of sth); ~ (at sth/doing sth)

  person who is very skilled or experienced in a particular activity; expert 能手; 老手; 专家: She's a past master at the art of getting what she wants. 她想要什麽就能得到什麽, 堪称一绝.

  past

  / pB:st; ?@ pAst; pAst/ prep 1 (a) (of time) later than (sth); after (指时间)晚於, 迟於, 在...之後: half past two 两点半 * ten (minutes) past six 六点十分 * There's a bus at twenty minutes past the hour, ie at 1.20,2.20, 3.20, etc. 每小时的第二十分钟有一班公共汽车. * It was past midnight when we got home. 我们到家时已过半夜. (b) older than (the specified age) 超过(某年龄): an old man past seventy 七十多岁的老人 * She's past her thirties, ie at least 40. 她至少四十岁了. 2 on the far side of (sth); from one side to the other of (sth/sb) 在(某物)的远端, 另一边; 经过(某处[某人]): You can see the house past the church. 你可以看到教堂那边的那所房子. * She walked past the shop. 她走过那家商店. * He hurried past me without stopping. 他匆忙从我身边走过, 连停都没停. 3 (a) beyond the limits of (sth/doing sth) 超过(某事物[做某事物])的限度: The man is past working, ie too old, weak, etc to work. 那男子已不能工作了(因年老、 体弱等). * I'm past caring (ie I no longer care) what he does. 他做什麽我再也不管了. * It's quite past my comprehension, ie I can't understand it. 这件事已远超出我的理解力了. (b) beyond the age of (sth/doing sth) 超过(某事物[做某事物])的年纪: She's past playing with dolls. 她已不是玩玩偶的年纪了. * She's long past retirement age. 她早已过了退休的年龄. 4 (idm 习语) `past it (infml 口) too old to do what one was once capable of; too old to be used for its normal function 年龄过大而不能再做以前做的事; 过旧而不适用: At 93 he's finally realized he's getting past it. 他到了93岁终於意识到自己已不中用. * That overcoat is looking decidedly past it. 那件大衣看来是绝对旧得穿不出去了.

  past

  adv part from one side to the other of sth 经过: walk, march, go, rush, etc past 步行、 行军、 行走、 奔跑等经过.

  pasta

  / 5pAstE; ?@ 5pB:stE; `pBstE/ n [U] dried paste made from flour, eggs and water and cut into various shapes, eg macaroni, spaghetti, ravioli 意大利面食(如通心粉、 细面条、 方形饺): [attrib 作定语] a pasta dish, eg lasagne 一盘面食(如宽面). Cf 参看 noodle.

  paste

  / peIst; pest/ n 1 [sing] moist soft mixture, esp of a powdery substance and a liquid 面团: a smooth, thin, thick, etc paste 一块光滑的、 薄的、 厚的...面团 * She mixed the flour and water to a paste. 她用水和面做成面团. 2 [U] mixture of flour and water used to stick things together, esp to stick paper to a wall  强糊. 3 [U] (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) mixture of ground meat or fish for spreading on bread 肉酱; 鱼酱: anchovy paste  鱼酱 * liver paste 肝酱. 4 [U] hard glass-like substance used to make artificial gems (制人造宝石的)铅玻璃: [attrib 作定语] paste jewellery 人造宝石.

  paste

  / peIst; pest/ v 1 [I, Tn] put paste1(2) on (sth) 在(某物)上涂 强糊. 2 [Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (on) to sth; ~ sth on (sth); ~ A and B together stick sth to sth else with paste1(2) 用 强糊将某物粘贴於某处: She pasted posters onto the wall. 她把海报贴在墙上了. * paste pieces of paper together 把纸粘在一起. 3 [Tn] (dated infml 旧, 口) hit or beat (sb) 打, 揍(某人). 4 (phr v) paste sth down fasten the cover or flap of sth with paste1(2) 用 强糊粘住某物的盖. paste sth in; paste sth into sth stick (a photo, label, etc) onto a page of a book with paste1(2) 用 强糊将(照片、 标签等)贴在本子上: She pasted the pictures into a scrapbook. 她把图片贴在剪贴簿上. paste sth up (a) stick sth to an upright surface with paste1(2) 用 强糊张贴某物: paste up an advertisement, a notice, a poster, etc 张贴广告、 告示、 海报等. (b) fasten (sheets or strips of paper with text and illustrations) onto a larger sheet of paper or board, in order to design a page for a book, magazine, etc 将(文字或图画等纸块)贴在大张纸或板上(以设计版面).

  pasting

  n (infml 口) severe beating; defeat 狠揍; 打败: give sb a pasting 把某人狠揍一顿 * Our team got/took a real pasting on Saturday. 我们队星期六一败涂地.

  paste-up

  n sheet of paper or board to which the text and illustrations for a page of a book, magazine, etc have been fastened 粘贴文字、 图画等的纸或板.

  pasteboard

  / 5peIstbR:d; `pest9bRrd/ n [U] type of thin board made by pasting thin sheets of paper together (用多层纸粘合的)纸板.

  pastel

  / 5pAstl; ?@ pA5stel; pAs`tZl/ n 1 type of crayon made from coloured chalk 彩色粉笔; 蜡笔: She works in (ie uses) pastels. 她用彩色粉笔作画. 2 picture drawn with this 彩色粉笔画; 蜡笔画. 3 pale delicate colour 清淡柔和的颜色: [attrib 作定语] pastel shades/colours 清淡柔和的色彩.

  pastern

  / 5pAstEn; `pAstLn/ n part of a horse's foot between the fetlock and the hoof (马的)系部. =>illus at horse 见 horse 插图.

  pasteurize, pasteurise

  / 5pB:stFEraIz; ?@ 5pAs-; `pAstE9raIz/ v [Tn] heat (a liquid, esp milk) to a certain temperature and then chill it, in order to kill harmful bacteria 用巴氏杀菌法将(液体, 尤指乳)消毒.

  pasteurization, pasteurisation

  / 9pB:stFEraI5zeIFn; ?@9pAstFErI5zeIFn; 9pAstErE`zeFEn/ n [U] process of pasteurizing sth 巴氏杀菌(法).

  pastiche

  / pA5sti:F; pAs`tiF/ n 1 [C] literary, musical or artistic work in the style of another author, composer, etc (文学、 音乐或艺术的)风格模仿作品. 2 [C] musical, literary or artistic work consisting of elements from various sources (音乐、 文学或艺术的)拼凑品, 混成物, 集锦. 3 [U] art of composing pastiches 模仿艺术: He has a gift for pastiche. 他有模仿他人作品的天赋.

  pastille

  / 5pAstEl; ?@ pA5sti:l; pAs`til/ n small flavoured sweet for sucking, esp one containing medicine for a sore throat; lozenge (药的)锭剂, 糖锭: throat pastilles 喉片.

  pastime

  / 5pB:staIm; ?@ 5pAs-; `pAs9taIm/ n thing done to pass the time pleasantly 消遣; 娱乐: Photography is her favourite pastime. 摄影是她喜爱的消遣.

  pastor

  / 5pB:stE(r); ?@ 5pAs-; `pAstL/ n minister, esp of a Nonconformist church 牧师(尤指不从国教者).

  pastoral

  / 5pB:stErEl; ?@ 5pAs-; `pAstErEl/ adj 1 relatingto or portraying country life, the countryside or shepherds, esp in an idealized way 乡村生活的, 田园风光的, 牧人的, 田园式的(尤指理想化描述的): a pastoral scene, poem, painting 田园风光、 诗、 画 * pastoral poetry/verse 田园诗 * Beethoven's `Pastoral' Symphony 贝多芬的《田园交响曲》. 2 (of land) used for pasture; grassy (指土地)供放牧的, 长满草的. 3 of or relating to a clergyman or his work (esp the spiritual guidance he gives to his congregation) 牧师的, 牧师工作的(尤指对会众心灵上的指引): pastoral care, duties, responsibilities, etc 牧师对会众的关顾、 职责、 责任等.

  pastoral

  n 1 pastoral(1) poem, picture, etc 田园诗、 画等. 2 (also pastoral `letter) letter from a clergyman to his congregation, esp one from a bishop to the members of his diocese 教牧书信, (尤指)主教教书(牧师或主教给会众或神职人员的公开信); 牧函.

  pastrami

  / pA5strB:mI; pE`strBmI/ n [U] highly seasoned smoked beef 五香熏牛肉.

  pastry

  / 5peIstrI; `pestrI/ n 1 [U] mixture of flour, fat and water baked in an oven and used as a base or covering for tarts, pies, etc 酥皮糕点; 油酥面团: You eat too much pastry, ie food made with pastry. 你吃油酥点心吃得太多了. 2 [C] item of food in which pastry is used, eg a pie or tart 酥皮糕点: Danish pastries 丹麦点心.

  pastry-cook

  n person who makes pastry 制作酥皮糕点的人.

  pasture

  / 5pB:stFE(r); ?@ 5pAs-; `pAstFL/ n 1 [C, U] (piece of) land covered with grass and similar plants, suitable for grazing animals 牧场; 牧地; 草原: acres of rich pasture 广阔富饶的牧场. 2 [U] grass, etc growing on this land 牧草.

  pasture

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] put (animals) to graze in a pasture 放, 牧(牛、 羊等): pasture one's sheep on the village common 在村庄的公地上放羊. 2 [I, Ipr] (of animals) graze (指牛、 羊等)(在草地上)吃草.

  pasturage

  / 5pB:stFErIdV; ?@ 5pAs-; `pAstFErIdV/ n [U] 1 land where animals can graze 牧场. 2 right to graze animals on this land 放牧权.

  pasty

  / 5peIstI; `pestI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 of or like paste  强糊的; 糊状的: a pasty substance 糊状物质 * mix to a pasty consistency 混合至糊状的浓度. 2 pale and unhealthy-looking 苍白的; 不健康的: a pasty face, complexion 苍白的面孔、 脸色.

  pasty-faced

  adj having a pasty complexion 脸色苍白的: a ,pasty-faced `youth 脸色苍白的青年.

  pasty

  / 5pAstI; `pAstI/ n (Brit) piece of pastry folded round a filling of meat, fruit, jam, etc (肉、 水果、 果酱等的)馅饼: a Cornish pasty, ie one with a filling of meat and potatoes 康沃尔馅饼(用肉和土豆做馅的).

  pat

  / pAt; pAt/ adv 1 at once and without hesitation 立刻而不犹豫地: Her answer came pat. 她回答得很乾脆. 2 (idm 习语) have/know sth off `pat have memorized or know sth perfectly 对某事物记得或了解得很清楚: He had all the answers off pat. 他把所有答案都记得很清楚. * She knows the rules off pat. 她对规则了如指掌. stand pat (esp US) refuse to change a decision one has made, an opinion one holds, etc 坚持自己的决定、 意见等.

  pat

  adj 1 exactly right; appropriate 恰好的; 适当的; 适时的. 2 (derog 贬) too quick; glib 过於快的; 伶牙俐齿的; 油嘴滑舌的: It's a complex question and her answer was too pat. 那问题很复杂, 但她的回答简直是脱口而出.

  pat

  / pAt; pAt/ v (-tt-) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] tap (sb/sth) gently with the open hand or with a flat object (用掌或扁平之物)轻拍(某人[某物]): pat a dog 轻轻拍狗 * pat sb's hand 轻拍某人的手 * pat a child on the head, ie as a sign of affection 拍拍孩子的头(表示疼爱) * pat a ball, ie so that it bounces up and down 拍球. 2 [Tn.pr, Tn.p, Cn.a] put (sth) in the specified state or position by patting 将(某物)拍成某状态或拍至某处: She patted her hair into place/shape. 她把头发拍整齐了. * She patted down a few wisps of hair. 她拍落几绺头发. * He patted his face dry (with a towel). 他(用手巾)轻轻把脸拍乾. 3 (idm 习语) pat sb/oneself on the `back congratulate sb/oneself 对某人[自己]表示庆贺、 鼓励或赞扬.

  pat

  n 1 gentle tap with the open hand or with a flat object 轻拍: She gave the child a pat on the head. 她轻轻拍了一下那孩子的头. * He gave her knee an affectionate pat/He gave her an affectionate pat on the knee. 他深情地拍了一下她的膝盖. 2 slight sound made by tapping sth gently 轻拍某物发出的声音. 3 ~ (of sth) small mass of sth (esp butter) that has been shaped by patting (拍成的)小团, 小块(尤指黄油): a pat of butter 一小块黄油. 4 (idm 习语) a ,pat on the `back (for sth/doing sth) 鼓励; 赞扬: give sb/get a pat on the back 给某人[得到]鼓励 * She deserves a pat on the back for all the hard work she's done. 她辛勤努力值得赞扬.

  Pat

  abbr 缩写 = patent (number) 专利(号): Pat 1 230 884专利1 230 884号.

  patch

  / pAtF; pAtF/ n 1 piece of material placed over a hole or a damaged or worn place to cover or strengthen it 补丁; 补片; 补块: a jacket with leather patches on the elbows 肘部有皮补丁的外套 * She sewed a patch onto the knee of the trousers. 她在裤子的膝部打了个补丁. * a patch on the inner tube of a tyre 车轮内胎上的补丁. 2 pad worn over an injured eye to protect it (保护受伤的眼睛的)眼罩: He wears a black patch over his right eye. 他右眼上戴著黑色的眼罩. 3 part of a surface that is different in colour, texture, etc from the surrounding area (与周围颜色、 材料等不同的)斑, 块: a black dog with a white patch on its neck 脖子上有块白斑的黑狗 * a worn patch on the elbow of a sweater 毛衣肘部的磨损处 * damp patches on a wall 墙上一块块的潮斑. 4 ~ (of sth) small area of sth 小块; 小片: patches of fog, ice, sunlight 片片的雾、 块块的冰、 斑斑的阳光 * patches of blue in a cloudy sky 云海中露出的几块蓝天 * The ground is wet in patches. 地上湿处片片. 5 small piece of land, esp one used for growing vegetables 小块土地(尤指种菜用的): a `cabbage, an `onion, a po`tato, etc patch 洋白菜、 洋葱、 马铃薯等菜地. 6 (Brit infml 口) area in which sb (esp a policeman) works or which he knows well 地区, 地段(尤指警察巡视的): He knows every house in his patch. 他熟悉自己管辖区中每所房子. 7 (idm 习语) (go through, hit, strike, etc) a bad `patch (be in, reach, etc) a particularly difficult or unhappy period of time (处於、 遭遇等)困难、 不幸或倒霉的时期: Their marriage has been going through a bad patch. 他们的婚姻正处在困难时期. * Our firm has just struck a bad patch. 我公司刚遭厄运. not be a patch on sb/sth (infml 口) not be nearly as good as sb/sth 远不如某人[某事物]: Her latest novel isn't a patch on her others. 她这部新小说比以前所写的差得远.

  patch-pocket

  n pocket made by sewing a piece of material onto the outside of a garment (衣服上的)贴口袋, 贴兜.

  patch

  / pAtF; pAtF/ v 1 (a) [Tn] cover (a hole or a worn place) with a patch 在(有洞或磨损处)打补丁: patch a hole in a pair of trousers 在裤子上的洞上打补丁. (b) [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) mend (a garment) by covering a hole or worn place with a patch 补(衣服): patch up an old pair of jeans 补一条旧牛仔裤 * The elbows of your jersey are worn I'll need to patch them. 你的套头毛衣的肘部磨坏了--我得给补一补. 2 [Tn] (of material) be used as a patch for (sth) (指材料)被用作(某物)的补丁、 补片. 3 (phr v) patch sth up (a) repair sth, esp quickly or temporarily 修理某物; (尤指)迅速或临时修补: The wrecked car was patched up and resold. 撞坏的汽车草草修理一下就卖掉了. (b) settle or resolve (a quarrel, dispute, etc) 调停, 解决(纷争、 争执等): They patched up their differences. 他们解决了彼此间的分歧.

  patchouli

  / 5pAtFUlI, pE5tFu:lI; `pAtFJlI, pE`tFulI/ n 1 [C] fragrant plant grown in the Far East 广藿香(产自远东). 2 [U] perfume made from this plant 广藿香水.

  patchwork

  / 5pAtFw\:k; `pAtF9w[k/ n 1 [U] type of needlework in which small pieces of cloth with different designs are sewn together 花布拼缝物: [attrib 作定语] a patchwork bedcover, cushion, quilt, etc 杂拼花布床罩、 垫子、 棉被等. 2 [sing] thing made of various small pieces or parts 拼凑的东西: a patchwork of fields seen from an aeroplane 从飞机上俯瞰的块块田地.

  patchy

  / 5pAtFI; `pAtFI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 existing in or having patches 有补丁的; 有斑或块的: patchy fog, mist, cloud, etc 团团的雾、 霭、 云等. 2 (fig 比喻) not of the same quality throughout; uneven 东拼西凑的; 质量不一致的; 不均匀的: a patchy essay, novel, performance 拼凑的文章、 小说、 演出 * His work is rather patchy. 他的作品瑕瑜互见. * My knowledge of German is patchy, ie not complete. 我对德语一知半解.

  patchily

  adv.

  patchiness

  n [U].

  pate

  / peIt; pet/ n (arch or joc infml 古或谑, 口) head or skull 头; 脑袋: a shiny bald pate 亮光光的秃顶.

  pate

  / 5pAteI; ?@ pB:5teI; pB`te/ n [U] rich paste made of finely minced meat or fish 肉酱; 鱼酱: liver, duck, mackerel pate 肝、 鸭、 鲭鱼酱.

  pate de foie gras

  / 9pAteI dE fwB: 5grB:; pB`tedEfwB`^rB/ pate made from the liver of a fattened goose 鹅肝酱.

  patella

  / pE5telE; pE`tZlE/ n (pl -lae / -li:; -li/) (anatomy 解) kneecap 髌骨; 膝盖骨. =>illus at skeleton 见 skeleton 插图.

  patent

  / 5peItnt, also 5pAtnt; ?@ 5pAtnt; `pAtnt/ adj ~ (to sb) obvious; clear; evident 显著的; 清楚的; 明显的: a patent lie 明显的谎言 * his patent dislike of the plan 他对该计画明显的不喜欢 * a patent disregard for the truth 公然无视事实 * It was patent to anyone that she disliked the idea. 谁都知道她不喜欢那个主意.

  patently

  adv unmistakably; obviously 明白无误地; 明显地: It was patently obvious that he was lying. 显然他在撒谎.

  patent

  / 5pAtnt, also 5peItnt; ?@ 5pAtnt; `pAtnt/ n 1 (a) official document giving the holder the sole right to make, use or sell an invention and preventing others from imitating it 许可证; 特许状; 专利证书: take out (ie obtain) a patent to protect an invention 取得专利证书以保护一项发明 * patent applied for, eg marked on goods not yet protected by patent 已申请专利(如标在尚未获专利保护产品上的字样). (b) right granted by this 专利权. 2 invention or process that is protected by a patent 专利发明; 专利方法: It's my patent. 那是我的专利发明.

  patent

  adj 1 [attrib 作定语] (of an invention, a product, etc) protected by or having a patent (指发明、 产品等)有专利的, 受专利权保护的. 2 [attrib 作定语] made and sold by a particular firm 专利生产的; 专利经销的: patent drugs, medicines, etc 专利药物等 * (joc 谑) his patent (ie personal) remedy for hangovers 他私有的治宿醉偏方.

  patent

  v [Tn] obtain a patent for (an invention or process) 取得(某项发明或方法的)专利权.

  patentee

  / 9peItn5ti:; ?@ 9pAtn-; 9pAtn`ti/ n person who obtains or holds a patent 专利权人.

  patent leather

  leather with a hard shiny surface, used for shoes and handbags 漆皮.

  patent office

  government department that issues patents 专利局.

  paterfamilias

  / 9peItEfE5mIlIAs; `petLfE`mIlI9As/ n (pl patresfamilias / 9pB:treIzfE5mIlIAs; 9pBtrezfE`mIlIAs/) (fml or joc 文或谑) head of a family; father 家长; 户主; 父亲.

  paternal

  / pE5t\:nl; pE`t[nl;/ adj 1 of a father; fatherly 父亲的; 父亲般的: paternal affection, authority 父爱、 父亲的威信 * He has a paternal concern for your welfare, ie like that of a father for his child. 他像慈父般关怀你. 2 related through one's father 父系的: her paternal grandmother, ie her father's mother 她的祖母. Cf 参看 maternal.

  paternally

  / -nElI; -nlI/ adv.

  paternalism

  / pE5t\:nElIzEm; pE`t[nl9IzEm/ n [U] policy (of governments or employers) of controlling people in a paternal way by providing them with what they need but giving them no responsibility or freedom of choice 家长式的统治、 管理或作风; 家长主义.

  paternalistic

  / pE9t\:nE5lIstIk; pE9t[nl`IstIk/ adj.

  paternalistically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  paternity

  / pE5t\:nEtI; pE`t[nEtI/ n [U] 1 state of beinga father; fatherhood 父亲的身分; 父亲的地位: He deniedpaternity of the child, ie denied that he was its father. 他不承认是那孩子的父亲. 2 descent from a father 父系: a child of unknown paternity 生父不明的孩子.

  paternoster

  / 9pAtE5nCstE(r); `pAtL`nBstL/ n the Lord's Prayer, esp when said in Latin 主祷文(尤指用拉丁文的).

  path

  / pB:W; ?@ pAW; pAW/ n (pl ~s / pB:Tz; ?@ pATz; pATz/) 1 (also `pathway, `footpath) way or track made for or by people walking 小路; 小径: Keep to the path or you'll lose your way. 沿著这条小道走, 否则就要迷路. * The path follows the river and then goes through the woods. 这条小径与河并排, 而後穿过林子. * We took the path across the fields. 我们顺著横越田地的小路走. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page vi. 2 line along which sb/sth moves (人或事物移动的)路线, 轨道: the moon's path round the earth 月亮绕地球的轨道 * the path of a tornado 龙卷风经过的路线 *She threw herself in the path of (ie in front of) an oncoming vehicle. 她一下子朝对面来车扑去. * (fig 比喻) She has had a difficult path through life. 她生活中有过一段困难的历程. 3 course of action 行动步骤; 办事程序; 做法: I strongly advised him not to take that path. 我极力劝他不要采取那种做法. 4 (usu sing 通常作单数) ~ to sth way to reach or achieve sth (达到或成就某事的)途径, 方式: the path to success, victory, riches, power, ruin 通往成功、 胜利、 富裕、 权力、 毁灭的道路. 5 (idm 习语) cross sb's path => cross2. lead sb up the garden path => lead3. the primrose path => primrose. smooth sb's path => smooth2.

  pathfinder

  / 5pB:WfaIndE(r); ?@ 5pW-; `pAW9faIndL/ n 1 person who discovers new places or new ways of doing things 探险者; 开路人; 探索者; 开拓者. 2 pilot of an aircraft guiding other aircraft to a target which they are going to bomb 导航飞机驾驶员.

  path

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: A lane is a narrow country road. *lane是乡间小径. A path or footpath is a way marked out for people to walk along, between houses in a town or across fields, beside rivers, etc in the country. *path或footpath是市镇中住宅之间或郊野中穿越田地、 沿河等有标志的人行道?w. A track is a rough path in the country, often not officially marked, but made by the constant passing of people, animals or vehicles. *track指郊野土路, 常无正式标志, 仅为人、 动物或车辆走得多而形成者. Lane and track can also refer to the separate parts of a road (lane) or railway (track) separating cars or trains passing in opposite directions or overtaking *lane和track还可指分开来自对面车辆或供超车用的部分路面, 公路用lane, 铁路用track: a six-lane motorway 有六条行车线的高速公路 * a double-track railway line 双轨铁路线. Runners in an athletics stadium run in individual lanes. 在田径运动场上赛跑的人有各自的lane. *The whole area they run on is called the track. 进行赛跑的整个地段称为track.

  -path

  => -pathy.

  path(o)-

  comb form 构词成分 disease 疾病: pathology.

  pathetic

  / pE5WetIk; pE`WZtIk/ adj 1 causing one to feel pity or sadness 招人怜悯的; 可悲的: pathetic cries for help 求助的哀怜呼号 * the pathetic sight of starving children 饥童悲惨可悯的样子 * His tears were pathetic to witness. 他的眼泪引起在场人的怜悯. 2 (infml 口) extremely inadequate; contemptible 极不足的; 可鄙的: a pathetic attempt, performance, excuse 极不充分的尝试、 表现、 藉口 * You're pathetic! Can't you even boil an egg? 你可真没用! 连鸡蛋都不会煮吗? > pathetically / -klI; -klI/ adv: pathetically thin 瘦得怪可怜的 * His answers were pathetically inadequate. 他的回答太不充分.

  pathetic fallacy

  (in literature) describing inanimate objects as if they are living things with feelings (文学中)拟人谬想(将无生命物体作拟人化处理).

  pathological

  / 9pAWE5lCdVIkl; 9pAWE`lBdVIkl/ adj 1 of or relating to pathology 病理学的; 与病理学有关的. 2 of or caused by a physical or mental illness 疾病的; 由疾病引起的. 3 (infml 口) unreasonable; irrational 无道理的; 非理智的; 病态的: a pathological fear of spiders, obsession with death, hatred of sb 对蜘蛛无端的恐惧、受死亡强迫观念的困扰、 对某人病态的憎恨 * a pathological (ie compulsive) liar 病态说谎者.

  pathologically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv: pathologically jealous, mean, etc 忌妒狂的、 吝啬狂的.

  pathology

  / pE5WClEdVI; pE`WBlEdVI/ n [U] scientific study of diseases of the body 病理学.

  pathologist

  / pE5WClEdVIst; pE`WBlEdVIst/ n expert in pathology 病理学家.

  pathos

  / 5peIWCs; `peWBs/ n [U] quality, esp in speech, writing, acting, etc that causes a feeling of pity or sadness 激起怜悯、 悲伤的性质(尤指演讲、 写作、 表演等中的): the pathos of Hamlet's death 哈姆雷特之死使人产生的哀怜.

  -pathy

  comb form 构词成分 (forming ns 用以构成名词) 1 method of treating disease 疗法: homeopathy * osteopathy. 2 feeling 感觉: telepathy.

  -path

  comb form 构词成分 (forming ns 用以构成名词) doctor using a particular method of treating disease 使用某种疗法的专门医生: homeopath * osteopath.

  -pathic

  comb form 构词成分 (forming adjs 用以构成形容词): homeopathic * telepathic.

  patience

  / 5peIFns; `peFEns/ n [U] 1 ~ (with sb/sth) ability to accept delay, annoyance or suffering without complaining 耐性; 忍耐力; 耐心: I warn you, I'm beginning to lose (my) patience (with you), ie become impatient. 我警告你, 我(对你)已经渐渐失去耐性了. * After three hours of waiting for the train, our patience was finally exhausted. 我们等了三个小时的火车, 最後再也没有耐性了. * She has no patience with (ie cannot tolerate) people who are always grumbling. 她腻烦那些总发牢骚的人. * (saying 谚) Patience is a virtue. 忍耐是美德. 2 ~ (for sth/to do sth) ability to persevere with sth; perseverance 坚忍; 坚持; 毅力: Learning to walk again after his accident required great patience. 他出事後重新学习走路要有极大的毅力. * She hasn't the patience to do embroidery. 她没有做剌绣的常性. 3 (Brit) (US solitaire) type of card-game, usu for one player 一种纸牌戏(通常为单人玩的). 4 (idm 习语) the ,patience of `Job very great patience(1) 极大的耐性: His behaviour would try (ie test) the patience of Job. 无论耐性多大的人也无法忍受他的行为.

  patient

  / 5peIFnt; `peFEnt/ adj ~ (with sb/sth) having or showing patience 有耐性的; 忍耐的; 容忍的: You'll have to be patient with my mother she's going rather deaf. 你对我母亲得有耐心--她的耳朵越来越背了. * patient research, questioning, listening 耐心的研究、 询问、 听 * She's a patient (ie persevering) worker. 她工作很有耐心.

  patiently

  adv: wait, sit, listen patiently 耐心地等著、 坐著、 听著.

  patient

  / 5peIFnt; `peFEnt/ n (a) person who is receiving medical treatment, esp in a hospital (接受治疗的)病人(尤指医院中的). (b) person who is registered with a doctor, dentist, etc and is treated by him when necessary (在某医生处注册的)病人(病时由此医生诊治): I have been a patient of Dr Smith for many years. 多年来我一生病就请史密斯医生给我看.

  patina

  / 5pAtInE; `pAtInE/ n [sing] 1 green coating that forms on the surface of old bronze or copper 铜绿. 2 glossy surface on old wood (古木器上的)光泽.

  patio

  / 5pAtIEU; `pBtI9o/ n (pl ~s / -EUz; -oz/) 1 paved area next to a house where people can sit, eat, etc outdoors (与房子相连有铺砌面的)露台, 平台(作户外歇息、 用餐处). Cf 参看 veranda. 2 roofless courtyard within the walls of a Spanish or Spanish-American house (西班牙式或拉丁美洲式住宅的)院子, 天井. Cf 参看 terrace 3.

  patisserie

  / pE5ti:sErI; pE`tisErI/ n 1 [C] shop selling French pastries and cakes 出售法式糕点的商店. 2 [U] pastries and cakes sold in such a shop 法式糕点.

  patois

  / 5pAtwB:; `pAtwB/ n (pl unchanged 复数不变/ -twB:z; -twBz/) dialect spoken by the common people of a region and differing from the standard language of the country 方言; 土语; 土话: He speaks the local patois. 他会说当地方言.

  patri-

  comb form 构词成分 of a father 父亲的: patricide * patriarch. Cf 参看 matri-.

  patriarch

  / 5peItrIB:k; `petrI9Brk/ n 1 male head of a family or tribe (男性)家长, 族长. Cf 参看 matriarch. 2 Patriarch (in the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches) high-ranking bishop (东正教和天主教的)牧首, 宗主教. 3 old man who is greatly respected 极受尊敬的年老男子.

  patriarchal

  / 9peItrI5B:kl; 9petrI`Brkl/ adj 1 of or like a patriarch (似)(男性)家长的, 族长的, 牧首的, 宗主教的, 长者的. 2 ruled or controlled by men 由男性统治或控制的: a patriarchal society 父权社会.

  patriarchate

  / -eIt; -et/ n position or period of office of a Patriarch of the Church 牧首或宗主教的职位或任期.

  patriarchy

  / -kI; -kI/ n [C, U] (society, country, etc with a) patriarchal(2) system of control or government 父权制(的社会或国家).

  patrician

  / pE5trIFn; pE`trIFEn/ n member of the aristocracy(esp in ancient Rome) 贵族(尤指古罗马的). Cf 参看 plebeiann.

  patrician

  adj of or like a patrician; aristocratic(似)贵族的; 出身高贵的: patrician arrogance, haughtiness, good looks 贵族的高傲、 傲慢、 气派.

  patricide

  / 5pAtrIsaId; `pAtrI9saId/ n (a) [C, U] (act of) killing one's own father 弑父(行为). (b) [C] person who does this 弑父者. Cf 参看 matricide, parricide.

  patrimony

  / 5pAtrImEnI; ?@ -mEUnI; `pAtrE9monI/ n[U] 1 property inherited from one's father or ancestors 祖传财产. 2 income or property that a church receives from endowments (得自捐赠的)教会收入或财产.

  patrimonial

  / 9pAtrI5mEUnIEl; 9pAtrE`monIEl/ adj of or relating to a patrimony 祖传财产的; 教会收入的; 教会财产的.

  patriot

  / 5pAtrIEt; ?@ 5peIt-; `petrIEt/ n person who loves his country, esp one who is ready to defend it against an enemy 爱国者(尤指随时为捍卫国家抵抗外敌的): a true patriot 真正的爱国者.

  patriotic

  / 9pAtrI5CtIk; ?@ 9peIt-; 9petrI`BtIk/ adj having or showing love of one's country 爱国的; 有爱国心的: patriotic members of the public 公众中的爱国分子 * patriotic support, fervour 表现爱国的支持、 热情 * patriotic songs 爱国歌曲.

  patriotically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  patriotism

  / -IzEm; -9IzEm/ n [U] love of one's country and readiness to defend it 爱国心; 爱国主义; 爱国精神.

  patrol

  / pE5trEUl; pE`trol/ v (-ll-) [I, Tn] go round (a town, an area, etc) to check that all is secure and orderly or to look for wrongdoers, an enemy or people who need help 在(某城、 地带等)巡逻; 巡查: The army regularly patrol (along) the border. 军队按时沿边界巡逻. * Police patrol the streets at night. 警察晚间在街道上巡逻.

  patrol

  n 1 action of patrolling 巡逻; 巡查: carry out a patrol 执行巡逻任务 * The army make hourly patrols of the area. 军队在该地带每小时巡逻一次. * The navy are maintaining a 24-hour air and sea patrol, eg in order to find survivors from a ship that has sunk. 海军正在进行24小时海空巡逻(如寻找遇难船只上的幸存者). 2 person, group of people, vehicle, ship or aircraft that patrols an area 巡逻者; 巡逻队; 巡逻车; 巡逻艇; 巡逻机: a naval, army, police patrol 海军、 陆军、 警察的巡逻人员 * [attrib 作定语] a police pa`trol car 警察巡逻车. 3 group of (usu) 6 members of a Scout troop or a Girl Guide company 童子军小队(通常为6人). 4 (idm 习语) on patrol patrolling a particular area 在巡逻中: Terrorists attacked two soldiers on patrol. 恐怖分子袭击了两名正在巡逻的士兵.

  patrolman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/) 1 person employed by a motorists' organization to patrol roads and help motorists who are in difficulty (汽车协会的)公路巡查员(帮助遇到困难的司机). 2 (US) policeman who patrols a particular area 巡警.

  patrol wagon

  (US) = Black Maria (black1).

  patron

  / 5peItrEn; `petrEn/ n 1 person who gives money or other support to a person, cause, activity, etc 资助人; 赞助人: a wealthy patron of the arts 艺术方面的富有的赞助人. 2 (fml 文) (regular) customer of a shop, restaurant, theatre, etc (老)主顾, 顾客: Patrons are requested to leave their bags in the cloakroom. 顾客请将手提包留在衣帽间.

  patron saint

  saint regarded as protecting a particular person, place, etc 守护神: St Christopher is the patron saint of travellers. 圣·克里斯托弗是旅行者的守护神.

  patronage

  / 5pAtrEnIdV; ?@ 5peIt-; `petrEnIdV/ n [U] 1 support and encouragement given by a patron 资助; 赞助; 支持: patronage of the arts 对艺术方面的赞助 * Without the patronage of several large firms, the festival could not take place. 没有几大公司的赞助, 就没有这一庆典. * The theatre is under the patronage of the Arts Council. 那剧院得到了艺术委员会的赞助. 2 (fml 文) customer's support for a shop, restaurant, etc; custom1(2) 光顾; 惠顾: We thank you for your patronage. 谢谢您的惠顾. 3 right or power to appoint sb to or recommend sb for an important position (重要职务的)任命权, 举荐权. 4 (dated 旧) patronizing (patronize 1) manner 施恩的态度.

  patronize, patronise

  / 5pAtrEnaIz; ?@ 5peIt-; `petrEn9aIz/ v [Tn] 1 treat (sb) as an inferior; treat (sb) in a condescending way 以高人一等的态度对待(某人); 屈尊俯就对待(某人): He resented the way she patronized him. 她待他那种屈尊纡贵的样子, 他十分愤恨. 2 (fml 文) be a regular customer of (a shop, etc) 作为老主顾经常去(某商店等); 经常光顾、 惠顾: The restaurant is patronized by politicians and journalists. 这家饭馆常有政治家和记者光顾. 3 act as a patron(1) to (sb/sth); support or encourage (sb/sth) 做(某人[某事物])的赞助人; 资助、 赞助或支持(某人[某事物]).

  patronizing, patronising

  adj condescending 屈尊俯就的: a patronizing person, manner, attitude, smile, tone of voice 高人一等的人、 派头、 态度、 笑容、 腔调.

  patronizingly, patronisingly

  adv.

  patronymic

  / 9pAtrE5nImIk; 9pAtrE`nImIk/ n, adj (name) derived from the name of one's father or some other male ancestor 从父名或父系祖先之名衍生出的(名字).

  patsy

  / 5pAtsI; `pAtsI/ n (US infml derog 口, 贬) person who is easily cheated or fooled 易上当或易受愚弄的人.

  patter

  / 5pAtE(r); `pAtL/ n [U] rapid and often glib speech used by a comedian, conjuror or salesman (滑稽演员、 变戏法者或推销员的)顺口溜: You have to learn to resist the sales patter. 你可得学乖点, 不要轻信推销员的那套话.

  patter

  v 1 [Tn] say or repeat (prayers, etc) in a rapid mechanical way 喋喋地重复(祷告等). 2 [I] talk quickly or glibly 快速地说; 喋喋不休地说.

  patter

  / 5pAtE(r); `pAtL/ n 1 [sing] sound of quick light steps or taps 轻快的脚步声或拍打声: the patter of rain on a roof 雨点打在屋顶的啪嗒声 * the patter of footsteps 急速的脚步声. 2 (idm 习语) the patter of tiny `feet (joc 谑) (used to refer to a baby that sb is going to or might be going to have 用以指即将出生的婴儿) the sound of young children in a home 家中小儿的声音: She can't wait for the patter of tiny feet. 她巴不得婴儿早日出生.

  patter

  v 1 [I] make this sound 发出轻快的脚步声或拍打声: rain pattering on the window panes 雨点啪嗒啪嗒地打在窗户上. 2 (phr v) patter along, down, etc (sth) walk quickly in the specified direction with light footsteps 以轻快的脚步沿某方向走: She pattered along (the corridor) in her bare feet. 她赤著脚轻快地走过(走廊).

  pattern

  / 5pAtn; `pAtLn/ n 1 arrangement of lines, shapes, colours, etc, esp as a decorative design on clothes, carpets, wallpaper, etc 图案, 花样, 式样(尤指衣物、 地毯、 壁纸等的): a checked, flowery, Paisley pattern 格子的、 花卉的、 佩斯利涡旋纹的图案 * What a pretty pattern! 多漂亮的图案哪! * She wore a dress with a pattern of roses on it. 她穿著有玫瑰花图案的连衣裙. =>illus 见插图. 2 (a) (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) model, design or instructions from which sth is to be made (据以制作某物的)模型, 样式, 说明: a knitting/sewing pattern 编织[缝纫]样式 * a paper pattern, ie a set of pieces of paper that show the shapes of the various parts of a garment 纸样(缝制衣服用的). (b) piece of wood used to make a mould for casting metal (用以制造铸模的)木模, 模型. 3 sample of cloth or some other material (布等的)样品: a book of tweed patterns 粗花呢样品簿. 4 way in which sth happens, moves, develops or is arranged 模式; 方式; 形式: patterns of behaviour/behaviour patterns 行为模式 * the pattern of economic decline in Britain 英国经济衰退的形式 * the pattern of events which led up to the war 导致战争的事件发展状况 * These sentences all have the same grammatical pattern. 这些句子的语法模式都相同. * The murders all seem to follow a set pattern, ie occur in a similar way. 这些谋杀案似乎都为同一手法. 5 excellent example; model 模范; 典范; 榜样: This company's profit-sharing scheme set a pattern which others followed. 这家公司的利润分成计画已成为各公司的样板.

  pattern

  v [Tn.pr] ~ oneself/sth on sb/sth imitate sb/sth; model sth on sth 模仿某人[某事物]; 按某模型仿造某物: He patterns himself upon his father. 他模仿父亲. * Her ideas are patterned on Trotsky's. 她的思想是仿效托洛茨基的. patterned adj decorated with a pattern 有图案装饰的; 带花样的: patterned china, fabric, wallpaper 有图案的瓷器、 织物、 壁纸.

  pattern-maker

  n person who makes patterns in an engineering factory 制模工; 翻砂工.

  pattern-shop

  n room in a factory where patterns (pattern 2b) are made 制模车间.

  paucity

  / 5pR:sEtI; `pRsEtI/ n [sing] ~ (of sth) (fml 文) smallness of number or quantity 少量; 少许; 少数: a paucity of evidence 少量证据.

  paunch

  / pR:ntF; pRntF/ n fat stomach, esp a man's 大肚子(尤指男子的): You're getting quite a paunch, eg from drinking a lot of beer. 你的肚子越来越大了(如因喝大量啤酒).

  paunchy

  adj (-ier, -iest) having a paunch 肚子大的(尤指男子).

  paunchiness

  n [U].

  pauper

  / 5pR:pE(r); `pRpL/ n very poor person 贫民; 穷人: He died a pauper. 他死时身无分文.

  pauperism

  / 5pR:pErIzEm; `pRpL9IzEm/ n [U] state of being a pauper 贫穷; 贫困.

  pause

  / pR:z; pRz/ n 1 ~ (in sth) temporary stop in action or speech (行为、 讲话中的)暂停, 临时中止: a moment's pause 短暂的停顿 * He slipped out during a pause in the conversation. 谈话中稍一停顿他就溜了出去. * After a short pause, they continued walking. 他们稍稍停了停, 然後继续走路. * She spoke for an hour without a pause. 她不停地讲了一小时. =>Usage at break2 用法见break2. 2 (music 音) sign (  ) over a note(5b) or rest2(3) to show that it should be longer than usual 延长记号  (标在音符或休止符上表示该符应比通常所示为长). 3 (idm 习语) give pause to sb/give sb pause make sb hesitate before doing sth 使某人做某事前犹豫: Weather conditions were bad enough to give pause to even the most experienced climbers. 天气十分恶劣, 即使最有经验的登山者也犹豫不决. a pregnant pause/silence => pregnant.

  pause

  v [I, Ipr] ~ (for sth) make a pause 中止; 暂停; 停顿: He paused for a moment, and then continued his speech. 他停顿了一下然後继续讲话. * Let's pause for a cup of coffee. 我们歇歇喝杯咖啡吧. * speak without pausing for breath, ie very quickly 一口气说下去.

  pave

  / peIv; pev/ v 1 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (with sth) cover (a surface) with flat stones or bricks 用石或砖铺(路): The path is paved with concrete slabs. 这条路是用混凝土板铺成的. 2 (idm 习语) ,pave the `way (for sb/sth) create a situation in which sth specified is possible or can happen (为某人[某事物])创造条件, 做准备: His economic policies paved the way for industrial expansion. 他的经济政策为工业的扩展铺平了道路. the road to hell is paved with good intentions => road.

  paving stone

  slab of stone used for paving 铺路石板.

  pavement

  / 5peIvmEnt; `pevmEnt/ n 1 [C] (Brit) (US sidewalk) path with a paved surface at the side of a road for people to walk on 人行道: Don't ride your bicycle on the pavement. 不要在人行道上骑自行车. 2 [U] (US) hard surface of a road, street, etc (道路等的)硬路面. 3 [C] paved area or surface 用石或砖铺的面.

  pavement artist

  person who draws on the pavement with coloured chalks, esp in order to be given money by passers-by 马路画家(用彩色粉笔在街上作画, 尤指向行人讨钱的).

  pavilion

  / pE5vIlIEn; pE`vIljEn/ n 1 (Brit) building next to a sports ground, esp a cricket field, used by players and spectators (运动场旁, 尤指板球场旁供运动员和观众用的)建筑物: a cricket pavilion 板球队员更衣室. 2 light building used as a shelter, eg in a park 亭子, 阁(如公园中的). 3 ornamental building used for concerts, dances, etc (音乐会、 舞会等用的)装饰华美的建筑物: the Royal Pavilion in Brighton 布赖顿皇家剧场. 4 temporary building, esp a large tent used to display items at an exhibition (展览会陈列物品用的)临时建筑物, (尤指)大帐篷.

  paving

  / 5peIvIN; `pevIN/ n [U] (a) paved surface 用石或砖铺的面. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page vii. (b) material used for this (石、 砖等)铺面材料.

  pavlova

  / 5pAvlEvE; pAv`lovE/ n [C, U] (also pavlova cake) dessert consisting of a layer of meringue topped with cream and fruit 蛋白奶油酥.

  paw

  / pR:; pR/ n 1 foot of an animal with claws or nails 爪子: a dog's paw 狗爪子. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page iii. 2 (infml joc or derog 口, 谑或贬) person's hand 手: Take your dirty little paws off me! 别用你的小黑爪子抓著我!

  paw

  v 1 [Ipr, Tn] ~ (at) sth (of an animal) feel or scratch sth with the paws (指动物)用爪子触或抓挠(某物). 2 [Tn] (of a horse or bull) scrape (the ground) with a hoof (指马或牛)用蹄子刨或扒(地). 3 [Tn] touch (sb/sth) with the hands roughly, awkwardly or in a sexually improper manner 用手胡乱地或猥亵地摸(某人[某物]): He can't be near a woman without pawing her. 他一接近女人就忍不住动手动脚.

  pawky

  / 5pR:kI; `pRkI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (Brit dialect 方) drily humorous 木然幽默的.

  pawkily

  adv.

  pawkiness

  n [U].

  pawl

  / pR:l; pRl/ n 1 lever with a catch that fits between the teeth (tooth 2) of a ratchet to prevent slipping or movement in a particular direction (防逆转的)棘爪, 掣爪. 2 (nautical 海) short bar used to prevent a capstan or windlass from recoiling (防止绞盘或起锚机逆转的)掣转杆.

  pawn

  / pR:n; pRn/ n 1 one of the eight chess-men of the smallest size and value (国际象棋中的)卒. =>illus at chess 见 chess 插图. 2 (fig 比喻) person or group whose actions are controlled by others 被人利用的人: We are mere pawns in the struggle for power. 在权力斗争中我们只是一批小卒.

  pawn

  / pR:n; pRn/ v [Tn] 1 leave (an object) with a pawnbroker in exchange for money that can be repaid in order to get the object back 典当, 抵押(某物): He pawned his gold watch to pay the rent. 他典当了金表用以交租. 2 (fig比喻) abandon (sth) in order to gain sth 以(某事物)担保: pawn one's honour 以个人名誉担保.

  pawn

  n (idm 习语) in pawn in a state of being pawned 在抵押中; 已典当: My watch is in pawn. 我把表当了.

  pawnbroker

  n person licensed to lend money in exchange for articles left with him 开当铺者; 当铺老板.

  pawnshop

  n place where a pawnbroker works 当铺.

  pawn-ticket

  n receipt given by a pawnbroker for articles left with him 当票.

  pawpaw

  = papaw.

  pay

  / peI; pe/ n [U] 1 money paid for regular work 工资; 薪金: an increase in pay/a pay increase 加薪 * He doesn't like the job, but the pay is good. 他不喜欢那工作, 但薪水很高. * (infml 口) What's the pay like (ie How much are you paid) in your job? 你挣多少钱? * [attrib 作定语] pay negotiations 工资谈判. =>Usage at income 用法见 income. 2 (idm 习语) in the pay of sb/sth (derog 贬) employed by sb/sth, esp secretly 受雇於某人[某事物](尤指秘密工作): a spy in the pay of the enemy 敌人收买的间谍.

  pay-claim

  n demand for an increase in pay made by a union for its members (工会为其会员提出的)加薪要求.

  pay-day

  n 1 day of the week or month on which wages or salaries are paid 发薪日. 2 (in the Stock Exchange) day when stock that has been transferred has to be paid for (证券交易所的)过户结帐日.

  pay dirt

  (US) earth containing enough ore to make mining profitable (有开采价值的)矿石, 矿砂.

  payload

  n 1 part of the load of a ship, an aircraft, etc for which payment is received, eg passengers and cargo, but not fuel 收费载重, 酬载(船舶、 飞机等的收费运载量, 如乘客、 货物而不包括燃料). 2 explosive power of a bomb or warhead carried in an aircraft or a missile (飞行器或导弹所携的炸弹或弹头的)炸药量. 3 equipment carried by a satellite or spacecraft 有效荷载(卫星或航天器携带的仪器设备).

  paymaster

  n 1 official who pays troops, workers, etc 负责发薪饷的军需官; 工薪出纳员. 2 (usu pl 通常作复数) (derog 贬) person who pays another person or group to do sth for him and who therefore controls his/their actions 雇用并操纵他人的人: The paymasters of these petty crooks are the big crime syndicates. 操纵这帮小流氓的就是那个大犯罪集团. ,Paymaster `General (Brit) minister in charge of the department of the Treasury through which payments are made (财政部)主计长.

  pay-packet

  n envelope containing an employee's wages 薪水袋.

  pay phone (US `pay station)

  coin-operated telephone(投币式)公用电话.

  payroll

  n (a) list of people employed by a company and the amount of money to be paid to each of them (公司员工的)薪水名册: a firm with 500 employees on the payroll, ie one that employs 500 people 有500名雇员的公司. (b) total amount of wages and salaries to be paid to the employees of a company (公司员工的)薪水总额.

  pay-slip

  n piece of paper that gives details of an employee's pay, including deductions for tax, insurance, etc 薪水单.

  pay

  / peI; pe/ v (pt, pp paid) 1 (a) [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ (sb) (for sth); ~ sth (to sb) (for sth) give (sb) money (for goods, services, etc) 付钱给(某人)(作为货物、 服务等的费用): My firm pays well, ie pays high wages. 我公司工酬优厚. * Are you paying in cash or by cheque? 你用现款还是用支票支付? * They tried to leave the restaurant without paying (for their meal). 他们不付饭钱就要溜走. * Her parents paid for her to go (ie paid the cost of her travel) to America.她去美国的旅费是父母给的. * Have you paid the milkman this week? 这星期给送奶人钱了吗? * pay sb by the hour/by the job 计时[计件]给某人付酬 * How much did you pay for your house? 你买房花了多少钱? * We paid 50000 for our house. 我们买房花了5万英镑. * You haven't paid me the money you owe me. 你欠我的钱还没还给我呢. * She paid a dealer 2000 for that car. 她用2千英镑从汽车行买的这辆汽车. * Have you paid that money to the bank yet? 你把那笔钱付给银行了吗? * You're not paid to sit around doing nothing! 花钱雇你来可不是让你光坐著不干活的! (b) [Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) give (what is owed); hand over the amount of sth 还; 偿还; 缴付: pay taxes, rates, rent, etc 纳税、 交地方税、 缴租 * pay a bill, debt, fine, subscription, etc 付帐、 还债、 缴罚款、 交订费 * He paid the terrorist a ransom of 50000 for his kidnapped son. 他为救出被绑架的儿子向恐怖分子交付了5万英镑的赎金. * Membership fees should be paid to the club secretary. 会费应交给俱乐部秘书. 2 (a) [I] (of a business, etc) be profitable (指商业等)有利可图, 有收益: The shop closed because it didn't pay. 该店因不赚钱而关闭. * It's difficult to make sheep farming pay here. 养羊业在这里难有收益. (b) [I, Tn] be advantageous or profitable to (sb) 对(某人)有利或有好处: Crime doesn't pay. 犯罪是得不偿失的. * It would pay (you) to use an accountant. 雇会计划得来. * It pays to be honest with the taxman. 纳税诚实不吃亏. 3 (idm 习语) expenses paid => expense. give/pay lip-service to sth => lip-service (lip). he who ,pays the ,piper ,calls the `tune (saying 谚) the person who provides the money for sth should control how it is spent 花钱的人说话算数. pay attention (to sb/sth) listen carefully to sb/sth; take notice of sb/sth 仔细听某人说的话[某事物]; 注意某人[某事物]: Pay attention when I'm talking to you! 我跟你说话的时候, 你要留心听! * pay attention to one's teacher 注意听老师讲课. pay sb a compliment/pay a compliment to sb praise sb about sth 就某事物夸奖某人. pay court to sb (becoming dated 渐旧) treat (esp a woman) with great respect or admiration in order to gain favour 向(尤指女人)献殷勤; 讨好; 求爱. pay `dividends produce benefits or advantages 产生效益; 得到好处: I suggest you take more exercise; I think you'll find it pays dividends, ie it will make you fitter. 我建议你多运动, 多运动你就会觉得有好处. pay heed (to sb/sth) take careful notice of sb/sth; heed sb/sth 注意某人[某事物]: She paid no heed to our warnings. 她不把我们的警告放在心上. pay sb (back) in his own/the same `coin punish sb for treating one badly, by treating him in the same way 以其人之道还治其人之身. pay/settle an old score => old. pay the `penalty (for sth/doing sth) suffer because of wrongdoing, misfortune or an error 因过失、 不幸或缪误而受苦或受害: I'm paying the penalty for drinking too much last night; I've got a dreadful headache! 昨晚我酒喝得太多真是自讨苦吃, 现在头疼得很厉害! pay a/the `price (for sth) suffer a disadvantage or loss in return for sth one has gained 为所得付出代价: Our troops recaptured the city, but they paid a heavy price for it, ie many were killed. 我军收复了该市, 但为此付出了沉重代价. pay one's re`spects (to sb) (fml 文) visit sb as a sign of respect for him 探望某人以示敬意; 拜访; 拜见: Please pay my respects to your mother. 请代我向伯母致意. * Hundreds came to pay their last respects to the dead president, eg by attending his funeral. 数以百计的人前来向总统遗体告别. pay through the `nose (for sth) (infml 口) pay too much or a lot of money for sth 为某事物花钱过多. pay (a) tribute to sb/sth express one's admiration or respect for sb/sth 对某人[某事物]表示赞赏或敬意: His colleagues paid generous tributes to the outgoing president. 同事们纷纷向即将卸任的总裁致敬. pay sb/sth a visit visit sb/sth 访问某人; 参观某处. pay one's/its `way (of a person, business, etc) support oneself/itself with money one/it has earned (指人)挣钱维持生活; (指企业)赢利维持营业. put `paid to sth (infml 口) stop or destroy sth 结束或毁掉某事物: Coming to work drunk put paid to her hopes of promotion. 她上班总是醉醺醺的, 把晋升的希望都失去了. rob Peter to pay Paul => rob. there'll be the devil to pay => devil1. there will be/was hell to pay => hell. you ,pays your ,money and you ,takes your `choice (infml catchphrase 口, 警语) one should choose whatever alternative course of action, explanation etc, one wants, since any one is as good as any other 你花钱, 你挑选(谁都一样碰运气). 4 (phr v) pay sb back (sth); pay sth back return (money) to sb that one has borrowed from him 还(钱)给某人: Have you paid (me) back the money you owe me yet? 你向我借的钱还(给我)了吗? * I'll pay you back next week. 我下星期还给你. pay sb back (for sth) punish sb or get one's revenge 惩罚某人; 报复: I'll pay him back for the trick he played on me. 他对我使坏, 我得治治他.

  pay for sth

  suffer or be punished for sth 为某事吃苦头或受惩罚: The home team paid (dearly) for their defensive errors, eg by losing the match. 主队因防守错误而(大)吃苦头(例如比赛输了). * I'll make him pay for his insolence! 他蛮横无礼, 我要让他尝尝苦头!

  pay sth in; pay sth into sth

  put (money) into (a bank account) 将(钱)存入(银行): pay a cheque into one's account 把支票存入帐户.

  pay off

  (infml 口) (of a risky policy, course of action, etc) bring good results; be successful; work (尤指冒风险的政策、 做法等)带来好结果, 成功, 行得通: The gamble paid off. 赌赢了. pay sb off (a) pay the wages of sb and dismiss him from a job 付清某人工资予以解雇: pay off the crew of a ship 付清全体船员工资并予以解雇. (b) (infml 口) give money to sb to prevent him from doing sth; bribe sb 用钱收买某人使之不做某事; 贿赂某人. pay sth off pay in full (money owed for sth) 全部偿还; 偿清: pay off one's debts, a loan, a mortgage, etc 还清债务、 贷款、 抵押款等.

  pay sth out

  (a) (regularly) make a large payment (of money) for sth (按时)为某事物付巨款: I had to pay out 200 to get my car repaired! 我得花200英镑修理汽车! * We're paying out 300 a month on our mortgage. 我们每 月要付300英镑抵押贷款. (b) release or pass (a length of rope, cord, etc) through the hands (自手中)放松, 放出(一段绳索等).

  pay up

  pay in full money that is owed for sth 付清全部欠款: I'll take you to court unless you pay up immediately. 除非马上还清欠款, 否则我和你打官司.

  payable

  / 5peIEbl; `peEbl/ adj [pred 作表语] that must or may be paid 应付; 可付: Instalments are payable on the last day of the month. 分期付的款可於每月最後一日交付. * The price of the goods is payable in instalments. 货款可以分期支付.

  payee

  / peI5i:; pe`i/ n person to whom sth is (to be) paid 受款人; 收款人.

  payer

  n person who pays or who has to pay for sth 付款人; 交款人.

  paid-up

  adj having paid all money or subscriptions owed to a club, political party, etc (会员费、 党费等)已付清的, 已缴齐的: She's a (fully) ,paid-up member of the `party. 她是缴(清)了党费的党员.

  pay-as-you-earn

  n [U] (Brit) (abbr 缩写 PAYE) method of collecting income tax by deducting it from an employee's wages or salary 预扣所得税法(从薪金中扣除所得税的制度).

  pay-bed

  n (Brit) bed in a National Health hospital for which the user has paid as a private patient (国民保健医院的)自费病床.

  paying guest

  person who lives in sb's house and pays for his board and lodging; lodger (私人家中的)寄膳宿者, 房客.

  pay-off

  n (infml 口) 1 act or occasion of paying money (esp a bribe) to sb 付给某人钱(尤指贿赂). 2 deserved reward or punishment (应有的)报偿, 惩罚. 3 climax of a story or of a series of events (故事或事件的)高潮.

  PAYE

  / 9pi: eI waI 5i:; 9pi e waI `i/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) (of income tax) pay-as-you-earn.

  payment

  / 5peImEnt; `pemEnt/ n ~ (for sth) 1 [U] paying or being paid 支付; 付款; 缴纳; 报酬: We would be grateful for prompt payment of your account. 如即付款无任感激. * Payment of subscriptions should be made to the club secretary. 会费应交给俱乐部秘书. 2 [C] sum of money (to be) paid 付出的或要付的款项: The television can be paid for in ten monthly payments of 50. 这电视机可月付50英镑10次付清. * Would you accept 50 as payment (for the work)? (这工作)给你50英镑你愿意做吗? 3 [U, sing] reward for sth 报答; 报偿: We'd like you to accept this book in payment for your kindness. 我们奉送此书聊表谢忱. * (ironic 反语) Personal abuse was the only payment he got for his efforts. 他努力所得只是一顿臭骂.

  payola

  / peI5EUlE; pe`olE/ n (esp US) 1 [C] sum of money offered to sb to use his position or influence to promote the sales of a commercial product 为利用某人的地位或影响以推销商品而向其行贿的钱. 2 [U] practice of paying money in this way 上述情况的行贿.

  PC

  / 9pi: 5si:; 9pi `si/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) 1 personal computer 个人用计算机; 个人电脑. 2 (pl PCs) police constable: PC (Tom) Marsh (汤姆·)马什警察. Cf 参看 WPC. 3 Privy Councillor.

  pc

  abbr 缩写 = 1 (US pct) (symb 符号为 %) per cent: 20 pc 20%. 2 / 9pi: 5si:; 9pi `si/ (infml 口) postcard.

  pd

  abbr 缩写 = paid (eg on a bill) 已付, 付讫(如帐单上的标记).

  Pde

  abbr 缩写 = (in street names) parade (用作街名)街: 29 North Pde 北街29号.

  PDSA

  / 9pi: di: es 5eI; 9pi di Zs `e/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) People's Dispensary for Sick Animals 人民兽医诊所.

  PDT

  / 9pi: di: 5ti:; 9pi di `ti/ abbr 缩写 = (US) Pacific Daylight Time 太平洋夏季时间.

  PE

  / 9pi: 5i:; 9pi `i/ abbr 缩写 = physical education 体育(课): do PE at school 在学校上体育课 * a PE lesson 体育课. Cf 参看 PT.

  pea

  / pi:; pi/ n 1 (a) climbing plant with long green pods containing edible green seeds that are eaten as a vegetable 豌豆. (b) one of these seeds 豌豆(粒). 2 (idm 习语) like as two peas/as peas in a pod => like3.

  pea-green

  adj, n (having a) bright green colour like that of peas 青豆色(的); 浅绿色(的).

  pea-shooter

  n small tube from which dried peas are shot by blowing through the tube 射豆枪.

  pea soup

  soup made from dried peas 豌豆汤.

  pea-souper

  n (dated Brit infml 旧, 口) very thick yellow fog 黄色浓雾.

  peace

  / pi:s; pis/ n 1 (a) [U] state of freedom from war or violence 和平; 太平: The two communities live together in peace (with one another). 这两个社区和平相处. * After years of fighting the people longed for peace.经过多年的战斗, 人民渴望和平. * [attrib 作定语] a peace treaty 和平条约 * peace studies, negotiations 和平研究、 和谈 * the Peace Movement, ie the movement campaigning for nuclear disarmament 和平运动(争取核裁军的). (b) [sing] period of this 和平时期: a lasting peace 持久和平 * After a brief peace, fighting broke out again. 经暂短的和平时期, 战事又起. 2 (often 常作 Peace) [U, sing] treaty ending a war 和约: Peace/A Peace was signed between the two countries. 两国签定了和约. * The Peace of Versailles 凡尔赛和约. 3 [U] (state of) calm or quiet 安静; 平静: break/disturb the peace 打破[搅扰]宁静 * the peace of a summer evening, the countryside 夏日傍晚的、 郊野的寂静 * I would work better if I had a bit of peace and quiet. 要是再静一些我就能工作得更好了. * He just wants to be left in peace, ie not to be disturbed. 他只是希望别打扰他. * peace of mind, ie freedom from worry 心态平静 * May he rest in peace, eg carved as an inscription on sb's tombstone. 愿他安息(如刻於墓碑上的字样). 4 [U] (state of) harmony and friendship 和睦; 友好. 5 (idm 习语) (be) at peace (with oneself/sb/sth) in a state of friendship or harmony (with oneself/sb/sth) 让(自己)平静; 与(某人[某事物])和好、 和睦: She's never at peace with herself, ie is always restless. 她总是静不下来. ,hold one's `peace/`tongue (dated 旧) remain silent or keep quiet although one would like to say sth 保持缄默; 忍住不说. ,keep the `peace (a) not create a disturbance in public 维持治安. (b) prevent people from quarrelling, fighting or creating a disturbance in public 维持秩序: a peace-keeping force, ie armed troops sent to a country where there is civil war, to prevent more fighting 维持和平部队. make one's peace with sb end a quarrel with sb, esp by apologizing 与某人和解(尤指主动道歉). make peace (of two people, countries, etc) agree to end a war or a quarrel (指两人、 两国等)媾和, 和解.

  Peace Corps

  (US) organization that sends young volunteers to work in other countries 和平队.

  peace-loving

  adj peaceable(1); peaceful(2) 爱好和平的; 和平的; 安宁的: a peace-loving nation, people, tribe, etc 爱好和平的民族、 人民、 部落等.

  peacemaker

  n person who persuades people or countries to make peace 调解人; 调停人.

  peace offering

  present offered to show that one is willing to make peace or in order to apologize for sth 为求和解而赠送的礼物: I bought her some flowers as a peace offering. 我买了一些花送给她表示歉意.

  peace-pipe

  n (also ,pipe of `peace) tobacco pipe smoked by N American Indians when they have made peace with an enemy 和平烟斗(北美印第安人与敌人和解时吸用的).

  peacetime

  n [U] period when a country is not at war 和平时期.

  peaceable

  / 5pi:sEbl; `pisEbl/ adj 1 not quarrelsome; wishing to live in peace with others 不争吵的; 愿与别人和睦相处的: a peaceable temperament, person 温和的脾气、 人. 2 without fighting or disturbance; peaceful 安宁的; 和平的: a peaceable settlement, discussion 心平气和的解决、 商讨 * peaceable methods 和平的方法.

  peaceably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv: live peaceably with one's neighbours 与邻居和睦相处.

  peaceful

  / 5pi:sfl; `pisfEl/ adj 1 not involving war or violence 不诉诸战争或暴力的; 和平的: a peaceful demonstration, reign, period of history 和平示威、 太平盛世、 历史上的和平时期 * peaceful uses of atomic energy 原子能的和平利用 * peaceful co-existence, eg of countries with opposing political systems 和平共处. 2 loving or seeking peace 爱好和平的; 寻求和平的: peaceful nations 爱好和平的国家 * peaceful aims 追求和平的目的. 3 quiet; calm; tranquil 安静的; 安宁的; 宁静的: a peaceful evening, scene, death 宁静的黄昏、 静谧 的景色、 安祥的死亡 * peaceful sleep 安宁的睡眠 * It's so peaceful out here in the country. 郊区这地方多麽恬静.

  peacefully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv: die, sleep peacefully 死、 睡得安祥.

  peacefulness

  n [U].

  peach

  / pi:tF; pitF/ n 1 [C] round juicy fruit with downy yellowish-red skin and a rough stone 桃: tinned peaches 桃罐头 * [attrib 作定语] a `peach stone 桃核. =>illus at fruit 见fruit插图. 2 [C] (also `peach tree) tree on which this grows 桃树. 3 [U] yellowish-red colour of a peach 桃红色. 4 (infml 口) (a) [C] very attractive young woman 美人儿; 漂亮妞儿: She's a real peach. 她真是个美人儿. (b) [sing] ~ (of a sth) thing that is exceptionally good or attractive of its kind (同类事物中)极好的或极吸引人的事物: That was a peach of a shot! 射得真棒!

  peachy

  adj (-ier, -iest) like a peach in colour or texture 像桃的; 颜色像桃的.

  peaches and cream

  (approv 褒) having an attractive pink colour 漂亮的粉红色: a peaches-and-cream complexion 白里透红的面容.

  peach Melba

  desert made with ice-cream, peaches and raspberry sauce 冰激凌、 桃加悬钩子沙司的甜品.

  peacock

  / 5pi:kCk; `pi9kBk/ n 1 large male bird with long blue and green tail feathers which can be spread out like a fan 孔雀: [attrib 作定语] peacock feathers 孔雀羽毛. 2 (idm 习语) proud as a peacock => proud.

  peacock blue

  adj, n (having a) bright blue-green colour 孔雀蓝(的).

  peahen

  / 5pi:hen; `pi9hZn/ n female of a peacock 雌孔雀.

  peak

  / pi:k; pik/ n 1 (a) pointed top, esp of a mountain 尖顶; (尤指)山峰: The plane flew over the snow-covered peaks. 飞机在积雪的山峰上飞过. =>illus at mountain 见mountain插图. (b) the mountain itself 山: The climbers made camp half-way up the peak. 登山队员在半山腰扎营. 2 any shape, edge or part of sth that narrows to a point 尖顶; 尖头; 尖端: the peak of a roof 屋的尖顶 * hair combed into a peak 梳起尖儿的头发 * widow's peak, ie hair-style or growth that slopes back on each side from a point in the centre of the forehead 前额上的v形发尖. 3 pointed front part of a cap 帽舌. =>illus at hat 见hat插图. 4 (a) point of highest intensity, value, achievement, etc (强度、 价值、 成就等的)最高点, 顶峰: Traffic reaches a peak between 8 and 9 in the morning. 早晨八九点钟是交通的高峰时刻. * She's at the peak of her career. 她正处於她事业的顶峰. (b) [attrib 作定语] maximum, most busy or intense, etc 最大的; 最忙的; 最紧张的: peak periods, production, load 高峰时期、 最高产量、 最高负荷 * the peak hour, ie when the greatest number of people are travelling to or from work 高峰时间(上下班交通繁忙时间) * peak hours, ie when demand for sth, eg electricity, is highest 高峰时期(如用电的) * peak time, eg when the greatest number of people are watching television 黄金时间(如看电视的) * peak rate, ie highest prices charged at the busiest periods by hotels, airlines, etc 高峰价(旅馆、 班机等在最繁忙时期的收费). Cf 参看 off-peak (off).

  peaked

  adj having a peak 带尖顶的; 带帽舌的: a peaked cap, roof 带帽舌的帽子、 尖的屋顶.

  the Peak District

  area in Derbyshire, England where there are many peaks (peak 1) 皮克区(英格兰德比郡北部行政区, 该处多高峰). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, pages xiv, xv.

  peak

  / pi:k; pik/ v [I] 1 reach the highest point or value 达到高峰; 达到最高值: Toy sales peaked just before Christmas and are now decreasing. 玩具销售额在圣诞节前夕达到最高峰, 现已逐渐下降. * Demand for electricity peaks in the early evening. 用电量最大的时候是在黄昏时. 2 (idm 习语) peak and pine become ill because of grief; waste away (因悲哀)憔悴, 消瘦.

  peaky (-ier, -iest) (also peaked)

  adj (infml 口) ill or pale 憔悴的; 苍白的: look, feel a bit peaky 看上去、 觉得有点虚弱.

  peal

  / pi:l; pil/ n 1 (a) loud ringing of a bell or a set of bells with different notes 响亮的铃声或钟声. (b) one of a number of musical patterns that can be rung on a set of bells (可用编锺演奏的)钟乐. 2 set of bells with different notes tuned to each other 编钟. 3 loud burst of sound 洪亮的响声: a peal of thunder 雷声隆隆 * break into peals of laughter 哈哈大笑.

  peal

  v 1 [I, Ip] ~ (out) sound in a peal 发出响亮的声音; 发出钟乐声: The bells pealed (out) over the countryside. 钟声响彻郊野. 2 [Tn] cause (bells) to ring or sound loudly 使(钟或铃)声音大作: peal the bells to celebrate victory 让钟声齐鸣齐祝胜利.

  pean

  (US) = paean.

  peanut

  / 5pi:nQt; `pi9nQt/ n 1 [C] (a) plant of the pea family bearing edible seeds in pods which ripen underground 落花生; 花生. (b) (also `ground-nut) one of these seeds 花生米; 花生仁. =>illus at nut 见nut插图. 2 peanuts [pl] (sl 俚) very small amount (esp of money) 极少的量(尤指钱): He gets paid peanuts for doing that job. 他那份工作报酬甚微.

  peanut butter

  paste made from roasted ground peanuts, used as a food 花生酱.

  peanut oil

  oil made from peanuts, used in cooking 花生油.

  pear

  / peE(r); pZr/ n 1 sweet juicy yellow or green fruit with a rounded shape that becomes narrower towards the stalk 梨. =>illus at fruit 见 fruit 插图. 2 (also `pear tree) tree on which this grows 梨树.

  pearl

  / p\:l; p[l/ n 1 (a) small, hard, round, silvery-white or bluish-grey lustrous mass that forms inside the shells of some oysters and is of great value as a gem 珍珠: a string of pearls 一串珍珠 * [attrib 作定语] a pearl necklace 珍珠项链. (b) man-made imitation of this 人造珍珠: cultivated pearls 人工养殖的珍珠. 2 thing resembling a pearl in shape or colour (形状或颜色)似珍珠之物: pearls of dew on the grass 草上的露珠. 3 very precious or highly valued person or thing (used esp in the expressions shown) 极宝贵或极有价值的人或事物(尤用於以下示例): a pearl among women 女子中的杰出者 * pearls of wisdom 智慧的结晶. 4 (idm 习语) cast pearls before swine => cast1.

  pearly

  adj (-lier, -liest) of or like a pearl (似)珍珠的: a pearly sheen 珍珠的光泽 * (joc 谑) the Pearly Gates, ie the gates of Heaven 珍珠之门(天国的门). pearlies n [pl] (Brit) traditional costume of some London costermongers, decorated with pearl buttons 伦敦某些小贩在节日穿的缀有珠母钮扣的传统服装. ,pearly `king, ,pearly `queen, (Brit) costermonger/costermonger's wife wearing pearlies 穿著缀有珠母钮扣的节日服装的小贩或小贩的妻子.

  pearl barley

  barley ground into small round grains 珍珠麦(磨成小圆粒的大麦).

  pearl button

  button made from mother-of-pearl 珠母钮扣.

  pearl-diver (also `pearl-fisher, pearler)

  n person who dives or fishes for pearl-oysters 潜水采珠母贝的人.

  pearl-oyster

  n type of oyster in which pearls are found 珠母贝; 珍珠贝.

  pearmain

  / 5peEmeIn; `pZrmen/ n any of several types of apple with a red skin and firm white flesh 一种红皮苹果.

  peasant

  / 5peznt; `pZznt/ n 1 (in the rural areas of some countries) farmer owning or renting a (usu small) piece of land which he cultivates himself (某些国家的)农民(自己有或租有通常为小片土地的耕作者): [attrib 作定语] peasant farming 农作. 2 (formerly) poor agriculturalworker (旧时)贫穷的雇农. 3 (infml derog 口, 贬) person with rough unrefined manners 举止粗鲁的人: He's an absolute peasant. 他是个大老粗.

  peasantry

  / 5pezntrI; `pZzntrI/ n [Gp] (a) all the peasants (of a country) (一国的)农民. (b) peasants as a social group or class 农民阶级.

  pease-pudding

  / 9pi:z5pUdIN; 9piz`pJdIN/ n [C, U] (esp Brit) (dish of) split peas boiled and made into a thick creamy liquid 豌豆布丁(黏稠状餐後甜食).

  peat

  / pi:t; pit/ n [U] plant material partly decomposed by the action of water, esp in marshy places (peat bogs) and used in horticulture or as a fuel 泥煤; 泥炭: a bag, bale of peat 一袋、 一桶泥煤 * [attrib 作定语] a peat fire, ie one in which cut pieces of peat are burned 泥煤火.

  peaty

  adj of, like or containing peat (似)泥煤的; 含泥煤的: peaty soil 泥炭土.

  pebble

  / 5pebl; `pZbl/ n 1 small stone made smooth and round by the action of water, eg in a stream or on the seashore 卵石; 砾石. 2 (idm 习语) not the only pebble on the beach not the only person who matters or who has to be considered 并非唯一要紧的或要考虑的人.

  pebbly

  adj covered with pebbles 多卵石的: a pebbly beach 遍布卵石的海滩.

  pebble-dash

  n [U] (Brit) cement mixed with small pebbles used as a coating for the outside walls of a house (房子外墙的)灰泥卵石涂层.

  pecan

  / 5pi:kEn, pI5kn; ?@ pI5kB:n; pI`kBn/ n 1 pinkish-brown smooth nut with an edible kernel 美洲山核桃. 2 tree on which this grows, a type of hickory from the southern USA 美洲山核桃树.

  peccadillo

  / 9pekE5dIlEU; 9pZkE`dIlo/ n (pl ~es or ~s / -lEUz; -loz/) small unimportant offence or sin 小过失; 轻罪: guilty of some mild peccadillo 有某种小过失.

  peccary

  / 5pekErI; `pZkErI/ n type of wild pig-like animal found in Central and S America 西rui, 美国的一种野猪).

  peck

  / pek; pZk/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Tn] ~ (at sth) (try to) strike (sth) with the beak 啄或焰 (某物): Hens feed by pecking. 母鸡啄食. * birds pecking at the window 啄玻璃窗的鸟儿 * The lamb had been pecked by crows. 那只小羊被乌鸦啄著. * (fig 比喻) peck at one's food, ie (of people) eat very small pieces or eat without appetite (指人)一点一点地吃(或因无食欲而没精打彩地吃). 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] get or make (sth) by striking with the beak 啄到(某物): peck corn 啄粟粒 * The birds pecked a hole in the sack. 鸟儿把袋子啄出一个洞. 3 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (on sth) (infml 口) kiss sb lightly and hurriedly 匆匆轻吻某人: peck sb on the cheek 在某人脸颊上匆匆一吻. 4 (idm 习语) a/the `pecking order (infml 口) system of grading that exists in a group of people, so that some are more important, powerful, etc than others 集体中重要性或势力等的强弱顺序: Newcomers have to accept their position at the bottom of the pecking order. 新来的人论资排辈只好屈居於最底层. 5 (phr v) peck sth out remove sth by pecking 啄出某物: Vultures had pecked out the dead sheep's eyes. 秃鹫啄出了那只死羊的眼睛.

  peck

  n 1 (a) stroke made by pecking 啄. (b) mark or wound made by pecking 啄痕; 啄伤: The parrot gave me a sharp peck on the finger. 鹦鹉把我的手指啄得很疼. 2 (infml 口) hurried kiss 匆匆一吻: She gave her aunt a quick peck on the cheek. 她在姑姑的脸颊上匆匆吻了一下.

  peck

  / pek; pZk/ n (formerly) measure of capacity fordry goods, esp grain, equal to 2 gallons (or approximately 9 litres) (旧时)配克(乾量单位, 尤用以量谷物, 等於2加仑或相当於 9升).

  pecker

  / 5pekE(r); `pZkL/ n 1 (US sl 俚) penis 阴茎. 2 (idm 习语) ,keep one's `pecker up (Brit infml 口) remain cheerful, esp in spite of difficulties 保持乐观(尤指不惧所处的困难).

  peckish

  / 5pekIF; `pZkIF/ adj (infml 口) hungry 饿的: feel a bit peckish 觉得有点饿.

  pectin

  / 5pektIn; `pZktIn/ n [U] (chemistry 化) substance similar to sugar that forms in some fruit when ripe and causes jam to set 果胶.

  pectic

  / 5pektIk; `pZktIk/ adj (a) of or from pectin 果胶的; 得自果胶的. (b) producing pectin 产生果胶的.

  pectoral

  / 5pektErEl; `pZktErEl/ adj 1 of the chest or breast 胸的; 胸部的: pectoral muscles 胸肌 * a pectoral fin 胸鳍. 2 worn on the chest or breast 戴於胸前的: a pectoral cross, ie worn by a bishop 戴在胸前的十字架(主教戴的).

  pectorals

  n [pl] (often joc 常作戏谑语) chest muscles 胸肌.

  angina pectoris

  / An9dVaInE 5pektErIs; An`dVaInE`pZktErIs/ (also angina) n [U] (medical 医) disease of the heart which results in sharp pains in the chest after exertion 心绞痛.

  peculate

  / 5pekjUleIt; `pZkjE9let/ v [I, Tn] (fml 文) take (money) dishonestly, esp from public funds; embezzle 盗用(钱财); (尤指)侵吞, 挪用(公款).

  peculation

  / 9pekjU5leIFn; 9pZkjE`leFEn/ n (a) [U] peculating 盗用; 侵吞; 挪用. (b) [C] instance of this 盗用; 侵吞; 挪用.

  peculiar

  / pI5kju:lIE(r); pI`kjuljL/ adj 1 (a) odd or strange 奇怪的; 奇异的; 罕有的: a peculiar taste, smell, noise, etc 怪异的口味、 气味、 噪音等 * a peculiar feeling that one has been here before 似曾来过这里的奇怪感觉 * My keys have disappeared it's most peculiar! 我的钥匙不见了--这可太奇怪了! Cf 参看 funny peculiar (funny). (b) (of people) eccentric (指人)怪僻的, 古怪的: He's a bit peculiar! 他有点怪! * her rather peculiar behaviour 她那颇古怪的行为. 2 (infml 口) unwell 不舒服的: I'm feeling rather peculiar I think I'll lie down for a while. 我觉得不太舒服--我想躺一会儿. 3 [pred 作表语] ~ to sb/sth (a) belonging only to sb/sth 独有; 独特: an accent peculiar to the north of the region 该地北部独特的口音 * a flavour peculiar to food cooked on an open fire 明火炙烤食物独有的味道 * a species of bird peculiar to Asia 亚洲独有的鸟种. (b) used or practised only by sb/sth 专用的; 特有的: customs peculiar to the 18th century 18世纪特有的风俗习惯 * slang peculiar to medical students 医学院学生的专用俚语. 4 [attrib 作定语] special or particular 专门的; 特别的: a matter of peculiar interest 特别使人感兴趣的事 * his own peculiar way of doing things 他自己专门的做事方法.

  peculiarity

  / pI9kju:lI5ArEtI; pI9kjulI`ArEtI/ n 1 [U] quality of being peculiar(1a) 独特性; 特质. 2 [C] distinctive feature; characteristic 特点; 特色; 特性: These small spiced cakes are a peculiarity of the region. 这些别有风味的小蛋糕是该地的特产. 3 [C] odd or eccentric thing, quality, habit, etc 怪异的事物、 性质、 怪癖等: peculiarities of dress, behaviour, diet, etc 衣著、 行为、 在饮食习惯方面...的怪癖.

  peculiarly

  adv (a) in a peculiar(1b) manner 古怪地; 怪僻地: behave peculiarly 举动古怪. (b) more than usually; especially 异常地; 特殊地; 特别地: a peculiarly annoying noise 特别讨厌的噪音.

  pecuniary

  / pI5kju:nIErI; ?@ -IerI; pI`kjunI9ZrI/ adj (fml 文) of or concerning money 金钱的; 关系钱财的: pecuniary advantage, aid, difficulties 钱财上的好处、 帮助、 困难 * work without pecuniary reward 无偿劳动.

  ped-, pedo-

  (US) = paed(o)-.

  pedagogue (US pedagog)

  / 5pedEgCg; `pZdE9^B^/ n 1 (arch or fml 古或文) teacher 教师. 2 (derog 贬) strict or formal teacher 严厉的教师; 学究式教师.

  pedagogy

  / 5pedEgCdVI; `pZdE9^BdVI/ n [U] study or science of ways and methods of teaching 教育学; 教学法.

  pedagogic / 9pedE5gCdVIk; 9pZdE`^BdVIk/ (also pedagogical / -Ikl; -Ikl/)

  adj of or concerning teaching methods 教学法的.

  pedagogically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv: apedagogically accepted method of testing students' knowledge符合教学法的测验学生知识的方法.

  pedal

  / 5pedl; `pZdl/ n 1 lever that drives a machine (eg a bicycle or sewing-machine) when pressed down by the foot or feet (自行车、 缝纫机等的)踏板, 脚蹬子: [attrib 作定语] a pedal cyclist 骑自行车的人 * a pedal boat, ie one propelled by pedals 用脚踏驱动的船. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xiii. 2 lever or key on a musical instrument (eg a piano, a harp or an organ) operated by the foot (钢琴等的)踏板; (风琴等的)踏瓣: the loud/soft pedal, ie on a piano 钢琴的强音[弱音]踏板. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xi.

  pedal

  v (-ll-; US also -l-) 1 [I] use a pedal or pedals 踩踏板: pedal rapidly to make the machine run smoothly 快速踩踏板好让机器转得平稳. 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] move by pedalling; ride 踩踏板驱动行进; 骑车: pedal fast 踏板踏得快 * pedal down the hill 骑车下山 * pedal along 踩动踏板行进. 3 [Tn, Tn.pr] move or operate (a machine) by pedalling 踩动踏板驱动或操纵(机器): pedal a bicycle across the field 骑自行车越过田野.

  pedal bin

  rubbish bin (usu in a kitchen) with a lid that opens when a pedal is pressed 踏板垃圾桶(踩踏板 开盖式, 通常用於厨房).

  pedal

  / 5pi:dl; `pidl/ adj of or concerning the foot or feet 足的; 脚的.

  pedant

  / 5pednt; `pZdnt/ n (derog 贬) 1 person who attaches too much importance to detail or to rules, esp when learning or teaching 学究; 书呆子. 2 person who values academic knowledge and likes to display his learning 卖弄学问的人.

  pedantic

  / pI5dAntIk; pI`dAntIk/ adj of or like a pedant 学究式的; 书呆子气的; 卖弄学问的: a pedantic insistence on the rules 墨守成规.

  pedantically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  pedantry

  / 5pedntrI; `pZdntrI/ n (a) [U] too much emphasis on formal rules or detail 迂腐; 拘泥. (b) [U] boastful and unnecessary display of learning 卖弄学问; 炫耀知识. (c) [C] instance of this 迂腐; 拘泥; 卖弄学问.

  peddle

  / 5pedl; `pZdl/ v 1 [I] go from house to house to sell goods; be a pedlar 挨家兜售; 沿街叫卖; 做小贩. 2 [Tn, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) try to sell (goods) by going from house to house or by offering them to individual people (挨家)兜售(货物): peddle one's wares 上门推销货物 * be arrested for peddling illegal drugs 因贩毒被捕. =>Usage at sell 用法见sell. 3 [Tn, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) offer (ideas, gossip, etc) to individual people 宣扬, 散播(主张、 流言等): peddle malicious gossip 散播恶毒的流言蜚语 * peddling his crazy plan to other party members 向其他党员宣传他那疯狂的计画.

  peddler

  / 5pedlE(r); `pZdlL/ n 1 (US) = pedlar. 2 person who sells illegal drugs 贩毒者: dope addicts exploited by peddlers 受毒品贩子盘剥的那些吸毒者.

  pederasty (also paederasty)

  / 5pedErAstI; `pZdE9rAstI/ n [U] practice of a man having sexual relations with a boy (男人与男童间的)鸡奸.

  pederast

  / 5pedErAst; `pZdE9rAst/ n man who practisespederasty 鸡奸男童的人.

  pedestal

  / 5pedIstl; `pZdIstl/ n 1 base of a column 柱脚; 柱基. 2 base on which a statue or some other piece of sculpture stands (雕像等的)基座. =>illus 见插图. 3(idm 习语) knock sb off his pedestal/perch => knock2.place, etc sb on a `pedestal admire sb greatly, esp without noticing his faults 崇拜某人(尤指盲目地).

  pedestal table

  table supported on a central column 独腿桌(只中间有一支柱).

  pedestrian

  / pI5destrIEn; pE`dZstrIEn/ n person walking in the street (contrasted with people in vehicles) 行人: Two pedestrians and a cyclist were injured when the car skidded. 汽车打滑时伤了两个行人和一个骑自行车的. Cf 参看 motorist (motor).

  pedestrian

  adj 1 lacking imagination or inspiration; dull 缺乏想像力或灵感的; 平淡的; 沉闷的: a pedestrian description of events that were actually very exciting 对极激动人心的事所作的乏味描叙 * Life in the suburbs can be pretty pedestrian. 郊区生活有时相当沉闷. 2 [attrib 作定语] of or for pedestrians 行人的; 为行人而设的: a pedestrian walkway 人行道.

  pedestrian crossing

  (Brit) (US crosswalk) part of a road specially marked with studs, white lines, etc, where vehicles must stop to allow pedestrians to cross 人行横道. Cf 参看 pelican crossing (pelican), zebra crossing (zebra).

  pedestrian precinct

  part of a town, esp a shopping area, where vehicles may not enter (禁止车辆通行的)行人区(尤指商业区).

  pedi-

  comb form 构词成分 of the feet 足的; 脚的: pedicure.

  pedicel

  / 5pedIsel; `pZdEsl/ (also pedicle / 5pedIkl;`pZdIkl/) n (biology 生) small stalk-like structure in a plant or an animal (植物的)柄; 蒂; 花梗; (动物的)肉茎, 梗节.

  pedicure

  / 5pedIkjUE(r); `pZdIk9jur/ n [C, U] treatment of the feet, esp corns, bunions, etc, and care of the toe-nails, for medical or cosmetic reasons 足部治疗; 修脚. Cf 参看 manicure.

  pedigree

  / 5pedIgri:; `pZdE9^ri/ n 1 (a) [C] line of ancestors 世系: proud of his long pedigree 为其源远流长的世系而骄傲. (b) [U] quality of having this 门第; 出身: people without pedigree 非名门出身的人. 2 [C] (a) table or list of a person's ancestors; family tree 家谱; 系谱. (b) official record of the animals from which an animal has been bred 动物纯种系谱.

  pedigree

  adj [attrib 作定语] (of an animal) descended from a known line of (usu specially chosen) animals of the same breed; pure bred (指动物的)纯种的: [attrib 作定语] pedigree cattle, dogs, horses, etc 纯种的牛、 狗、 马等.

  pediment

  / 5pedImEnt; `pZdEmEnt/ n (architecture 建) (usu) triangular part above the entrance of a building, first used in the buildings of ancient Greece (通常为)三角楣饰(最初用於古希腊的建筑物上). =>illus at column 见 column 插图.

  pedlar (US peddler)

  / 5pedlE(r); `pZdlL/ n (esp formerly) person who travels from place to place selling goods at fairs, etc (尤指旧时的)流动小贩

  ped-, pedo-

  (US) = paed(o)-.

  pedometer

  / pI5dCmItE(r); pI`dBmEtL/ n instrument that measures the distance a person walks by recording the number of steps taken 计步器; 步程计.

  pee

  / pi:; pi/ v [I, Ipr] (infml 口) urinate 撒尿: a dog peeing against a fence 对著篱笆撒尿的狗.

  pee

  n (infml 口) (a) [U] urine 尿. (b) [sing] act of urinating 撒尿: go for/have a quick pee 去小便.

  peek

  / pi:k; pik/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (at sth) look quickly and often secretively (at sth) 匆匆地(常为秘密地)看(某物); 偷看; 窥视: No peeking! 禁止窥视! * peek over the fence 向篱笆那边瞥一眼 * peek at sb's diary 偷看某人的日记. Cf 参看 peep1 1, peer2.

  peek

  n [sing] quick (often sly) glance 匆匆的(常为诡秘的)一瞥; 偷看; 窥视: take a peek at what was hidden in the cupboard 偷眼看了一下柜子里藏著的东西.

  peekaboo

  / 9pi:kE5bu:; `pikE9bu/ (Brit also peepbo / 5pi:pbEU; `pipbo/) interj, n [U] (exclamation used in a) game played to amuse young children, in which one hides one's face and then uncovers it 躲躲猫(把脸一隐一现逗乐小儿的游戏); 做这种游戏时发出的声音.

  peel

  / pi:l; pil/ v 1 (a) [Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (for sb) take the skin off (fruit, etc) 除掉(水果等)的皮: peel a banana, an apple, a potato, etc 剥香蕉皮、 削苹果皮、 刮土豆皮 * Would you peel me an orange? 给我剥个橙子行吗? (b) [Ip, Tn.p] ~ (sth) away/off (cause skin, etc on a surface to) be removed (使外皮等)剥落: peel away the outer layer 剥掉外层 * The label will peel off if you soak it in water. 那标签用水浸湿即可脱落. (c) [I] have a skin or outer layer which comes off 脱皮; 外层脱落: These oranges peel easily. 这些橙子的皮好剥. 2 (a) [I, Ip] ~ (off) (of a covering) come off in strips or flakes (指覆盖层)剥落, 脱落: The wallpaper is peeling (off). 壁纸正在剥落. * After sunbathing, my skin began to peel. 我作了日光浴後, 皮肤有些脱落了. * The bark of plane trees peels off regularly. 悬铃木的树皮到时候就脱落. (b) [I] (of a surface) lose its covering in strips or flakes (指表面)脱皮, 剥落: My face is peeling. 我的脸脱皮了. * The walls have begun to peel. 墙皮已开始剥落了. 3 (idm 习语) keep one's eyes peeled/skinned =>eye1. 4 (phr v) peel off (of cars, aircraft, etc) leave a group and turn to one side (指汽车、 飞行器等)离队转向一侧: One squadron peeled off to attack enemy bombers. 一中队战机脱离编队攻击敌轰炸机群. peel (sth) off (infml 口) remove (one's clothes), esp when one is hot or before exercise 脱掉(衣服)(尤指因热或於运动前): peel off and dive into the sea 脱掉衣服跳进大海 * peel off one's jumper 脱下毛衣.

  peel

  n [U] outer covering or skin of fruit, vegetables, etc (蔬菜、 水果等的)皮: lemon peel 柠檬皮 * candied peel, ie peel of oranges, lemons, etc coated in sugar 蜜饯果皮. Cf 参看 rind, skin 4, zest 3.

  peeler

  n (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) device for peeling (fruit, etc) (水果等的)剥皮机, 削皮器: a po`tato peeler 马铃薯削皮器.

  peelings

  / 5pi:lINz; `pilINz/ n [pl] (esp of fruit and vegetables) parts peeled off (尤指水果和蔬菜)削下或剥下的皮.

  peep

  / pi:p; pip/ v [I, Ipr, Ip] 1 ~ (at sth) look quickly and slyly or cautiously (at sth) 匆匆地(且诡秘地或小心地)看(某物); 偷看; 窥视: peep at a secret document 偷看秘密文件 * be caught peeping through the keyhole 贴近锁眼窥视被当场抓住. Cf 参看 peek, peer2. 2 (of light) appear through a narrow opening (指光)通过细孔透入: daylight peeping through the curtains 穿过窗帘的阳光. 3 appear slowly or partly 慢慢露出; 部分出现: The moon peeped out from behind the clouds. 月亮从云层中隐现. * green shoots peeping up through the soil 慢慢破土而出的绿芽.

  peep

  n 1 (esp sing 尤作单数) short quick look, esp a secret or sly one 一瞥(尤指秘密的或诡秘的); 偷看; 窥视: have a peep through the window 隔著窗户偷看 * take a peep at the baby asleep in her cot 悄悄地看看小床里熟睡的孩子. 2 (idm 习语) peep of `day first light of day; dawn 晨曦; 破晓.

  peeper

  n (usu pl 通常作复数) (sl 俚) eye 眼睛.

  peep-hole

  n small opening in a wall, door, curtain, etc through which one may peep at sth 窥孔.

  Peeping Tom

  (derog 贬) person who likes to spy on people when they do not know they are being watched; voyeur 爱偷看他人活动的人; 有窥淫癖的人.

  peep-show

  n exhibition of small pictures in a box, which are viewed through a magnifying lens placed in a small opening 西洋景; 西洋镜.

  peep

  / pi:p; pip/ n 1 [C] short weak high sound made by mice, young birds, etc; squeak (鼠、 小鸟等的)吱吱声, 啾啾声. 2 [C] (also peep `peep) (imitation of the) sound of a car's horn (模拟的)汽车的喇叭声. 3 [sing] (infml 口) sound made by sb, esp sth said 人声; (尤指)人语声: I haven't heard a peep out of the children for an hour. 有一个小时我没听见孩子们出声了.

  peep

  v [I] make a peep 作吱吱声或啾啾声; 发出(模拟的)汽车喇叭声; (指人)出声.

  peepul

  = pipal.

  peer

  / pIE(r); pIr/ n 1 (a) [C] person who is equal to another in rank, status or merit (官阶、 等级、 地位或功绩)同等的人: It will not be easy to find his peer. 很不容易找到像他那样的人. * be judged by one's peers 受到与自己地位相同的人的评价. (b) [C usu pl 通常作复数] person who is the same age as another 同龄人: He doesn't spend enough time with his peers. 他不大与其同龄人交往. 2 [C] (in Britain) male member of one of the ranks of nobility (eg duke, marquis, earl, viscount, baron) (在英国)有爵位的男子(如公、 侯、 伯、 子、 男等贵族): a `life peer 终身为贵族的男子.

  peerage

  / 5pIErIdV; `pIrIdV/ n 1 [Gp] the whole body of peers 贵族(总称): elevate/raise sb to the peerage, ie make sb a peer or peeress 封某人为贵族. 2 [C] rank of a peer 贵族的爵位: inherit a peerage 承袭贵族的爵位. 3 [C] book containing a list of the peers and details of their ancestry 贵族名册(记载所有贵族家谱的).

  peeress

  / 5pIEres; `pIrIs/ n (a) female peer 女贵族. (b) wife or widow of a peer 贵族的夫人或遗孀.

  peerless

  adj superior to all others; without equal 无与匹敌的; 无双的.

  peer group

  group of people of approximately the same age or status 年龄或地位相近的人: mix with one's peer group 与自己类似的人交往.

  peer of the realm

  (in Britain) hereditary peer with the right to sit in the House of Lords (在英国)可成为上议院议员的世袭贵族.

  peer

  / pIE(r); pIr/ v [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (at sth/sb) look closely or carefully, esp as if unable to see well 仔细看(尤指似因看不清): peer shortsightedly 因近视而仔细看 * peer at sb over one's spectacles 戴著眼镜认真打量某人 * peer into the mist 向雾中张望 * peer out of the window/over the wall/through a gap 凝视窗外[隔墙细看/从缝隙中窥视]. =>Usage at look1 用法见look1. Cf 参看 peek, peep1 1.

  peeve

  / pi:v; piv/ v [Tn] (infml 口) annoy (sb); put (sb) in a bad temper 惹恼(某人); 惹(某人)发脾气: It peeves me to be ordered out of my own house. 命令我从自己的家中出去, 真太气人了.

  peeved

  adj ~ (about sth) (infml 口) annoyed 生气的; 恼怒的: He looks very peeved about something. 他好像对什麽事很生气.

  peevish

  / 5pi:vIF; `pivIF/ adj easily annoyed (esp by unimportant things); irritable 易怒的(尤指对小事); 急躁的.

  peevishly

  adj.

  peevishness

  n [U].

  peewit (also pewit)

  / 5pi:wIt; `piwIt/ n = lapwing.

  peg

  / peg; pZ^/ n 1 wooden, metal or plastic pin or bolt, usu narrower at one end than the other, used to hold things together, to hang things on, to mark a position, etc (木、 金属或塑料的)钉, 栓, 销, 挂钉, 短桩. 2 (a) pin fastened to a wall or door, on which hats and coats may be hung 挂衣帽的钩或钉: a hat/coat peg 挂帽钉[挂衣钩]. (b) (also `tent-peg) pin hammered into the ground to hold one of the ropes of a tent in place 系帐篷的桩. =>illus 见插图. (c) pin used to mark a position, eg on a piece of land 界桩(如在地界上的): a surveyor's peg 测标. 3 small wooden or metal pin or bolt used to fasten together esp pieces of wood (木或金属的)小钉,小栓. 4 = clothes-peg (clothes). 5 (also `tuning peg) any of several wooden screws for tightening or loosening tension in the strings of a violin, etc (提琴等上的)琴轸, 琴栓. 6 piece of wood used to seal the vent in a barrel, etc (桶等的)孔塞. 7 (also peg-leg) (infml 口) (a) artificial leg, usu wooden 假腿(通常为木制的). (b) person with an artificial leg 装有假腿的人. 8 (idm习语) a peg to hang sth on reason, excuse or opportunity for (doing) sth (做)某事的理由、 藉口或机会: a minor offence which provided a peg to hang their attack on 给人以攻击口实的小过失. off the `peg (of clothes) not made to measure; ready-made (指衣服)现成的: buy a suit off the peg 买一套成衣 * [attrib 作定语] an off-the-peg suit 一套成衣. a square peg => square1. ,take sb `down a peg (or two) make (a proud or conceited person) more humble 煞(傲慢或自负者)的傲气、 锐气或威风.

  peg-board

  n (a) [C, U] (type of) board with holes in, on which things may be fastened or hung with pegs or hooks for display, etc (有孔的)展览板(可供挂物或展示物品用). (b) [C] board with holes in, into which pegs may be inserted, esp for a game or as a toy 插孔游戏板

  peg

  / peg; pZ^/ v (-gg-) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] fasten (sth) with pegs 用钉或桩等固定(某物): peg a tent 用桩固定帐篷 * peg the clothes (out) on the line 把衣服用衣夹夹在晾衣绳上 * peg sth in place 用钉子将某物固定住. 2 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (at sth) fix or keep (wages or prices) at a certain level 使(工资或价格)固定或维持在某水平上: Pay increases were pegged at five per cent. 工资增长率已限制在百分之五. 3 (idm 习语) level pegging => level1. 4 (phr v) peg away (at sth) (infml 口) work hard and persistently 坚持不懈努力工作: He's been pegging away at his thesis for months. 他写论文已经忙了几个月了. peg sb down (to sth) force or persuade sb to be specific or make a definite promise; pin sb down 迫使或说服某人表态、 落实或承诺: I pegged him down to a price for the work. 我已经让他把那作品的价钱定妥.

  peg sth down

  fix sth in place with pegs 用钉或桩固定某物: have difficulty pegging the tent down in a storm 在暴风雨中固定帐篷有困难. peg out (infml 口) die 死. peg sth out (a) mark (an area of land) with pegs 用界桩标出(地段): peg out a claim, ie mark out the land of which one claims ownership 用界桩标出认为是属於自己的地段. (b) (esp in the game of cribbage) show (a score) by putting pegs in a board (尤指在一种纸牌游戏中)用木钉插在板上记(分).

  pejorative

  / pI5dVCrEtIv; ?@ -5dVR:r- or, rarely, 罕读作5pi:dVErEtIv; pI`dVRrEtIv/ adj (fml 文) expressing criticismor scorn; derogatory; disparaging 贬抑的; 贬损的; 轻蔑的: pejorative remarks, comments, words, etc 贬抑的言语、 评语、 词语等.

  pejoratively

  adv.

  peke

  / pi:k; pik/ n (infml 口) Pekinese 北京狗; 狮子狗; 哈叭狗.

  Pekinese (also Pekingese)

  / 9pi:kI5ni:z; 9pikIn`iz/ n (pl unchanged or ~s 复数或不变或作 Pekineses) small dog with short legs and long silky hair, originally from China 北京狗, 狮子狗, 哈叭狗(原产中国). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page iii.

  pekoe

  / 5pi:kEU; `piko/ n [U] type of high-quality tea made from the young buds of the tea plant 白毫(用茶树嫩叶制的高级茶).

  pelagic

  / pE5lAdVIk; pE`lAdVIk/ adj (fml 文) (a) (of fishing, whaling, etc) carried out on the open sea (指捕鱼、 捕鲸等)在公海进行的, 远洋的. (b) (of fish, etc) living near the surface of the open sea (指鱼等)栖居於海洋上层的, 浮游的.

  pelican

  / 5pelIkEn; `pZlIkEn/ n large water-bird with a pouch under its long bill for storing food 鹈胡鸟; 淘河.

  pelican crossing

  pedestrian crossing with traffic lights that are operated by pedestrians 交通指挥灯由行人控制的人行横道. Cf 参看 pedestrian crossing (pedestrian), zebra crossing (zebra).

  pell-mell

  / 9pel5mel; `pZl`mZl/ adv 1 in a hurrying, disorderly manner; headlong 匆忙地; 杂乱地; 仓促地: The children rushed pell-mell down the stairs. 孩子们乱哄哄地冲下楼去. 2 in disorder; untidily 乱糟糟地; 杂乱地: The books were scattered pell-mell over the floor. 书本凌乱地散置在地上.

  pellagra

  / pE5lAgrE, -5leIg-; pE`lAgrE, -`le^-/ n [U] (medical 医) disease that causes cracking of the skin and often leads to insanity 糙皮病.

  pellet

  / 5pelIt; `pZlIt/ n 1 small tightly-packed ball of a soft material such as bread or wet paper, made eg by rolling it between the fingers (面包或湿纸等的)小团, 小球, 小丸(如用手指捻成的): paper pellets 纸团. 2 small pill 小药丸. 3 small piece of shot1(5), esp for firing from an airgun 小弹丸(尤指气枪的).

  pellucid

  / pe5lu:sId; pE`lusId/ adj (fml 文) 1 transparentor translucent; very clear 透明的, 半透明的; 清澈的. 2 (fig 比喻) (of style, meaning, etc) very clear (指文体、 意义等)清晰的, 清通的.

  pelmet

  / 5pelmIt; `pZlmIt/ (also esp US valance) n strip of wood, cloth, etc placed above a window to hide a curtain rail 窗帘盒; 窗帘短帷.

  pelota

  / pE5lEUtE; pE`lotE/ n [U] game played in Spain, Latin America and the Philippines, in which the players use a long basket strapped to the wrist to hit a ball against a wall 回力球(西班牙、 拉丁美洲和菲律宾的一种球类运动).

  pelt

  / pelt; pZlt/ n skin of an animal, esp with the fur or hair still on it 动物的皮; (尤指)毛皮: beaver pelts 海狸皮.

  pelt

  / pelt; pZlt/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (with sth); ~ sth (at sb) throw sth at sb repeatedly in order to attack him 为攻击某人而连续投掷某物: pelt sb with snowballs, stones, rotten tomatoes, etc 向某人投掷雪球、 石子、 烂西红柿等 * The crowd pelted bad eggs at the speaker. 群众纷纷向演讲人扔臭鸡蛋. 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (down) (of rain, etc) fall very heavily; beat down (指雨等)下得很大, 滂沱: It was pelting with rain. 大雨如注. * The rain was pelting down. 大雨倾盆. * hail pelting on the roof 冰雹打在屋顶上. 3 (idm 习语) full pelt/tilt/speed => full. 4 (phr v) pelt along, down, up, etc (sth) run very fast in the specified direction 向某方向飞跑: pelting down the hill 飞跑下山.

  pelvis

  / 5pelvIs; `pZlvIs/ n (pl ~es / 5pelvIsIz; `pZlvIsIz/ or pelves / 5pelvi:z; `pZlviz/) (anatomy 解) basin-shaped framework of bones at the lower end of the body, containing the bladder, rectum, etc 骨盆. =>illus at skeleton 见skeleton||skeleton>>插图.

  pelvic

  / 5pelvIk; `pZlvIk/ adj of or relating to the pelvis 骨盆的; 关於骨盆的.

  pemmican

  / 5pemIkEn; `pZmIkEn/ n [U] dried meat beaten and made into cakes (originally by N American Indians) 乾肉饼(源於北美印第安人制法).

  pen

  / pen; pZn/ n 1 [C] (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) instrument for writing with ink, consisting of a pointed piece of split metal, a metal ball, etc, fixed into a metal or plastic holder (用有颜色液体书写的)笔; 钢笔; 圆珠笔: fountain pen 自来水笔 * ball-point pen 圆珠笔 * felt-tip pen 毡头笔. 2 [sing] writing, esp as a profession 写作(尤指职业性的): He lives by his pen. 他靠写作为生. 3 (idm 习语) the ,pen is ,mightier than the `sword (saying 谚) poets, thinkers, etc, affect human affairs more than soldiers do 笔墨胜刀剑. put ,pen to `paper (fml 文) (start to) write sth, eg a letter (开始)写(信等). a slip of the pen/tongue => slip1.

  pen

  v (-nn-) [Tn] (fml 文) write (a letter, etc) 写(信等): She penned a few words of thanks. 她写了几句致谢的话.

  pen-and-ink

  adj [esp attrib 尤作定语] drawnwith a pen 用钢笔画的: pen-and-ink drawings, sketches, illustrations, etc 钢笔画的画、 素描、 插图等.

  pen-friend (also esp US `pen-pal)

  n person with whom one builds a friendship by exchanging letters, esp sb in a foreign country whom one has never met 笔友.

  penknife (also `pocket-knife)

  n (pl -knives) small knife with one or more blades that fold down into the handle, usu carried in the pocket 小摺刀. =>illus at knife 见knife插图.

  pen-name

  n name used by a writer instead of his real name; pseudonym 笔名.

  pen-pusher

  n (infml derog 口, 贬) person (esp a clerk) whose job involves a lot of boring paperwork 做大量单调文书工作的人(如文员).

  pen-pushing

  n [U] (infml derog 口, 贬) boring paperwork 乏味的文书工作.

  pen

  / pen; pZn/ n 1 small piece of land surrounded by a fence, esp for keeping cattle, sheep, poultry, etc in (牛、 羊、 家禽等的)圈, 围栏: a `sheep-pen 羊圈. 2 bomb-proof shelter for submarines (潜艇用的)防空隐蔽坞.

  pen

  v (-nn-) (phr v) pen sb/sth in/up shut sb/sth in, or as if in, a pen 将某人[某物](宛如)关入围栏中: pen up the chickens for the night 把鸡关进鸡棚过夜 * She feels penned in by her life as a housewife. 她觉得做家庭主妇很受束缚.

  pen

  / pen; pZn/ n (US infml 口) penitentiary (联邦或州的)监狱.

  Pen

  abbr 缩写 = (esp on a map) Peninsula (尤指地图上的标记)半岛.

  penal

  / 5pi:nl; `pinl/ adj [esp attrib 尤作定语] 1 of, relating to or used for punishment, esp by law (有关或用作)处罚的, (尤指)刑罚的: penal laws, reforms 刑法、 刑法改革 * a `penal colony/settlement, ie a place where criminals are sent as a punishment 罪犯流放地 * penal taxation, ie taxation which is so heavy that it seems like a punishment 繁重的课税(重如惩罚). 2 punishable by law 应受刑罚的: a penal offence 刑事罪.

  penally

  / 5pi:nElI; `pinlI/ adv.

  penal code

  system of laws relating to crime and its punishment 刑法典.

  penal servitude

  (Brit law 律) (formerly) punishment in which sb is sent to prison and forced to do hard physical work (旧时)劳役刑, 劳役监禁.

  penalize, penalise

  / 5pi:nElaIz; `pinl9aIz/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ sb (for sth) punish sb for breaking a rule or law, esp (in games and sports) by giving an advantage to his opponent (因犯规或违法)处罚某人; (尤指比赛中)判罚: People who drive when they are drunk should be heavily penalized. 对酒醉开车者应予重罚. * He was penalized for a foul on the striker, eg A free kick was awarded to the striker's team. 他因对前锋犯规而受罚(如对方球队获踢任意球). 2 [Tn] put (sb) at a disadvantage; handicap (sb) unfairly 使(某人)处不利地位; 不正当地妨碍(某人): The new law penalizes the poorest members of society. 新法规对社会中最贫困者不 利. 3 [Tn] make (sth) punishable by law 使(某事)可以刑法论处.

  penalization

  / 9pi:nElaI5zeIFn; ?@ -lI5z-;9pinlI`zeFEn/ n [U].

  penalty

  / 5penltI; `pZnltI/ n 1 ~ (for sth) (a) punishment for breaking a law, rule or contract 刑罚; 处罚; 惩罚: It is part of the contract that there is a penalty for late delivery. 合同中有延迟交货的惩罚规定. (b) thing imposed as a punishment, eg imprisonment or a fine施加的惩罚(如监禁、 罚款): the `death penalty 死刑 * It is an offence to travel without a valid ticket penalty 100. 无有效票证乘搭交通工具--违章罚款100英镑. * The maximum penalty for this crime is 10 years' imprisonment. 这种罪行的最高刑罚是10年监禁. 2 disadvantage, suffering or inconvenience caused by an action or a circumstance (行为或处境造成的)不利、 苦恼或不便: One of the penalties of fame is loss of privacy. 成名的弊端之一是失去了私人活动自由. 3 (a) (in sports and games) disadvantage imposed on a player or team as a punishment for breaking a rule, esp (in football) a free shot at goal by the opposing team (运动和竞赛等的)处罚(尤指足球中罚任意球): The referee awarded a penalty to the home team. 裁判判给主队罚对方任意球. (b) (in football) goal scored with a penalty kick (足球)罚球得分. 4 (idm 习语) on/under pain/penalty of sth => pain. pay the penalty => pay2.

  penalty area

  (in football) area in front of the goal within which a foul by the defenders is punished by the award of a penalty kick to the attacking team (足球)罚球区. =>illus at Association football (association) 见Association football (association)插图.

  penalty clause

  part of a contract stating that money must be paid if sb breaks the contract 合同中违约罚款的规定.

  penalty kick

  (in football) free kick at the goal awarded to the attacking team for a foul committed in the penalty area (足球)罚点球

  penance

  / 5penEns; `pZnEns/ n 1 [C, U] ~ (for sth) punishment that one imposes on oneself to show that one is sorry for having done wrong (表示忏悔的)自我惩罚: an act of penance 自惩 * do penance (ie perform an act that shows one is sorry) for one's sins 为赎罪进行自我惩罚 * (joc 谑) She made him do the washing-up as (a) penance for forgetting her birthday. 因为他把她生日忘了, 所以她罚他洗碗. 2 [U] (in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches) sacrament that includes confession, absolution and an act of penance imposed by the priest (天主教和东正教的)补赎圣事, 告解圣事, 修和圣事.

  pence

  pl of penny.

  penchant

  / 5pB:nFB:n; ?@ 5pentFEnt; `pZntFEnt/ n (French 法) ~ for sth liking or taste for sth 爱好; 嗜好: She has a penchant for Indian food. 她爱吃印度食物.

  pencil

  / 5pensl; `pZnsl/ n 1 (a) [C] instrument for drawing or writing with, consisting of a thin stick of graphite or coloured chalk enclosed in a cylinder of wood or fixed in a metal case 铅笔: [attrib 作定语] a pencil drawing 铅笔画. (b) [U] writing done with a pencil 铅笔字: Should I sign my name in pencil or ink? 我用铅笔还是用钢笔签字? * Pencil rubs out easily. 铅笔写的容易擦掉. 2 [C] (usu in compounds 通常用以构成复合词) thing used or shaped like a pencil 用途或形状似笔之物: an `eyebrow pencil, ie a stick of cosmetic material used by women to darken the eyebrows 眉笔.

  pencil

  v (-ll-; US -l-) 1 [Tn] write, draw or mark (sth) with a pencil 用铅笔写、 画或标记(某物): She pencilled the rough outline of a house. 她用铅笔画出房子的轮廓图. * pencilled eyebrows 描过的眉毛. 2 (phr v) pencil sth in write (a suggested date, arrangement, etc) provisionally in a diary 在日志中临时记下(建议的日期、 安排等): Let's pencil in 3 May for the meeting. 我们把会议日期暂定为5月3日吧.

  pencil-case

  n small bag, box, etc for holding pencils and pens 铅笔盒; 铅笔袋.

  pencil-sharpener

  n device for sharpening pencils 削铅笔器.

  pendant

  / 5pendEnt; `pZndEnt/ n 1 ornament that hangs from a chain worn round the neck (项链上的)垂饰. 2 piece of decorated glass hanging from a chandelier (枝形吊灯的)玻璃垂饰物. 3 = pennant.

  pendent

  / 5pendEnt; `pZndEnt/ adj (fml 文) hanging from sth 下垂的; 悬挂著的.

  pending

  / 5pendIN; `pZndIN/ adj [pred 作表语] (fml 文) (a) waiting to be decided or settled 待决; 未决: The lawsuit was then pending. 那件讼案因而尚未解决. (b) about to happen; imminent 即将发生; 逼近: A decision on this matter is pending. 此事即将作出决定.

  pending

  prep (fml 文) (a) while waiting for (sth); until 在等待(某事物)之际; 直至: She was held in custody pending trial. 她被拘留候审. (b) during (sth) 在(某事)期间: pending the negotiations 谈判期间.

  pendulous

  / 5pendjUlEs; ?@ -dVUlEs; `pZndVElEs/ adj (fml 文) hanging down loosely so as to swing from side to side 下垂的; 悬垂而摇摆不定的: pendulous breasts 松垂的乳房.

  pendulum

  / 5pendjUlEm; ?@ -dVUlEm; `pZndVElEm/ n 1 weight hung on a cord from a fixed point so that it can swing freely 摆; 摆锤. 2 rod with a weight at the bottom that regulates the mechanism of a clock 钟摆. =>illus 见插图. 3 (idm 习语) the swing of the pendulum => swing2.

  penetrable

  / 5penItrEbl; `pZnEtrEbl/ adj (fml 文) that can be penetrated 可被穿过的; 可被充满的; 可被看穿的; 可深刻理解的.

  penetrability

  / 9penItrE5bIlEtI;9pZnEtrE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  penetrate

  / 5penItreIt; `pZnE9tret/ v 1 [Ipr, Tn] ~ (into/through) sth make a way into or through sth 进入或穿过某物: Our troops have penetrated (into) enemy territory. 我部队已深入到敌占区. * The mist penetrated (into) the room. 雾已渗入室内. * The heavy rain had penetrated right through her coat. 大雨湿透了她的大衣. * (fig 比喻) The cat's sharp claws penetrated (ie pierced) my skin. 猫的尖爪刺进了我的皮层. * The party has been penetrated (ie infiltrated) by extremists. 有些极端分子已打入该党. * A shrill cry penetrated the silence. 一声尖叫划破了寂静. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ sb/sth (with sth) fill or spread through sb/sth 充满; 遍布: Cold horror penetrated her whole being. 她吓得浑身发凉. 3 [Tn] see or show a way into or through (sth) 看穿或透过(某事物): Our eyes could not penetrate the darkness. 我们的眼睛在黑暗中看不见东西. * The headlamps penetrated the fog. 车的前灯的光射进雾中.* (fig 比喻) We soon penetrated his disguise, ie saw who he really was. 我们很快看穿了他的伪装. 4 [Tn] understand or discover (sth) 洞察或发现(某事物): It was impossible to penetrate the mystery. 那奥秘无法揭穿. * He penetrated their thoughts. 他了解他们的想法. 5 [I, Tn] be fully understood or realized (by sb) 被(他人)充分理解或领悟: I explained the problem to him several times but it didn't seem to penetrate. 那问题我向他解释多次, 他似无所悟. * Nothing we say penetrates his thick skull! 无论我们说什麽他都不懂!

  penetrating

  adj 1 having or showing the ability to think and understand quickly and deeply 思想敏锐的; 有洞察力的: a penetrating mind, question, thinker 敏捷的头脑、 尖锐的问题、 有洞察力的思想家 * a penetrating look, glance, stare, etc 深明其意的目光、 一瞥、 注视等. 2 (of a voice or sound) loud and carrying; piercing (指声音)响亮的, 尖锐的: a penetrating cry, shriek, yell, etc 刺耳的哭喊、 尖叫、 叫喊等.

  penetratingly

  adv.

  penetration

  / 9penI5treIFn; 9pZnE`treFEn/ n [U] 1 (action or process of) penetrating 进入; 穿过; 充满; 看穿; 洞察; 领悟: our penetration of the enemy's defences 我军对敌人防线的突破. 2 ability to think and understandquickly and deeply 洞察力; 领悟力: the penetration of her mind/her powers of penetration 她的悟性.

  penetrative

  / 5penItrEtIv; ?@ -treItIv; `pZnE9tretIv/ adj 1 that can penetrate 有穿透力的; 能将他物充满的; 有看穿能力的; 有洞察力的; 有领悟力的. 2 (of sb's mind, thoughts, etc) astute (指人的头脑、 想法等)精明的, 敏锐的: a penetrative analysis 精辟的分析.

  penguin

  / 5peNgwIn; `pZN^wIn/ n black and white sea-bird living in the Antarctic, with webbed feet and wings like flippers that are used for swimming 企鹅.

  penicillin

  / 9penI5sIlIn; 9pZnI`sIlIn/ n [U] substance obtained from mould fungi, used as an antibiotic drug to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria 青霉素; 盘尼西林.

  peninsula

  / pE5nInsjUlE; ?@ -nsElE; pE`nInsElE/ n area of land almost surrounded by water or projecting far into the sea 半岛: the Iberian peninsula, ie Spain and Portugal 伊比利亚半岛(即西班牙和葡萄牙所在地).

  peninsular

  / -lE(r); -lL/ adj of or like a peninsula (似)半岛的.

  penis

  / 5pi:nIs; `pinIs/ n organ with which a male animal copulates and (in mammals) urinates 阴茎. =>illus at male 见 male 插图.

  penitence

  / 5penItEns; `pZnEtEns/ n [U] ~ (for sth) sorrow or regret for having done sth wrong 悔过; 悔罪; 忏悔: show penitence for one's sins 对罪过表示忏悔.

  penitent

  / 5penItEnt; `pZnEtEnt/ adj feeling or showing regret or remorse for having done sth wrong 後悔的; 悔罪的; 忏悔的: a penitent sinner 悔悟的罪人.

  penitent

  n (religion 宗) penitent person, esp one who is doing penance(2) 悔罪者; 忏悔者; (尤指)告解者.

  penitently

  adv.

  penitential

  / 9penI5tenFl; 9pZnE`tZnFEl/ adj of or relatingto penitence or penance 忏悔的; 悔过的; 悔罪的; 苦行赎罪的.

  penitentially

  / -FElI; -FElI/ adv.

  penitentiary

  / 9penI5tenFErI; 9pZnE`tZnFErI/ n (US) federalor state prison for people who have committed serious crimes (联邦或州的)监狱.

  penitentiary

  adj (a) of or relating to penance 自我惩罚的; 赎罪的. (b) of or relating to treatment intendedto reform offenders 感化的.

  penmanship

  / 5penmEnFIp; `pZnmEn9FIp/ n [U] skill or style in writing or in handwriting 书写的技巧或风格; 书法.

  pennorth

  / 5penEW; `pZnLW/ n [sing] (infml 口) = pennyworth (penny).

  pennant

  / 5penEnt; `pZnEnt/ (also pendant, pennon) n (a) long narrow flag tapering to a point, used on a ship for signalling or as identification (船上用作信号或识别标志的)长三角旗. =>illus at flag 见flag插图. (b) (US) flag of this shape used as a school banner or as the symbol of a sports championship (长三角形的)校旗, 锦标旗.

  penniless

  / 5penIlIs; `pZnIlIs/ adj having no money; very poor; destitute 一文不名的; 赤贫如洗的: a penniless old man 穷老头.

  pennon

  / 5penEn; `pZnEn/ n 1 long narrow triangular or swallow-tailed flag, originally used by a knight on his lance 狭长三角旗, 燕尾旗(原为骑士所执长矛上的饰物). 2 = pennant.

  penny

  / 5penI; `pZnI/ n (pl pence / pens; pZns/ or pennies / 5penIz; `pZnIz/) 1 (abbr 缩写 p) (since decimal coinage was introduced in 1971) British bronze coin worth one hundredth of a pound 便士(英国黄铜硬币, 自1971年实行十进位制後, 其值为一英镑的百分之一): Potatoes are 20 pence a pound. 土豆每磅20便士. * These pencils cost 40p each. 这些铅笔每枝40便士. 2 (abbr 缩写 d) former British bronze coin worth one twelfth of a shilling, in use until 1971 便士(为英国黄铜硬币, 1971年以前其值为一先令的十二分之一). 3 (US infml 口) cent 分(钱币单位). 4 (idm 习语) be two/ten a `penny (a) be very cheap 非常便宜. (b) be numerous and easy to obtain 多而易得. earn/turn an honest penny => honest. ,in for a `penny, ,in for a `pound (saying 谚) having started to do sth, it is worth spending as much time or money as is necessary to complete it 既已开始, 应该完成; 一不做, 二不休. the `penny drops (infml 口 esp Brit) sb now understands or realizes sth that he had not understood or realized before 原来如此; 恍然大悟: I had to explain the problem to her several times before the penny finally dropped. 那问题我给她解释了好几次, 最後她才明白. a ,penny for your `thoughts (catchphrase 警语) (used to ask sb what he is thinking about 用以问某人在想什麽). ,penny `wise (and) ,pound `foolish careful about spending small amounts of money but reckless about spending large sums of money 小处节约, 大处浪费. a pretty penny => pretty. spend a penny => spend. turn up like a bad `penny (infml 口) (habitually) appear when one is unwelcome or unwanted (不受欢迎的或讨厌的人)又来了.

  penny farthing

  old type of bicycle with a large front wheel and a small back wheel 旧式的前轮大後轮小的自行车.

  penny-pincher

  (infml 口) mean person; miser 小气鬼; 吝啬鬼. `penny-pinching adj miserly 吝啬的; 小气的. n [U] miserliness 吝啬; 小气.

  pennyweight

  n unit of weight equal to 24 grains 本尼威特(金衡单位, 等於 24 格令).

  penny whistle

  = tin whistle (tin).

  pennyworth

  / 5penIwEW; `pZnI9w[W/ (also pennorth) n [sing] as much as can be bought for a penny 一便士之值; 值一便士之物.

  penology

  / pi:5nClEdVI; pi`nBlEdVI/ n [U] study of crime and its punishment, and the management of prisons 刑罚学; 监狱管理学.

  pension

  / 5penFn; `pZnFEn/ n [C, U] sum of money paid regularly by the State to people above a certain age and to widowed or disabled people, or by an employer to a retired employee 养老金; 抚恤金; 退休金: an old-age `pension 养老金 * a retirement pension 退休金 * an army pension 军队发放的抚恤金 * draw one's pension, eg obtain it regularly from a Post Office 领取退休金(如定期到邮局领取) * live on a pension 靠退休金生活.

  pension

  v 1 [Tn] pay a pension to (sb) 发给(某人)养老金、 退休金或抚恤金. 2 (phr v) pension sb off (often passive 常用於被动语态) allow or force sb to retire, and pay him a pension 准予或迫使某人退休并发给退休金: He was pensioned off and replaced with a younger man. 他被迫退休, 由一年轻人接替其职务. pension sth off (often passive 常用於被动语态) (infml 口) no longer use sth, because it is old and worn 因破旧不堪再用: The old printing press will have to be pensioned off. 那个旧印刷机得报销了.

  pensionable

  adj giving sb the right to receive apension 可领取退休金、 养老金或抚恤金的: a pensionablejob, position, post, etc 可领取养老金的工作、 职位等 * She is of pensionable age. 她已到领取养老金的年纪了.

  pensioner

  / 5penFEnE(r); `pZnFEnL/ n person who is receiving a pension (esp an old-age pension) 领退休金或抚恤金的人; (尤指)领养老金的人: an old-age pensioner 领养老金的人.

  pension

  / 5pCnsICn; `pBnsI9Bn/ n (French 法) small private hotel in France and certain other European countries (法国及欧洲其他一些国家的)私人小旅店.

  pensive

  / 5pensIv; `pZnsIv/ adj thinking deeply about sth, esp in a sad or serious way 沉思的; (尤指)忧虑的: a pensive expression, look, mood 忧虑的表情、 样子、 情绪 * She looked pensive when she heard the news. 她听到这消息时神情严肃.

  pensively

  adv.

  pensiveness

  n [U].

  pent up

  / 9pent 5Qp; `pZnt`Qp/ adj (of feelings) not expressed; repressed (指感情)不流露的, 被抑制的: feelings that have been pent up for too long 压抑过久的感情 * ,pent-up `anger, emotion, frustration, etc 郁结的愤懑、 情感、 沮丧等.

  penta-

  comb form 构词成分 having or made up of five of sth 有五个某物; 由五个某物组成: a pentagon * the pentathlon.

  pentagon

  / 5pentEgEn; ?@ -gCn; `pZntE9^Bn/ n 1 [C] geometric figure with five sides and angles 五角形; 五边形. 2 the Pentagon (a) [sing] the five-sided building near Washington that is the headquarters of the US Department of Defence and the US armed forces 五角大楼(美国国防部办公处). (b) [Gp] the leaders of the US armed forces 美国三军首脑: a spokesman for the Pentagon 美国国防部发言人.

  pentagonal

  / pen5tAgEnl; pZn`tA^Enl/ adj having five sides 五边形的; 五角形的.

  pentameter

  / pen5tAmItE(r); pZn`tAmEtL/ n line of verse with five metrical feet 五音步诗行.

  Pentateuch

  / 5pentEtju:k; `pZntE9tjuk/ n the Pentateuch[sing] the first five books of the Bible 摩西五经(《圣经》的首五卷).

  pentathlon

  / pen5tAWlEn, -lCn; pZn`tAWlEn, -lCn/ n athletic contest in which each competitor takes part in five events (running, riding, swimming, fencing and shooting) 五项全能运动(跑步、 骑马、 游泳、 击剑和射击).

  Pentecost

  / 5pentIkCst; ?@ -kR:st; `pZntI9kRst/ n [sing] 1 Jewish harvest festival that takes place fifty days after the second day of the Passover (犹太人的)五旬节(庆祝收获的节日, 为逾越节次日起之50日). 2 (Brit also Whitsunday) (in the Christian Church) seventh Sundayafter Easter, commemorating the descent of the Holy Ghost on the apostles (基督教的)圣灵降临节(复活节後第七个星期日).

  pentecostal

  / 9pentI5kCstl; ?@ -5kR:stl; 9pZntI`kRstl/ adj 1 of or relating to Pentecost (犹太人)五旬节的; 圣灵降临节的. 2 Pentecostal (of a religious group) emphasizing the divine gifts, esp the power to heal the sick (指教派)五旬节派的(著重神的恩赐, 尤指治病能力).

  penthouse

  / 5penthaUs; `pZnt9haJs/ n 1 house or flat built on the roof of a tall building (高楼的)顶层房子: [attrib 作定语] a luxury penthouse flat/apartment/suite 豪华的楼顶的公寓[单元房/一套房间]. 2 sloping roof (esp for a shelter or shed) attached to the wall of a building and supported by it 庇檐, 披屋(靠墙的单坡顶).

  penultimate

  / pe5nQltImEt; pI`nQltEmIt/ adj [attrib 作定语] next to and before the last one; last but one 倒数第二的: the penultimate letter of a word 一词的倒数第二个字母 * the penultimate day of the month 月底的前一日.

  penumbra

  / pI5nQmbrE; pI`nQmbrE/ n (pl -brae / -bri:; -bri/ or -bras / -brEz; -brEz/) partly shaded area around the shadow of an opaque object (esp around the total shadow of the moon or earth in an eclipse) 半阴影; (尤指日、 月蚀的)半影. Cf 参看 umbra.

  penurious

  / pI5njUrIEs; ?@ -5nUr-; pE`nJrIEs/ adj (fml 文) 1 very poor 贫穷的. 2 mean with money; stingy 吝啬的; 小气的.

  penuriously

  adv.

  penuriousness

  n [U] = penury.

  penury

  / 5penjUrI; `pZnjErI/ n [U] (fml 文) extreme poverty 贫穷: living in penury 过著贫穷的生活 * reduced to penury 陷於贫困之中.

  peon

  / 5pi:En; `piEn/ n 1 (in India, etc) person employedas a messenger (印度等国的)信差. 2 (in Latin America) farm labourer (拉丁美洲的)农场工人.

  peony

  / 5pi:EnI; `piEnI/ n garden plant with large round pink, red or white flowers 芍药; 牡丹.

  people

  / 5pi:pl; `pipl/ n 1 [pl v] persons 人: Were there many people at the party? 聚会上的人多吗? * Some people are very inquisitive. 有些人好管闲事. * streets crowded with people 挤满人的街道 * He meets a lot of famous people in his job. 他在工作中常能见到许多名人. * Many old people live alone. 不少老年人都独自生活. =>Usage at man1 用法见man1. 2 (a) [C] (all the persons belonging to a) nation, race, tribe or community 民族; 种族; 部落; 人民: the English-speaking peoples 说英语的民族 * The Spartans were a warlike people. 斯巴达人是尚武的民族. (b) [pl v] those persons who live in a particular place or have a particular nationality 生活在某地或有某国籍的人们: the people (ie inhabitants) of London 伦敦居民 * the British, French, Russian, etc people 英国人、 法国人、 俄国人. =>Usage 见所附用法. 3 the people [pl v] the citizens of a country, esp those with the right to vote 国民, 公民(尤指有选举权者): The President no longer has the support of the people. 总统已失去国民的支持. 4 the people [pl v] ordinary persons who do not have a special rank or position in society 普通人; 平民; 民众: the common people 老百姓 * a man of the people, eg a politician who is popular with ordinary people 受民众欢迎的人(如受欢迎的政治家). 5 [pl v] subjects (of a king) or supporters (of a leader) (国王的)臣民; (领袖的)拥护者: a king loved by his people 受臣民爱戴的国王 * His people worked hard to get him elected. 拥护他的人都为使他当选而努力.6 [pl v] (infml 口) person's parents or other relatives 父母或亲戚: She's spending Christmas with her people. 她与亲人一起过圣诞节. 7 (idm 习语) people (who live) in glass houses shouldn't throw stones (saying 谚) one should not criticize others for faults similar to one's own 住在玻璃房子里, 不要向人扔石头; 自己有错就不要批评别人.

  people

  v [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] fill (a place, an area, etc) with people; populate 使(某地)住满人; 居住於: He believes the world is peopled with idiots. 他认为世上多白痴.

  people

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: Compare person, persons, people and peoples. 试比较person、 persons、 people、 peoples的用法. 1 People is the most usual plural of person. *people是person最通用的复数形式. Persons is formal and mostly used in legal language. *persons较文, 主要作法律用语. 2 Person can also sound formal and is often avoided. *person有时也较文, 通常避免使用. In general statements, the sentence can be made plural 在泛指时, 此词在句中可用其复数形式: A person has the right to defend himself/People have the right to defend themselves. 人人均有自卫权. When referring to a particular situation, we can say I saw someone/a man/a woman riding a horse instead of I saw a person riding a horse. 在特指时, 可以说`我看见有个人[男的/女的]骑著马'(英文句中可以不用person, 用someone/a man/a woman). 3 People is also a singular noun (plural peoples) meaning `nation', `tribe' or `race' *people作`民族'、 `部落'或`种族'解时, 是单数名词(复数是peoples): The Ancient Egyptians were a fascinating people. 古埃及人是个令人神往的民族. * the French-speaking peoples of the world 世界上说法语的民族.

  pep

  / pep; pZp/ n [U] (infml 口) feeling of liveliness; vigour 精力; 精神; 活力: full of pep and running around like a puppy 生龙活虎般跑来跑去.

  pep

  v (-pp-) (phr v) pep sb/sth up make sb/sth (feel) more lively or energetic; stimulate sb/sth 使某人活跃或精力充沛; 使某事物振奋: A walk in the fresh air will pep me up. 我在空气新鲜的地方散步就感到精神饱满. * lively music to pep up the party 活跃聚会气氛的欢快的音乐.

  pep pill

  pill containing a drug (usu amphetamine) that stimulates the nervous system 兴奋药丸; (通常指)安非他明.

  pep talk

  talk intended to improve morale, esp by encouraging the listener(s) to work harder, try to win, etc 鼓励的话; 激励的话: The team was given a pep talk on the morning of the big match. 运动队在大赛当天早晨听了一次鼓舞士气的讲话.

  pepper

  / 5pepE(r); `pZpL/ n 1 [U] hot-tasting powder made from the dried berries of certain plants and used for flavouring food 胡椒粉: a dash of pepper 少许胡椒粉. 2 [C] (a) garden plant with large green, yellow or red hollow seed pods; capsicum 辣椒; 番椒. (b) one of these pods used as a vegetable 辣椒(蔬菜): peppers stuffed with meat and rice 肉末大米填充的辣椒.

  pepper

  v 1 [Tn] put pepper on (food) 在(食物)上撒胡椒粉. 2 [Tn.pr] ~sb/sth with sth hit sb/sth repeatedly with small objects 用小物体不断打击某人 [某物]: The wall had been peppered with bullets. 墙上有密集的子弹痕迹. * a batsman peppering the field with shots 击球手把球连续不断地击向场地 * (fig 比喻) pepper sb with questions 像开连珠炮般向某人提出许多问题.

  peppery

  / 5pepErI; `pZpErI/ adj 1 tasting of or likepepper (似)胡椒味的, 辣椒味的; 辣的. 2 easily angered; hot-tempered 暴躁的; 易怒的; 性子急的: a peppery old colonel 脾气暴躁的老上校.

  pepper-and-salt

  adj 1 (of cloth) having dark and light wools woven together to show a mixture of dark and light spots (指布料)黑白毛混纺的. 2 (of hair) white and brown together (指毛发)花白的, 灰褐色的.

  peppercorn

  n dried berry that is ground to make pepper 胡椒粒. ,peppercorn `rent very low rent 极低的租金.

  pepper-mill

  n container in which peppercorns are ground to powder for sprinkling on food (用手碾的)胡椒磨.

  pepper-pot

  n small container with holes in the top, used for sprinkling pepper on food 胡椒瓶. Cf 参看 salt-cellar (salt).

  peppermint

  / 5pepEmInt; `pZpL9mInt/ n (a) [U] type of mint grown for its strong-flavoured oil which is used in sweets and in medicine 胡椒薄荷: oil of peppermint 胡椒薄荷油. (b) (also mint) [C] sweet flavoured with oil of peppermint 薄荷糖: suck a peppermint 吃薄荷糖 * [attrib 作定语] peppermint creams 薄荷奶油. Cf 参看 spearmint.

  pepsin

  / 5pepsIn; `pZpsIn/ n [U] liquid produced in the stomach which helps food to be digested 胃蛋白 .

  peptic

  / 5peptIk; `pZptIk/ adj of digestion or the digestive system 消化的; 消化系统的: a peptic ulcer, ie one in the digestive system 消化性溃疡.

  per

  / pE(r); pL; strong form 强读式 p\:(r); p[/ prep (used to express rates, prices, etc 用以表示比率、 价格等) for each (unit of time, length, etc) 每, 每一(时间、 长度等单位): 60 per day 每天60英镑 * 2 per person 每人2英镑 * calculated per square yard 以每平方码计算的 * 45 revolutions per minute 每分钟45转 * 100 miles per hour 每小时100英里

  per annum

  / pEr 5AnEm; pL`AnEm/ adv for each year 每年: earning 15000 per annum 每年挣15000英镑.

  per capita

  / pE 5kApItE; pL`kApItE/ adv, adj [attrib 作定语] for each person 每人(的); 人均(的): Per capita incomes rose sharply last year. 去岁人均收入剧增.

  per cent (US percent)

  / pE 5sent; pL`sZnt/ adj, adv in or for every hundred 每一百之中(的): a fifty per cent (ie 50%) increase in price 价格上涨百分之五十(即50%) * working twenty per cent harder 再多使二分劲儿.

  per cent (US percent)

  n [C usu sing, but with sing or pl v 通常作单数,但可与单数或复数动词连用] one part in every hundred; percentage 百分之一; 百分比: half a per cent, ie 0.5% 百分之零点五(即0.5%) * Over sixty per cent of families own/owns a television. 百分之六十以上的家庭已有电视机. * What per cent of the population read/reads books? 识字的人占人口的百分之几?

  per pro

  / 9p\: 5prEU; 9p[ `pro/ abbr 缩写 = pp 2.

  per se

  / 9p\: 5seI; `p[`si/ (Latin 拉) by or of itself; intrinsically 本身; 本质上: The drug is not harmful per se, but is dangerous when taken with alcohol. 该药本身并无害处, 但与酒类同服则有危险.

  perambulate

  / pE5rAmbjUleIt; pL`AmbjE9let/ v (fml or rhet 文或修辞) 1 [Tn] walk about, through or over (a place) 漫步於, 步行通过(某地): perambulate the boundaries of his estate 巡视他的庄园地界. 2 [I] walkaround or up and down 到处走; 漫步; 散步: perambulateafter lunch 午饭後散步.

  perambulation

  / pE9rmbjU5leIFn; pL9AmbjE`leFEn/ n [C, U]: He saw many strange things during his perambulations in the old city. 他到那古老的城市里闲逛, 看见很多奇怪的事物.

  perambulator

  / pE5rAmbjUleItE(r); pL`AmbjE9letL/ n (Brit fml 文) pram (手推的四轮的)幼儿车.

  perceive

  / pE5si:v; pL`siv/ v 1 [Tn, Tf, Tw, Tnt, Tng] (fml 文) become aware of (sb/sth); notice; observe 意识到, 注意到, 观察到(某人[某事物]): I perceived a change in his behaviour/that his behaviour had changed. 我发觉他的行为有些变化. * We had already perceived how the temperature fluctuated. 我们已注意到温度的波动情形. * The patient was perceived to have difficulty in standing and walking. 据观察所见, 病人站立和行走都有困难. 2 [Cn.n/a] ~ sth as sth interpret sth in a certain way; view 理解或领悟某事物; 认为: I perceived his comment as a challenge. 我认为他的批评是对我的激励.

  perceivable

  adj.

  percentage

  / pE5sentIdV; pL`sZntIdV/ n 1 [C] rate, number or amount in each hundred 百分比; 百分率: The figure is expressed as a percentage. 那数字是以百分比表示的. * The salesmen get a percentage (ie a commission) on everything they sell. 这些推销员可从推销的商品上获得一定百分比的佣金. * [attrib 作定语] a percentage increase in ticket prices 票价上涨的百分比. 2 [sing or pl v] proportion 比例; 部分: What percentage of his income is taxable? 他的收入有多少需纳所得税? * An increasing percentage of the population own their own homes. 自己有房子的人占人口比例越来越大了.

  percentile

  / pE5sentaIl; pL`sZntaIl/ (US centile) n (a) (in statistics) any of 99 points at which a range of data is divided to make 100 groups of equal size (统计学上的)百分位数. (b) any of these groups 百分位数之一: an examination score in the 85th percentile, ie a score higher than 85 per cent of all scores attained in an examination 第85百分位的考分(高於考试中总得分的85%的分数).

  perceptible

  / pE5septEbl; pL`sZptEbl/ adj ~ (to sb) (fml 文) 1 that can be observed with the senses 可感知的; 可觉察的: perceptible movements, sounds, etc 可察觉的物体运动、 声响等. 2 great enough to be noticed orobserved 能感觉到的; 看得出的; 可观察到的: perceptible change, deterioration, improvement, increase, loss of colour 看得出的变化、 恶化、 改善、 增长、 褪色.

  perceptibility

  / pE9septE5bIlEtI; pL9sZptE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  perceptibly

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv: The patient has improved perceptibly. 已看出病人有好转.

  extra-sensory perception

  / 9ekstrE9sensErI pE5sepFn; 9ZkstrE 9sZnsErI pL`sZpFEn/ (abbr 缩写 ESP) (supposed) ability to perceive outside, past or future events without the use of the known senses 超感官知觉; 超感觉力: He seems to know when his wife is away from home by some kind of extra-sensory perception. 他凭某种超感觉力似乎知道妻子何时不在家.

  perception

  / pE5sepFn; pL`sZpFEn/ n (fml 文) 1 [U] ability to see, hear or understand 感知能力; 认识能力: improve one's powers of perception 提高认识能力. 2 [U] quality of understanding; insight 悟性; 洞察力: His analysis of the problem showed great perception. 他对该问题的分析显示出敏锐的洞察力. 3 [C] ~ (that...) way of seeing or understanding sth 看法; 理解: My perception of the matter is that... 我对此事的看法是... * his perception that conditions had not changed 他认为情况无变化.

  perceptive

  / pE5septIv; pL`sZptIv/ adj (fml 文) 1 quick to notice and understand things 观察敏锐的; 善於理解的: The most perceptive of the three, she was the first to realize the potential danger of their situation. 她在他们三人中最敏感, 首先意识到他们处境的潜在危险. 2 having or showing understanding or insight; discerning 有理解力的; 有洞察力的; 有识别力的: a perceptive analysis, comment, judgement, etc 富有见地的分析、 评论、 判断等. 3 [attrib 作定语] of or concerning perception 感知的; 有感知的; 有理解力的; 有洞察力的: perceptive skills 理解的技巧.

  perceptively

  adv.

  perceptiveness, perceptivity

  / 9p\:sep5tIvEtI; 9p[sZp`tIvEtI/ ns [U]: show rare perceptiveness 显示罕有的理解力.

  perch

  / p\:tF; p[tF/ n 1 (a) place where a bird rests, eg a branch 鸟类的栖息处(如树枝). (b) bar or rod for this purpose, eg in a bird-cage or hen-roost (作此用途的)棍, 杆(如鸟笼或鸡窝中的). 2 (infml 口) high seat or position 高座; 高位: He watched the game from his perch on top of the wall. 他在墙头居高临下看比赛. 3 (also pole, rod) measure of length equal to 5 yds or 5.03 metres, used esp for land 杆(长度单位, 等於5码或5.03米, 尤用以丈量土地). =>App 5 见附录5. 4 (idm 习语) knock sb off his pedestal/perch => knock.

  perch

  v 1 [I, Ipr] ~ (on sth) (of a bird) come to rest or stay (on a branch, etc) (指鸟)栖息, 停留(枝上等): The birds perched on the television aerial. 鸟停在电视天线上. 2 [I, Ipr] ~ (on sth) (of a person) sit, esp on sth high or narrow (指人)坐著(尤指坐在高处或窄物上): perch on high stools at the bar 坐在酒吧的高凳上 * perch dangerously on a narrow ledge 坐在狭窄的边缘上, 十分危险 * perch on the edge of one's seat 坐在座位的边上. 3 [Tn, Tn.pr] place (sth), esp in a high or dangerous position 将(某物)置於尤指高处或危险处: a hut perched at the edge of the cliff 悬崖边上的小舍 * perch a beret on the side of one's head 歪戴贝雷帽 * a castle perched above the river 临河而建的城堡.

  perch

  / p\:tF; p[tF/ n (pl unchanged 复数不变) any of several types of freshwater fish with spiny fins, eaten as food 鲈.

  perchance

  / pE5tFB:ns; ?@ -5tFAns; pL`tFAns/ adv (arch 古) 1 perhaps 也许; 可能. 2 by chance 偶然; 万一.

  percipient

  / pE5sIpIEnt; pL`sIpIEnt/ adj (fml 文) 1 noticing or understanding things quickly or clearly; perceptive 感知或理解敏锐的; 观察深刻的: a percipient onlooker 目光敏锐的旁观者. 2 having or showing insight; discerning 有洞察力的; 有识别力的: a percipient comment 精辟的评论.

  percipience

  / pE5sIpIEns; pL`sIpIEns/ n [U].

  percolate

  / 5p\:kEleIt; `p[kE9let/ v 1 (infml 口语作 perk) (a) [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (through sth)/~ (through) (of water) pass slowly through (coffee); filter through (指水)经(咖啡)渗透, 过滤: The coffee is percolating, ie Boiling water is passing through ground coffee beans. 正在用过滤法煮咖啡. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (through sth/through) cause (water) to pass slowly through (coffee) 使(水)经(咖啡)过滤: coffee made by percolating boiling water through ground coffee beans 用过滤法煮的咖啡 * I'll percolate some coffee, ie make it by percolating. 我去用过滤法煮些咖啡. 2 (a) [Ipr, Ip] ~ through (sth) (of liquid) pass slowly through (sth) (指液体)渗透过(某物): water percolating through sand 渗过沙层的水. (b) [Ipr] ~ through sth (of an idea, a feeling, information) spread or become known gradually (指思想、 感情、 信息)逐渐传播或透露: The rumour percolated through the firm. 那谣言在公司里慢慢流传开来.

  percolation

  / 9p\:kE5leIFn; 9p[kE`leFEn/ n [C, U].

  percolator

  n (a) pot for making and serving coffee, in which boiling water is repeatedly forced up a central tube and filtered down through ground coffee 过滤式咖啡壶. (b) any other apparatus for percolating liquids 过滤器.

  percussion

  / pE5kQFn; pL`kQFEn/ n 1 [U] (a) striking of two (usu hard) objects together 两物相撞(通常指硬物). (b) sound or shock that is the result of this 碰撞发出的声音或震动. 2 [U] method of playing a musical instrument by striking it with another object (打击乐器的)演奏(法), 打击. 3 the percussion [pl v] (alsoper`cussion section) (players of) percussion instrumentsin an orchestra (管弦乐队的)打击乐器(的演奏组). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xi. 4 [U] (medical 医) gentle tapping of the surface of the body as part of a medical examination 叩诊.

  percussionist

  / -FEnIst; -FEnIst/ n person who plays percussion instruments 打击乐器演奏者.

  percussion cap (also cap)

  small metal or paper device containing explosive powder, which explodes when struck 发火帽; 雷管.

  percussion instrument

  musical instrument (eg drum, tambourine, xylophone) played by striking it with another object 打击乐器(如鼓、 铃鼓、 木琴).

  perdition

  / pE5dIFn; pL`dIFEn/ n [U] 1 (fml religion 文, 宗) everlasting punishment of the wicked after death (恶人死後的)永久惩罚: damned to perdition 万劫不复. 2 (arch 古) total destruction 全部毁灭.

  peregrination

  / 9perIgrI5neIFn; 9pZrE^rI`neFEn/ n (fml 文) 1 [U] travelling 旅行. 2 [C] journey 旅程; 游历: his peregrinations in southern Europe 他在南欧的游历.

  peregrine

  / 5perIgrIn; `pZrE^rIn/ n (also peregrine falcon) large black and white bird of prey that can be trained to hunt and catch small birds and animals 游隼; 鸭鹰.

  peremptory

  / pE5remptErI; ?@ 5perEmptR:rI; `pZrEmp9tRrI/ adj (fml 文) 1 (esp derog 尤作贬义) (of a person, his manner, etc) insisting on immediate obedience or submission; domineering (指人、 举止等)专横的, 霸道的: His peremptory tone of voice irritated everybody. 他那专横的口气激怒了大家. 2 (of commands) not to be disobeyed or questioned (指命令)不容抗拒的, 不容分说的, 强制的: a peremptory dismissal, rebuke, shout 不容分说的解雇、 指责、 喊叫.

  peremptorily

  / -trElI; ?@ -tR:rElI; -tRrElI/ adv.

  peremptory writ

  (law 律) document in which a defendant is ordered to appear in court 传票.

  perennial

  / pE5renIEl; pE`rZnIEl/ adj 1 lasting for a long time 长久的; 持久的: a perennial subject of interest 永恒的主题. 2 constantly recurring 一再的; 反覆出现的: aperennial problem 反覆出现的问题 * perennial complaints一再的抱怨. 3 (of plants) living for more than two years (指植物)多年生的.

  perennial

  n perennial plant 多年生植物: hardy perennials, ie plants that can normally tolerate frost 耐寒的多年生植物.

  perennially

  / -nIElI; -nIElI/ adv.

  perestroika

  / 9pere5strRIkE; 9pZrE`strRIkE/ n [U] (Russian俄) (formaly) restructuring of the Soviet economic and political system (旧时)(苏联经济与政治体制的)改革.

  perfect

  / 5p\:fIkt; `p[fIkt/ adj 1 (a) having everything needed; complete 完备的; 完全的: in perfect condition 情况完好 * a perfect set of teeth 一副完整的牙齿. (b) without fault; excellent 完美的; 无瑕的; 优异的: a perfect performance of the play 该剧完美的演出 * perfect weather, behaviour 美好的天气、 优秀的品行 * a perfect score, ie one in which no points have been lost; 100 per cent 满分(100分) * Nobody is perfect. 人无完人. * speak perfect English 英语说得地道. 2 the best of its kind; ideal 最佳的; 理想的: the perfect meal 精美的饭食 * the perfect crime, ie one in which the criminal is never discovered 不露蛛丝马迹的罪行. 3 exact; precise 准确的; 精确的: a perfect circle, square 正圆、 正方 * a perfect copy, match, fit 精确的副本、 匹配、 配合 * perfect accuracy, timing 极精确、 极合时机. 4 ~ for sb/sth highly suitable for sb/sth; exactly right for sb/sth 极适合於某人[某事物]; 对某人[某事物]正合适: perfect for each other 最佳搭档 * perfect day for a picnic 最适合野餐的日子. 5 (grammar) (of verb tenses) composed of has/have or had + past participle (指动词时态)完成式的(由has/have或had+过去分词组成): the present and past perfect tenses, eg `I have eaten'/`I had eaten' 现在完成式和过去完成式(如I have eaten/I had eaten). 6 [attrib 作定语] (infml 口) total; absolute 全部的; 绝对的: perfect nonsense, rubbish, etc 纯粹胡说八道、 一派胡言 * a perfect fool, pest, stranger, etc 十足的傻瓜、 害人精、 异乡人等 * She's a perfect angel! 她是真正的好人! 7 (idm 习语) practice makes perfect => practice.

  perfect

  n the perfect [sing] perfect tense 完成时态: The verb is in the perfect. 那动词是完成式. * the present/past perfect 现在[过去]完成式.

  perfectly

  adv 1 in a perfect way 完美地; 完满地;极佳地: The trousers fit perfectly. 这条裤子非常合身.2 completely; quite 完全地; 十分: perfectly happy, satisfied, content, etc 十分快乐、 满意、 满足等 * perfectly well 极好 * perfectly able to find her own way 完全能找到她自己的出路. 3 (infml 口) extremely; absolutely 极; 非常; 绝对地: a perfectly delicious cake 非常好吃的蛋糕 * perfectly awful weather 极坏的天气 * a perfectly foul headache 剧烈的头痛.

  perfect pitch (also absolute pitch)

  (music 音) ability to recognize or sing any musical note 完全音高(感), 绝对音高(感)(对任何一个乐音的识别力或演唱力): She has perfect/absolute pitch. 她有完全音高感.

  perfect

  / pE5fekt; pL`fZkt/ v [Tn] make (sth) perfect or complete 使(某事物)完美、 完善或完备: She needs to perfect her Arabic before going to work in Cairo. 她需要把阿拉伯语学好才能到开罗工作. * a violinist who spent years perfecting his technique 花了多年时间使演奏技术炉火纯青的小提琴手.

  perfectible

  adj that can be perfected 可使之完美的; 可臻完善的.

  perfectibility

  / pE9fektE5bIlEtI; pL9fZktE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  perfection

  / pE5fekFn; pL`fZkFEn/ n 1 [U] making perfect 完美, 完善, 完备, 圆满(指过程): They are working on the perfection of their new paint formula. 他们正在努力研制尽善尽美的新颜料配方. 2 [U] state of being perfect; faultlessness 完美, 完善, 完备, 圆满(指状况): Perfection is impossible to achieve in that kind of work. 那种工作不可能做到十全十美. * aim for perfection 力求完善 * bring sth to perfection 使某事十全十美. 3 [U] highest state or quality; ideal 尽善尽美的状况或质量; 理想: Her singing was perfection. 她的歌唱得已是炉火纯青. 4 (idm 习语) a counsel of perfection => counsel. to per`fection exactly to the right degree; perfectly 恰到好处; 尽善尽美: wine aged to perfection 陈年佳酿 * a dish cooked to perfection 烹调 至恰到好处的菜.

  perfectionist

  / -FEnIst; -FEnIst/ n 1 person who is not satisfied with anything less than perfection 完美主义者; 至善论者. 2 (derog 贬) person who insists on perfection in every detail even when it is not necessary 过分的完美主义者.

  perfectionism

  / pE5fekFEnIzEm; pL`fZkFEnIzEm/ n [U].

  perfidy

  / 5p\:fIdI; `p[fEdI/ n ~ (to/towards sb) (fml 文) (a) [U] acting in a treacherous or disloyal way 背叛; 背信弃义; 不忠. (b) [C] instance of this 背叛; 背信弃义; 不忠.

  perfidious

  / pE5fIdIEs; pL`fIdIEs/ adj ~ (to/towards sb) (fml 文) treacherous, deceitful or disloyal 背叛的; 背信弃义的; 不忠的: betrayed by perfidious allies 遭背信弃义的盟友出卖.

  perfidiously

  adv.

  perfidiousness

  n [U].

  perforate

  / 5p\:fEreIt; `p[fE9ret/ v [Tn] 1 make a hole or holes through (sth) 在(某物)上穿孔或打眼: perforate the cover to let air in 在盖子上打眼让空气进入 * [attrib 作定语] a perforated ulcer 穿孔的溃疡. 2 make a row of small holes (esp in paper) so that it will tear easily 在(尤指纸)上打齿孔(以便撕开): [attrib 作定语] a perforated sheet of postage stamps 有齿孔的邮票联张.

  perforation

  / 9p\:fE5reIFn; 9p[fE`reFEn/ n 1 [U] perforating or being perforated (在某物上)穿孔; (在纸等上)打齿孔. 2 [C] series of small holes made in paper, etc (纸等上的)齿孔: tear the sheet along the perforations 顺齿孔撕下该页.

  perforce

  / pE5fR:s; pL`fRrs/ adv (arch or fml 古或文) because it is necessary or inevitable 必; 必然; 必定.

  perform

  / pE5fR:m; pL`fRrm/ v 1 [Tn] do (a piece of work, sth one is ordered to do, sth one has agreed to do) 做, 执行, 履行(某事): perform a task, one's duty, a miracle 执行任务、 履行义务、 做出奇迹 * perform an operation to save his life 动手术挽救他的生命. 2 [I, Ipr, Tn] act (a play), play (a piece of music) or do (tricks) to entertain an audience 表演(戏剧); 演奏(音乐); 表演(戏法): They are performing his play/piano concerto tonight. 他们今晚演出他的剧[钢琴协奏曲]. * watch sb perform 看某人表演 * perform skilfully on the flute 熟练地吹奏横笛 * perform live on television 电视实况演出 *performing seals in a circus 在马戏团里表演驯海豹. 3 [I](with an adv 与副词连用) (of a machine, an invention, etc) work or function (指机器等)工作, 运转; (指发明等)运用, 使用: How is the new car performing? 新汽车性能如何? * The new drug has performed well in tests. 那种新药试验效果不错. 4 [Tn] act in an official way (at sth) 正式进行, 施行(某事): perform a ceremony, rite, ritual, etc 举行典礼、 仪式等.

  performer

  n person who performs in front of an audience 表演者; 演出者: an accomplished performer 有造诣的表演者.

  performing arts

  drama, music, dance, etc which are performed in front of an audience 表演艺术.

  performance

  / pE5fR:mEns; pL`fRrmEns/ n 1 [sing] process or manner of performing 执行; 履行; 工作; 作用; 施行; 进行: faithful in the performance of his duties 忠於(他的)职守. 2 (a) [C] performing of a play at the theatre or some other entertainment (在剧院等的)演出, 表演: the evening performance 晚场演出 * give a performance of `Hamlet' 演出《哈姆雷特》. (b) [U] in ~ performing in a concert or other entertainment (在音乐会等的)演出, 演奏: Come and see her in performance with the new band. 来看她在新乐队中的演奏吧. 3 (a) [C] (esp outstanding) action or achievement (尤指出色的)表现, 行为, 成就: She won a gold medal for her fine performance in the contest. 她在竞赛中成绩优异获金牌. * His performance in the test was not good enough. 他在测验中做的不够好. (b) [U] ability to move quickly, operate efficiently, etc (良好的)性能, 工作情况: The customer was impressed by the machine's performance. 客户对机器的良好性能很满意. * Performance is less important than reliability in a car. 汽车的可靠性比其机械性能更重要. 4 [C] (infml 口) (a) ridiculous or disgraceful behaviour (可笑的或丢脸的)行为, 举动: What a performance the child made! 那孩子真丢人! (b) (esp unnecessary) fuss or trouble (尤指不必要的)忙乱, 麻烦: He goes through the whole performance of checking the oil and water every time he drives the car. 他每次开汽车都总是不厌其烦地把油和水整个检查一遍.

  perfume

  / 5p\:fju:m; ?@ also pEr5fju:m; `p[fjum,pL`fjum/ n [C, U] 1 fragrant or pleasant smell 香味;芳香: the perfume of the flowers 花的香味 * flowery perfumes 花的香味. 2 (any of several types of) sweet-smelling liquid, often made from flowers, used esp on the body 香水: sell perfumes and toilet-waters 经售各种香水和化妆水 * French perfume 法国香水.

  perfume

  / pE5fju:m; pL`fjum/ v [Tn] 1 (of flowers, etc) give a fragrant smell to (sth) (指花等)使(某物)带香味: The roses perfumed the room. 玫瑰花熏得室内一片香. 2 put perfume on (sb/sth) 向(某人[某物])洒香水: perfume a handkerchief 往手绢上洒香水.

  perfumer

  / pE5fju:mE(r); pL`fjumL/ (also perfumier / pE5fju:mIeI; pL`fjumIe/) n person who makes and/or sells perfume 香水制造商; 售香水者

  perfumery

  / pE5fju:mErI; pL`fjumErI/ n 1 [C] place where perfumes are made or sold 香水制造厂; 香水商店. 2 [U] process of making perfume 香水的制造.

  perfunctory

  / pE5fQNktErI; pL`fQNktErI/ adj (fml 文)(a) (of an action) done as a duty or routine, without care or interest (指行为)敷衍的, 马虎的, 例行的: a perfunctory examination, greeting, salute 例行的考试、 问候、 致意. (b) (of a person) doing things in this way (指人)做事敷衍塞责的.

  perfunctorily

  / -trElI; -tErElI/ adv: check the luggage perfunctorily 对行李作例行的检查.

  perfunctoriness

  n [U].

  pergola

  / 5p\:gElE; `p[^ElE/ n structure of posts for climbing plants, forming an arbour or a covered walk in a garden (花园中的)凉棚, 藤架

  perhaps

  / pE5hps, also prps; pL`hAps, prAps/ adv it may be (that); possibly 也许; 大概; 可能: Perhaps the weather will change this evening. 今晚可能要变天. * Perhaps it will, perhaps it won't. 也许会, 也许不会. * It is, perhaps, the best known of his works. 大概那是他最著名的作品了. * Perhaps not/so, ie expressing half-heartedagreement with what a person says. 未必吧[也许如此]. * Perhaps you would be kind enough to..., ie a polite way of saying `Would you...?' 是否可以请您....

  peri-

  pref 1 around 周围: periscope * periphrasis * perimeter. 2 near 近: perihelion * perigee.

  perigee

  / 5perIdVi:; `pZrE9dVi/ n point in the orbit of the moon, a planet or a spacecraft at which it is nearest to the earth 近地点(月球、 行星或航天器轨道上距地球最近的点).

  perihelion

  / 9perI5hi:lIEn; 9pZrI`hilIEn/ n (pl -lia / -lIE;-lIE/) point in the orbit of a planet, comet, etc at which it is nearest to the sun 近日点(行星、 彗星等轨道上距太阳最近的点).

  peril

  / 5perEl; `pZrEl/ n 1 [U] serious danger (esp of death) 严重危险(尤指死亡的): in great, mortal, etc peril 在严重的、 致命的...危险中. 2 [C usu pl 通常作复数] dangerous thing or circumstance 危险的事物或环境: face the perils of the ocean, ie storm, shipwreck, etc 面对海上的危险(风暴、 船只失事等) * These birds are able to survive the perils of the Arctic winter. 这些鸟能在北极的严冬中生存. 3 (idm 习语) at one's peril (used esp when advising sb not to do sth 尤用於劝某人不做某事) with a risk of harm to oneself 冒险: The bicycle has no brakes you ride it at your peril. 这辆自行车没闸--你要骑可太危险了. * One ignores letters from the bank manager at one's peril. 忽视银行经理来函, 後果堪虑. in ,peril of one's `life in danger of death 冒生命危险.

  perilous

  / 5perElEs; `pZrElEs/ adj full of risk; dangerous多险的; 危险的: a perilous journey across the mountains 横越重山的艰险征途. perilously adv: perilously hot, fast, steep, etc 热得、 快得、 陡得...易出危险 * They were perilously close to the edge of the precipice. 他们离悬崖边很近, 十分危险.

  perimeter

  / pE5rImItE(r); pE`rImEtL/ n 1 (length of the) outer edge of a closed geometric shape 周; 周边; 边缘; 周长. 2 boundary of an area 周围的界限: Guards patrolled the perimeter of the airfield. 卫兵沿机场四周巡逻. * [attrib 作定语] the perimeter fence 周围的篱笆. Cf 参看 circumference.

  period

  / 5pIErIEd; `pIrIEd/ n 1 length or portion of time 一段时间; 时期: a period of three years 三年的时间 * He has had several long periods of work abroad. 他在国外长期工作过几次. * a period of peace, recovery, uncertainty 和平、 恢复、 不稳定时期 * showers and sunny periods, eg in a weather forecast 阵雨间晴(如在天气预报所述) * The work must be completed within a two-month period. 工作须於两月内完成. * The incubation period (ie The delay between catching a disease and the symptoms appearing) is two weeks. 该疾病的潜伏期为两星期. 2 (a) portion of time in the life of a person, nation or civilization (人、 国家、 文明的)时期, 时代: a painting belonging to the artist's early period 该画家早期的画 * the period of the French Revolution 法国大革命时期 * the post-war period 战後时期 * The house is 18th century and has furniture of the period, ie of the same century. 那房子是18世纪的, 而且还有那时代的家具. * The actors wore costumes of the period, ie of the time when the events of the play took place. 演员穿著剧中时代的服装. * [usu attrib 通常作定语] period dress, furniture, etc 某时代的服装、 家具等 * a period cottage, ie not modern 某时代的村舍. (b) (geology 地质) portion of time in the development of the earth's surface 纪: the Jurassic period 侏罗纪. 3 (time allowed for a) lesson in school (学校的)课, 课时, 学时: a teaching period of 45 minutes 45分钟的一堂课 * a free period 没课的一节 * three periods of geography a week 每周三节地理课. 4 (a) monthly flow of blood from the womb of a woman; menstruation 月经: have a period 来月经 * [attrib 作定语] period pains 月经痛. (b) time of this 月经期. 5 (esp US) (a) = full stop (full). (b) sign of punctuation (.) marking this in writing and print 句号. =>App 3 见附录3. (c) (infml 口) (added to the end of a statement to stress its completeness 加於一段话之後以强调完毕): We can't pay higher wages, period, ie that is final. 我们不能付再高的工资了, 话就说到这里. 6 (grammar) complete sentence, esp one having several clauses 完全句(尤指有几个分句者). 7 (astronomy 天) time taken to complete one revolution 周期.

  period piece

  (infml 口) old-fashioned person or thing 旧式的、 老式的或过时的人或事物: The play, which once seemed so modern, has become a period piece. 那出戏, 一度似乎相当时新, 如今已成明日黄花.

  periodic

  / 9pIErI5CdIk; 9pIrI`BdIk/ adj occurring or appearing at (esp regular) intervals 定期的; 周期的: periodic attacks of dizziness 眩晕的周期性发作 * a periodic review of expenditure 对支出的定期核查.

  periodical

  / -kl; -kl/ n, adj (magazine or other publication) that is published at regular intervals, eg weekly or monthly 定期出版的; 期刊. periodically/-klI; -klI/ adv at (esp regular) intervals 定期地; 周期地.

  periodic table

  (chemistry 化) arrangement of chemical elements according to their atomic weights 周期表. =>App 10 见附录10.

  peripatetic

  / 9perIpE5tetIk; 9pZrEpE`tZtIk/ adj 1 going from place to place 到处走的; 漫游的; 巡回的. 2 (Brit) (of teachers) employed at two or more schools and travelling between them (指教师)在多所学校兼课的: Peripatetic music teachers visit the school regularly. 兼职音乐教师定期到校授课.

  peripatetically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  periphery

  / pE5rIfErI; pE`rIfErI/ n (fml 文) 1 (a) boundary of a surface or an area 外围; 边缘. (b) area near this on either side 外围或边缘的地方: industrial development on the periphery (ie outskirts) of the town 郊区的工业发展. 2 (fig 比喻) (esp in social, political or intellectual life) position far away from the centre; the fringe (尤指社交、 政治或文化生活的)外围, 边缘: The ideas are also expressed by minor poets on the periphery of the movement. 该运动外围一些不大出名的诗人也表达了这些观点. 3 (also pe,ripheral de`vice) (computing 计) device attached to a computer that transfers information into or out of the computer 外围设备: display units, printers and other peripherals 显示装置、 打印机及其他外部设备.

  peripheral

  / -ErEl; -ErEl/ adj 1 ~ (to sth) of secondary or minor importance (to sth) 次要的; 不重要的: topics peripheral to the main theme 围绕中心议题的小题目. 2 of or on a periphery 外围的; 边缘的: peripheral zones 边缘地带.

  peripherally

  / -ErElI; -ErElI/ adv.

  periphrasis

  / pE5rIfrEsIs; pE`rIfrEsIs/ n (pl -ases / -Esi:z; -E9siz/) (fml 文) 1 (a) [U] roundabout way of expressing sth; circumlocution 折绕; 迂说法; 婉曲. (b) [C] roundabout expression in speaking or writing, eg `give expression to' instead of `express' 折绕语, 婉曲修辞(如用give expression to而不用express). 2 (grammar) (a) [U] use of an auxiliary word or a syntactic pattern in place of an inflected form, eg `It does work' for `It works' or `the word of God' for `God's word' 迂说法(用助动词或句法形式而不用动词词尾变化形式, 如用It does work代替It works或用the word of God代替God's word). (b) [C] example of this 迂说.

  periphrastic

  / 9perI5frAstIk; 9pZrE`frAstIk/ adj of, expressed in or using periphrasis 迂说法的; 用迂说法表达的.

  periphrastically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  periscope

  / 5perIskEUp; `pZrE9skop/ n apparatus with mirrors and lenses arranged in a tube so that the user has a view of the surrounding area above, eg from a submarine when it is under water 潜望镜.

  periscopic

  / 9perI5skCpIk; 9pZrE`skBpIk/ adj of or like a periscope (似)潜望镜的.

  perish

  / 5perIF; `pZrIF/ v 1 [I] (fml 文) be destroyed; die 毁灭; 死亡: Thousands of people perished in the earthquake. 那次地震死者数以千计. * We shall do it or perish in the attempt. 我们将拚死一试. 2 [I, Tn] (esp Brit) (cause sth to) rot; (cause rubber to) lose its elasticity (使某物)腐烂; (使橡胶)失去弹性, 老化: The seal on the bottle has perished. 瓶子的封记已经腐烂. * If any oil gets on the car tyres, it will perish them. 汽车胎沾上油就会毁坏. 3 (idm 习语) ,perish the `thought (infml 口) may it never happen 但愿别这样: The neighbours' children want to learn to play the trumpet, perish the thought! 邻居的孩子想学吹小号, 但愿他们别学!

  perishable

  adj (esp of food) likely to decay or go bad quickly (尤指食物)易腐的, 易坏的: Perishable food should be stored in a refrigerator. 易腐的食物应储存在冰箱里.

  perishables

  n [pl] goods (esp food) which go bad or decay quickly, such as fish or soft fruit 易腐物品(尤指食物, 如鱼或浆果): Perishables need to be consumed as quickly as possible. 易腐烂的食物要尽快吃掉.

  perished

  adj [pred 作表语] (esp Brit) in extreme discomfort through cold, etc (因寒冷等)极不适, 极难受: We were perished with cold and hunger. 我们饥寒交迫. * The children were perished when they arrived home. 孩子们到家时难受已极.

  perisher

  n (dated Brit sl 旧, 俚) annoying person, esp a child 讨厌鬼(尤指孩子): Wait till I catch the little perisher! 等著, 瞧我逮住那小淘气!

  perishing

  adj (esp Brit) 1 extremely cold 极冷的: I'm perishing! 我冷得要命! * It's perishing out there. 外面冷极了. * a period of perishing cold 极冷的一段时间. 2 (dated sl 旧, 俚) (used to express annoyance 用以表示恼怒) damned, etc 讨厌的; 该死的: I can't get in I've lost the perishing key! 我进不去--我把该死的钥匙丢了! perishing (also perishingly) adv (sl 俚 esp Brit) (used to emphasize sth bad 用以强调坏事) very 极; 很: It's perishing/perishingly cold out there. 外面冷极了. * He's too perishing mean to pay his share. 他小气极了, 连自己的那份钱也不付.

  peristyle

  / 5perIstaIl; `pZrE9staIl/ n (architecture 建) (a) row of columns around a temple, courtyard, etc (殿堂、庭院等的)周柱廊: the imposing peristyle of the Parthenon帕台农神庙雄伟的柱廊. (b) area enclosed by this 周柱中庭.

  peritonitis

  / 9perItE5naItIs; 9pZrEtE`naItIs/ n [U] (medical 医) painful inflammation of the membrane that covers the inside wall of the abdomen 腹膜炎.

  periwinkle

  / 5perIwINkl; `pZrE9wINkl/ n any of several types of evergreen plant with trailing stems and blue or white flowers 蔓长春花: [attrib 作定语] periwinkle blue 蔓长春花的蓝色.

  periwinkle

  / 5perIwINkl; `pZrE9wINkl/ (also winkle) n any of several types of small edible shellfish shaped like a snail 滨螺.

  perjure

  / 5p\:dVE(r); `p[dVL/ v [Tn] ~ oneself (law 律) tell a lie (esp in a court of law) after one has sworn an oath to tell the truth 发假誓, 作伪证(尤指在法庭上): Several witnesses at the trial were clearly prepared to perjure themselves in order to protect the accused. 在审判时几个证人显然已准备好为袒护被告而作伪证.

  perjurer

  / 5p\:dVErE(r); `p[dVErL/ n (law 律) person who has perjured himself 发假誓者; 作伪证者.

  perjury

  / 5p\:dVErI; `p[dVErI/ n (law 律) (a) [U] action of perjuring oneself 发假誓; 作伪证: They tried to persuade her to commit perjury. 他们竭力说服她出庭作伪证. (b) [C] lie told after swearing to tell the truth, esp in a court of law 假誓, 伪证(尤指在法庭上的).

  perk

  / p\:k; p[k/ v (phr v) perk up (infml 口) become more cheerful, lively or vigorous, esp after illness or depression 愉快、 活跃或振作起来(尤指病後或曾消沉): He looked depressed but perked up when his friends arrived. 他看上去无精打彩的, 但朋友一来就精神起来了. perk sb/sth up (infml 口) (a) make sb feel more cheerful or lively 使某人快活或活泼起来: A holiday would perk you up. 一放假你就快活了. (b) make sb look smarter 打扮某人: He had perked himself up for the occasion. 他为此事打扮了一番. (c) make (an outfit, aroom, a garden, etc) look smarter, better, more vigorous,etc 使(服装、 房间、 花园等)美观、 精神: perk up the plants with a good watering 给花草浇足水使之精神 * You need a bright red scarf to perk up that grey suit. 你围上一条大红围巾能显得那套灰西装更漂亮. 3 lift up (one's head or ears) 昂起(头); 竖起(耳朵): The horse perked up its head when I shouted. 我吆喝时那马扬起了头.

  perky

  adj (-ier, -iest) (infml 口) 1 full of energy; lively 精力充沛的; 活跃的: He's still in hospital, but he seems quite perky. 他虽然还住著院, 可是看上去倒挺精神. 2 (too) full of self-confidence; cheeky (太)自信的; 厚脸皮的: That child is a bit too perky! 那孩子有点太放肆了!

  perkily

  / -IlI; -ElI/ adv.

  perkiness

  n [U].

  perk

  / p\:k; p[k/ n (usu pl 通常作复数) (infml 口) (a) money or goods received as a right in addition to one's pay; perquisite (工资以外的)财物补贴, 额外收入, 津贴, 奖金, 小费: His perks include a car provided by the firm. 他的额外津贴包括公司提供的一辆汽车. (b) advantage or benefit of a particular job, one's position, etc (工作、 职位等带来的)好处, 利益, 便利, 特权, 优待: One of the perks is the use of the official car park. 其中一项好处是可以使用公家的停车场.

  perk

  / p\:k; p[k/ v = percolate 1.

  perm

  / p\:m; p[m/ n 1 (infml 口) = permanent wave (permanent). 2 (infml 口) = permutation 1.

  perm

  v [Tn] 1 give (sb's hair) a permanent wave 烫(发): Her hair has been permed. 她的头发烫过了. 2 make a permutation of (numbers) in a football pool (足球普尔赌博中)选定(数字组合).

  permafrost

  / 5p\:mEfrCst; ?@ -frR:st; `p[mE9frRst/ n [U] subsoil that is permanently frozen, eg in polar regions 永冻土, 永冻层(如在极地的).

  permanence

  / 5p\:mEnEns; `p[mEnEns/ n [U] state of continuing or remaining for a long time 永久; 永恒; 恒久: Nothing threatens the permanence of the system. 该体系的永恒性不受任何事物的影响.

  permanency

  / -nEnsI; -nEnsI/ n (fml 文) 1 [U] = permanence. 2 [C] permanent thing (esp a job) 永久性的事物(尤指工作): Is the new post a permanency? 这一新职位是长期的吗?

  permanent

  / 5p\:mEnEnt; `p[mEnEnt/ adj (a) lasting or expected to last for a long time or for ever 永久的; 永恒的; 长久的; 长期的: She is looking for permanent employment. 她正在找固定的工作. * The injury left him with a permanent limp. 他受伤後就一直瘸了. (b) not likely to change 不大可能改变的: my permanent address 我的固定地址. Cf 参看 impermanent, temporary.

  permanently

  adv.

  permanent wave

  (fml 文) (abbr 缩写 perm) (US permanent) method of styling the hair in which it is treated with chemicals and set in waves or curls that last for several months (化学)烫发.

  permanent way

  (Brit) railway track, ballast and sleepers on which the track is laid 铁路钢轨; 铁路路基.

  permanganate

  / pE5mNgEneIt; p[`mAN^E9net/ (also potassium permanganate, permanganate of potash) n [U] dark purple salt of an acid containing manganese, used as a disinfectant and antiseptic when dissolved in water 高锰酸钾.

  permeate

  / 5p\:mIeIt; `p[mI9et/ v [Ipr, Tn] ~ (through) sth (fml 文) enter sth and spread to every part 弥漫; 散布; 充满; 遍布: Water has permeated (through) the soil. 水已渗遍那片土壤. * The smell of cooking permeates (through) the flat. 整套房间都弥漫著做菜的气味. * (fig 比喻) A mood of defeat permeated the whole army. 失败的情绪感染了全军.

  permeable

  / 5p\:mIEbl; `p[mIEbl/ adj (fml 文) that can be permeated by fluids or gas; porous 可渗入的; 可渗透的. Cf 参看 impermeable.

  permeability

  / 9p\:mIE5bIlEtI; 9p[mIE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  permeation

  / 9p\:mI5eIFn; 9p[mI`eFEn/ n [U] (fml 文) permeating or being permeated 弥漫; 散布; 充满; 遍布.

  permissible

  / pE5mIsEbl; pL`mIsEbl/ adj (fml 文) that is or may be allowed 容许的; 可准许的: Delay is not permissible, even for a single day. 不得延误, 即使一日亦不可. * driving with more than the permissible level of alcohol in the blood 在血液中酒精含量超过许可标准的情况下开车.

  permissibly

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv.

  permission

  / pE5mIFn; pL`mIFEn/ n [U] ~ (to do sth) act of allowing sb to do sth; consent 许可; 准许; 允许; 同意: You have my permission to leave. 我准你离开. * She refused to give her permission. 她拒不同意. * They entered the area without permission. 他们未经许可擅入该地. * with your (kind) permission, ie if you will allow me 如蒙俯允.

  permissive

  / pE5mIsIv; pL`mIsIv/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] (often derog 常作贬义) (a) allowing great freedomof behaviour, esp to children or in sexual matters 纵容的, 放任的(尤指对儿童或性关系): a permissive upbringing 放任的教养 * permissive parents 纵容子女的父母. (b) showing this freedom 显示纵容或放任的(尤指对儿童或性关系): permissive attitudes, behaviour 放任的态度、 行为 * the permissive society, ie the one resulting from social changes that began in the 1960s, with eg greater freedom of sexual behaviour, lessening of censorship, etc 放任的社会(60年代社会变化的产物, 如性解放、 放宽审查尺度等).

  permissively

  adv: children who have been brought up permissively 娇生惯养的儿童.

  permissiveness

  n [U] being permissive in outlook or behaviour (看法或行为的)纵容, 放任.

  permit

  / pE5mIt; pL`mIt/ v (-tt-) (fml 文) 1 [Tn, Tg, Dn.n, Dn.t] give permission for (sth); allow 允许, 许可, 容许(某事物): Dogs are not permitted in the building. 不得携狗进入楼内. * We do not permit smoking in the office. 在我们的办公室里不准吸烟. * The prisoners were permitted two hours' exercise a day. 允许犯人每天有两小时户外活动. * Permit me to explain. 容我解释一下. * The council will not permit you to build here. 委员会不会允许你们在这一带搞建筑. 2 [I, Tn, Cn.t] make (sth) possible 使(某事物)有可能性: I'll come tomorrow, weather permitting, ie if the weather doesn't prevent me. 要是天气许可, 我明天一定来. * The new road system permits the free flow of traffic at all times. 新的道路系统可使车辆在任何时候都畅通无阻. * The windows permit light and air to enter. 这些窗户采光及通风性能良好. 3[Ipr no passive 不用於被动语态] (esp in negative sentences尤用於否定句) ~ of sth admit sth as possible; tolerate 认可; 容忍: The situation does not permit of any delay. 情势刻不容缓.

  permit

  / 5p\:mIt; `p[mIt/ n official document that gives sb the right to do sth, esp to go somewhere 许可证; (尤指)通行证: You cannot enter a military base without a permit. 无通行证者不得擅入军事基地.

  permutation

  / 9p\:mju:5teIFn; 9p[mjE`teFEn/ n (fml 文) 1 (esp mathematics 尤用於数学) (a) [U] variation in the order of a set of things 排列; 置换. (b) [C] any one of these arrangements 一组排列: The permutations of x, y and z are xyz, xzy, yxz, yzx, zxy, zyx. x、 y、 z的排列是xyz、 xzy、 yxz、 yzx、 zxy、 zyx. 2 (infml 口语作 perm) (Brit) (esp in football pools) selection of items from a group, to be arranged in a number of combinations (尤指足球普尔赌博中的)选定组合.

  permute

  / pE5mju:t; pL`mjut/ v [Tn] vary the order or arrangement of (sth) 改变(某事物)的次序或排列.

  pernicious

  / pE5nIFEs; pL`nIFEs/ adj (fml 文) ~ (to sb/sth) having a very harmful or destructive effect (on sb/sth) 有害的; 恶性的; 破坏性的: a pernicious influence on society 对社会有害的影响 * a pernicious campaign to blacken his character 旨在诋毁他的人格的恶意宣传活动 * Pollution of the water supply reached a level pernicious to the health of the population. 水源污染已达到危及居民健康的程度.

  perniciously

  adv.

  perniciousness

  n [U].

  pernicious anaemia

  (medical 医) severe form of anaemia that is sometimes fatal 恶性贫血.

  pernickety

  / pE5nIkEtI; pL`nIkItI/ adj (infml often derog 口, 常作贬义) worrying too much about details or unimportant things; fussy 吹毛求疵的; 爱挑剔

  peroration

  / 9perE5reIFn; 9pZro`reFEn/ n (fml 文) 1 last part of a speech; summing up (演讲的)结尾, 总结, 结论. 2 (often derog 常作贬义) lengthy speech 冗长的演说: We had to listen to a peroration on the evils of drink! 我们得听一个关於酗酒害处的冗长报告!

  peroxide

  / pE5rCksaId; pE`rBksaId/ n [U] 1 any of several compounds of oxygen with another element, containing the maximum proportion of oxygen 过氧化物. 2 (also ,hydrogen pe`roxide, pe,roxide of `hydrogen) colourless liquid used as an antiseptic and to bleach hair 过氧化氢: [attrib 作定语] a peroxide blonde, ie a woman with hair that has been bleached with peroxide 假金发女子(头发经漂染处理的).

  peroxide

  v [Tn] bleach (hair) with hydrogen peroxide 用过氧化氢漂白(头发): peroxided curls 漂白过的鬈发.

  perpendicular

  / 9p\:pEn5dIkjUlE(r); 9p[pEn`dIkjElL/ adj 1 ~ (to sth) at an angle of 90 (to another line or surface) 成直角的; 垂直的: a line drawn perpendicular to another 向一线引一垂线. 2 at a right angle to the horizontal; upright 竖立的; 直立的: the perpendicular marble columns of a Greek temple 希腊庙宇直立的大理石柱. 3 (of a cliff, rock-face, etc) rising very steeply (指悬崖、 石壁等)陡峭的, 壁立的: The valley ended in a perpendicular rim of granite. 那山谷的尽头是花岗石的断崖. 4 (also Perpendicular) (architecture 建) of the style of English Gothic architecture in the 14th and 15th centuries, characterized by the use of vertical lines in its decoration 垂直式的(14-15世纪英国哥特式建筑风格的).

  perpendicular

  n 1 [C] perpendicular line 垂直线. 2 (also the perpendicular) [U] perpendicular position or direction 垂直; 垂直方向: The wall is a little out of (the) perpendicular. 那墙有点倾斜.

  perpendicularity

  / 9p\:pEn9dIkjU5lArEtI; 9p[pEn9dIkjE`lArEtI/ n [U].

  perpendicularly

  adv.

  perpetrate

  / 5p\:pItreIt; `p[pE9tret/ v [Tn] (fml or joc 文或谑) (a) commit (a crime, etc) 犯(罪等): perpetrate a dreadful outrage 犯下暴行. (b) be guilty of (a blunder, an error, etc) 做(错事); 犯(过失): Who perpetrated that dreadful extension to the front of the building? 谁在那楼房正面加盖了那麽一截讨厌的建筑物?

  perpetration

  / 9p\:pI5treIFn; 9p[pE`treFEn/ n [U].

  perpetrator

  n person who commits a crime or does sth considered outrageous 犯罪者; 作恶者; 犯过者: the perpetrator of a hoax 诈骗犯.

  perpetual

  / pE5petFUEl; pL`pZtFJEl/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] 1 continuing indefinitely; permanent 永久的; 永恒的: the perpetual snow of the Arctic 北极终年不化的积雪. 2 without interruption; continuous 不间断的; 持续的: the perpetual noise of traffic 不绝於耳的交通噪音. 3 (infml 口) frequently repeated; continual 反覆的; 不断的: He was irritated by their perpetual complaints. 他们一再发牢骚把他惹火了.

  perpetually

  / -tFUElI; -tFJElI/ adv.

  perpetual motion

  [U] movement (eg of an imagined machine) that would continue for ever without getting power from an outside source 永动(不需外加能量永久运转, 如假想的机器).

  perpetuate

  / pE5petFUeIt; pL`pZtFJ9et/ v [Tn] cause (sth) to continue 使(某事物)永久、 永存或持续: These measures will perpetuate the hostility between the two groups. 采取这些措施势必使那两集团永远对立. * They decided to perpetuate the memory of their leader by erecting a statue. 他们为永远纪念那位领袖决定建一座雕像.

  perpetuation

  / pE9petFU5eIFn; pL9pZtFJ`eFEn/ n [U].

  perpetuity

  / 9p\:pI5tju:EtI; ?@ -5tu:-; 9p[pE`tuEtI/ n (idm 习语) in perpetuity (fml 文) for ever; permanently 永久; 永恒; 永远: The site of the memorial is granted in perpetuity to Canada. 纪念馆址已选定在加拿大作为永久的纪念.

  perplex

  / pE5pleks; pL`plZks/ v [Tn] make (sb) feel puzzled or confused; bewilder 使(某人)困惑、 糊涂或迷惑: The question perplexed me. 那问题把我难住了. * We were perplexed by his failure to answer the letter. 他何以不覆信, 我们大惑不解. * The whole affair is very perplexing. 整件事令人感到莫名其妙.

  perplexed

  adj puzzled or confused 困惑的; 糊涂的: The audience looked perplexed. 听众看样子都没听懂. * She had to explain her behaviour to her perplexed supporters. 她要向那些不明所以的拥护者解释自己的那种行为. * He gave her a perplexed look. 他茫然地看了她一眼.

  perplexedly

  / -IdlI; -IdlI/ adv: `What is this?' he asked perplexedly. `这是什麽?'他困惑地问道.

  perplexity

  / -EtI; -EtI/ n [U] 1 state of being perplexed; bewilderment 困惑; 混乱: She looked at us in perplexity. 她茫然地望著我们. 2 state of being complicated or difficult 复杂; 困难: a problem of such perplexity that it was impossible to solve 复杂得无法解决的问题.

  perquisite

  / 5p\:kwIzIt; `p[kwEzIt/ n (esp pl 尤作复数) (fml 文) 1 (infml 口语作 perk) money or goods given or regarded as a right in addition to one's pay (工资以外的)财物补贴, 额外收入, 津贴, 奖金, 小费: Perquisites include the use of the company car. 福利包括可以使用公司的汽车. 2 special advantage or right enjoyed as a result of one's position (随职位而得到的)好处, 利益, 便利, 特权, 优待: Politics in Britain used to be the perquisite of the property-owning classes. 英国的政治以往是有产阶级的特权.

  perry

  / 5perI; `pZrI/ n (a) [U] drink made from the fermented juice of pears 梨酒. (b) [C] glass of this 一杯梨酒. Cf 参看 cider.

  pers

  abbr 缩写 = person; personal.

  persecute

  / 5p\:sIkju:t; `p[sI9kjut/ v 1 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (for sth) treat sb cruelly, esp because of his race, his political or religious beliefs, etc 迫害某人(尤指基於种族、 政治或宗教信仰等原因): Throughout history religious minorities have been persecuted (for their beliefs). 纵观历史, 宗教上的少数派始终(因其信仰关系)受迫害. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (with sth) allow no peace to sb; hound sb 烦扰、 困扰或骚扰某人: Once the affair became public, he was persecuted by the press. 事情公开後, 他便受到新闻界的纠缠.

  persecution

  / 9p\:sI5kju:Fn; 9p[sI`kjuFEn/ n (a) [U] persecuting or being persecuted 迫害; 烦扰; 困扰; 骚扰: his persecution of his political opponents 他对政治反对派的迫害 * They suffered persecution for their beliefs. 他们因信仰问题受到迫害. (b) [C] instance of this 迫害; 烦扰; 困扰; 骚扰: He is writing a history of the persecutions endured by his race. 他在写一部关於其种族所受迫害的历史书.

  persecution complex (also persecution mania)

  (psychology 心) insane belief that one is being persecuted 受迫害妄想狂.

  persecutor

  n person who persecutes others 迫害者: His persecutors were severely punished. 迫害他的人受到了严厉的惩处.

  persevere

  / 9p\:sI5vIE(r); 9p[sE`vIr/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (at/in/with sth); ~ (with sb) (usu approv 通常作褒义) continue trying to do sth, esp in spite of difficulty 坚持做某事(尤指不畏困难): You'll need to persevere if you want the business to succeed. 要想事业成功, 就得持之以恒. * She persevered in her efforts to win the championship.她为赢得冠军而不断努力. * It's difficult, but I'm going to persevere with it. 难是难, 但我一定坚持到底. * He was hopeless at French, but his teacher persevered with him. 他怎麽也学不会法语, 可是老师仍锲而不舍地帮助他.

  perseverance

  / 9p\:sI5vIErEns; 9p[sE`vIrEns/ n [U] continued steady effort to achieve an aim; steadfastness 坚持不懈; 不屈不挠: After months of disappointment, his perseverance was finally rewarded. 数月来他经历挫折而不断努力, 终於有了收获. * perseverance in the face of extreme hardship 面对极端困苦而百折不挠.

  persevering

  / 9p\:sI5vIErIN; 9p[sE`vIrIN/ adj showing perseverance 坚持的; 不屈不挠的: [attrib 作定语] persevering efforts 坚持不懈的努力 * A few persevering climbers finally reached the top. 少数几个攀登者坚忍不拔, 终於登上了顶峰.

  perseveringly

  adv.

  Persian

  / 5p\:Fn; ?@ 5p\:rVn; `p[VEn/ adj of Persia (now called Iran), its people or its language 波斯(现称伊朗)的; 波斯人的; 波斯语的.

  Persian

  n 1 [C] inhabitant of Persia 波斯人. 2 [U] language of Persia 波斯语.

  Persian carpet (also Persian rug)

  carpet of traditional design from the Near East, handmade from silk or wool 波斯地毯.

  Persian cat (also Persian)

  type of pure-bred cat with long silky hair 波斯猫.

  Persian lamb

  silky curled fur, usu black, of a type of Asian lamb, used for coats; astrakhan 波斯羔羊皮(通常为黑色).

  persiflage

  / 5p\:sIflB:V; `p[sI9flBV/ n [U] (fml 文) light good-humoured teasing; banter 戏谑; 打趣; 玩笑.

  persimmon

  / pE5sImEn; pL`sImEn/ n 1 large orange-red plum-like edible fruit 柿子. 2 any of several types of tropical tree on which this grows 柿子树.

  persist

  / pE5sIst; pL`sIst/ v 1 [I, Ipr] ~ (in sth/in doing sth) continue to do sth, esp in an obstinate and determined way and in spite of opposition, argument or failure 坚持; 执意: If you persist, you will annoy them even more. 你若固执, 他们就更恼火了. * He will persist in riding that dreadful bicycle. 他执意要骑那辆破自行车. * She persists in the belief/in believing that she is being persecuted. 她认定自己受到了迫害. 2 [Ipr] ~ with sth continue doing sth in spite of difficulties 不畏困难继续做某事: They persisted with the agricultural reforms, despite opposition from the farmers. 他们不顾农民反对, 仍继续进行农业改革. 3 [I] continue to exist 持续; 存留: Fog will persist throughout the night. 雾将整夜不散. * Loyalty to the former king still persists in parts of the country. 该国一些地方仍有人忠於前国王.

  persistence

  / -Ens; -Ens/ n [U] (a) being persistent坚持不懈; 执意; 持续; 存留: His persistence was rewardedwhen they finally agreed to resume discussions. 他们终於同意继续谈判, 这是他坚持不懈的结果. (b) continuing existence 继续存在: The doctor couldn't explain the persistence of the high temperature. 医生无法解释高烧何以持久不退.

  persistent

  / -Ent; -Ent/ adj 1 refusing to give up 坚持的; 不屈不挠的: She eventually married the most persistentof her admirers. 她终於嫁给了最执著追求她的人. 2 (a) continuing without interruption 持续不断的; 不间断的: [attrib 作定语] persistent noise, rain, pain 持续的噪音、 雨水、 疼痛 * persistent questioning 无休止的讯问. (b) occurring frequently 反覆出现的; 一再发生的: [attrib 作定语] persistent attacks of coughing 咳嗽的频繁发作 * Despite persistent denials, the rumour continued tospread. 尽管一再否认, 谣言还是不胫而走.

  persistently

  adv.

  person

  / 5p\:sn; `p[sn/ n (pl 复数作 people / 5pi:pl; `pipl/ or, in formal or derogatory use, 作郑重或贬抑用词时复数作 persons). =>Usage at people 用法见people. 1human being as an individual with distinct characteristics(有某种个性或特性的)人: He's just the person we need for the job. 他正是我们需要的做那种工作的人. * Hereshe is the very person we were talking about! 就是她--我们刚刚谈到的那个人. * I had a letter from the people who used to own the corner shop. 我收到从前街角那家商店的老板寄来的一封信. 2 (fml or derog 文或贬) (esp known or unspecified) human being (尤指已知的或非特指的)人: A certain person (ie somebody that I do not wish to name) told me everything. 有个人把一切都告诉我了. * Any person found leaving litter will be prosecuted. 禁扔垃圾, 违者必究. * (law 律) accused of conspiring with person or persons unknown, eg said when charging sb in court 被控与人合谋(如於法庭控告某人所说). 3 (grammar) any of the three classes of personalpronouns, the first person `I/we' referring to the person(s) speaking, the second person `you' referring to the person(s) spoken to, and the third person `he, she, it, they' referring to the person(s) or thing(s) spoken about 人称(第一人称I/we指谈话者, 第二人称you指谈话的对象, 第三人称he、 she、 it、 they指谈及的人或事物). 4 (idm 习语) about/on one's `person carried about with one, eg in one's pocket 带在身上(如在口袋里): A gun was found on his person. 从他身上搜出一枝枪. be no/not be any respecter of persons => respecter (respect2). in `person physically present 亲身; 亲自; 本人: The winner will be there in person to collect the prize. 奖金需获奖者本人领取. * You may apply for tickets in person or by letter. 需票者可亲自来申请亦可来信索取. in the person of sb (fml 文) in the form or shape of sb 即某人; 乃某人; 其人: Help arrived in the person of his father. 前来帮忙的是他的父亲. * The firm has an important asset in the person of the director of research. 公司有一巨大财富, 就是研究部主任这个人.

  person-to-person call

  n (esp US) telephone call made via the operator to a particular person and paid for from the time that person answers the phone 叫人电话(经接线员接通, 至指定受话人答话时起计费).

  persona

  / pE5sEUnE; pL`sonE/ n (pl -nae / -ni:; -ni/) (psychology 心) character of a person as presented to others or as others perceive it 面具人格; 伪装人格.

  persona grata

  / 5grB:tE; `^rBtE/ (Latin 拉) person who is acceptable to others, esp a diplomat acceptable to a foreign government 受欢迎的人(尤指受驻在国政府欢迎的外交官).

  persona non grata

  / nCn 5grB:tE; 9nBn`^rBtE/ (Latin 拉) person who is not acceptable to others, esp to a foreign government 不受欢迎的人(尤指不受外国政府欢迎的): He was declared persona non grata and forced to leave the country. 他被宣布为不受欢迎的人而被迫离开该国. * (joc 谑) He forgot to buy more coffee yesterday, so he was persona non grata at breakfast this morning! 他因昨日忘了多买些咖啡, 今晨早餐上遂成为家中众矢之的.

  personable

  / 5p\:sEnEbl; `p[snEbl/ adj [esp attrib 尤作定语] having a pleasant appearance or manner 英俊的; 有风度的: The salesman was a very personable young man. 推销员是个风度翩翩的年轻人.

  personably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv.

  dramatis personae

  / 9drAmEtIs p\:5sEUnaI; `drAmEtIs pL`soni/ (fml 文) (list of the) characters in a play 剧中人物(表).

  personage

  / 5p\:sEnIdV; `p[snIdV/ n person, esp an important or distinguished one 人; (尤指)要人, 名人:Political and royal personages from many countries attended the funeral. 许多国家的政界要人和皇族人士参加了葬礼.

  personal

  / 5p\:sEnl; `p[snl/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] of or belonging to a particular person rather than a group or an organization 个人的: one's personal affairs, beliefs 私事、 个人信仰 * a car for your personal use only 仅供你个人用的汽车 * She made a personal donation to the fund. 她以个人名义向基金会捐款. * give sth the personal touch, ie make it individual or original 使某事物带有个人色彩. 2 not of one's public or professional life; private 私人的: a letter marked `Personal' 注明`亲收'字样的信件 * Please leave us alone we have something personal to discuss. 请让我们单独在一起--我们有点私事要谈. * His personal life is a mystery to his colleagues. 他的同事认为他的私生活是个谜. 3 [attrib 作定语] done or made by a particular person 本人所做的: The Prime Minister made a personal appearance at the meeting. 首相亲临会议. * I shall give the matter my personal attention. 我将亲自过问此事. 4 [attrib 作定语] done or made for a particular person 为某个人所做的: We offer a personal service to our customers. 我们为 顾客提供个人服务. * Will you do it for me as a personalfavour? 请你帮我个人一个忙行吗? * a personal account,ie a bank or building society account in a person's name (银行或房屋建筑协会的)个人帐户. 5 critical of a person's faults 人身攻击: The argument was becoming too personal. 那场争论已演变成过分的人身攻击了. * Try to avoid making personal comments. 尽量避免人身攻击. 6 [attrib 作定语] of the body 人身的; 身体的: personal cleanliness, freshness, hygiene, etc 身体的清洁卫生、 活力、 卫生等.

  personally

  / -EnElI; -nlI/ adv 1 not represented by another; in person 亲身; 亲自: She presented the prizes personally. 她亲自颁奖. * The plans were personally inspected by the minister. 这计画经部长亲自审阅过. 2 as a person 作为个人; 就个人而论: I don't know him personally, but I've read his books. 我对他个人并不了解, 但我看过他的书. 3 (often at the beginning of a statement, followed by a comma 常用於一句话的开始, 後有逗号) as far as I am concerned; for myself 就我来说; 就自己而言: Personally, I don't like him at all. 就我而言, 我一点都不喜欢他. * Personally speaking/Speakingpersonally, I'm in favour of the scheme. 就本人而言, 我赞成这个计画. =>Usage at hopeful 用法见hopeful. 4 (idm 习语) take sth `personally be offended by sth为某事所触怒: I'm afraid he took your remarks personally.我看他对你的话很不高兴.

  personal assistant

  (abbr 缩写 PA) secretary who assists an official or a manager 私人秘书; 私人助理.

  personal column

  column in a newspaper or some other periodical for private messages or short advertisements 个人启事栏; 私人广告栏.

  personal pronoun

  (grammar) any of the pronouns 人称代词 I, me, she, her, he, him, we, us, you, they, them, etc.

  personal property (also personal estate)

  (law 律) property owned by a person, except land or income from land, that passes to his heir 动产. Cf 参看 real estate (real1).

  personalize, personalise

  / 5p\:sEnElaIz; `p[snl9aIz/ v 1 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] mark (sth) in order to show that it belongs to a person, esp by putting his address or initials on it 在某物上作物主标志(尤指标示物主的地址或姓名的首字母): handkerchiefs personalized with her initials 有她的姓名首字母的手帕 * [attrib 作定语] a personalized number-plate, ie one on a car, with personally selected letters 有个人选择字母标记的汽车号码牌. 2 [Tn] cause (sth) to become concerned with personal matters or feelings 使(某事物)针对个人、 带有个人感情或个人化: We don't want to personalize the issue. 我们不想把问题搞得个人化了.

  personality

  / 9p\:sE5nAlEtI; 9p[sn`AlEtI/ n 1 [C] characteristics and qualities of a person seen as a whole 人格; 个性: a likeable personality 讨人喜欢的个性 * She has a very strong personality. 她个性很强. * influences which affect the development of a child's personality 影响儿童性格发展的因素. 2 [U, C] distinctive, esp socially attractive, qualities 特色(尤指社交上有吸引力的素质): We need someone with lots of personality to organize the party. 我们需要有个人见人爱的人来组织聚会. * His wife was very beautiful, but seemed to have no personality. 他的妻子很漂亮, 但似乎没有什麽特点. 3 [C] famous person, esp in the world of entertainment or sport 名人(尤指娱乐界或体育界的): personalities from the film world 影界名流 * a television personality 电视圈中的名人 * one of the best-known personalities in the world of tennis 网球界最著名的人物之一. 4 personalities [pl] critical or impolite remarks about a person 人身攻击; 诽谤: indulge in personalities, ie make such remarks 一味进行人身攻击 * Let's keep personalities out of it, ie avoid criticizing individual people. 咱们不要进行人身攻击.

  personality cult

  (often derog 常作贬义) excessive admiration of a famous person, esp a political leader (对名人的)个人崇拜(尤指对政治领袖的).

  personify

  / pE5sCnIfaI; pL`sBnE9faI/ v (pt, pp -fied) [Tn] 1 (a) treat (sth) as if it were a human being 将(某事物)人格化、 拟人化: The sun and the moon are often personified in poetry. 诗歌中常把日、 月拟人化. (b) represent (an idea, a quality, etc) in human form; symbolize 以人的形象表现(思想、 品质等); 象徵: Justice is often personified as a blindfolded woman holding a pair of scales. 常把蒙著眼睛手持天平的女人当作正义的象徵. 2 be an example in human form of a quality or characteristic, esp one possessed to an extreme degree 为某品质或特点的化身(尤指极典型的): He personifies the worship of money. 他是拜金的化身. * He is kindness personified. 他是善良的化身.

  personification

  / pE9sCnIfI5keIFn; pL9sBnEfE`keFEn/ n 1 (a) [U] treating sth that is without life as a human being or representing it in human form 人格化; 拟人化; 象徵; 化身: The personification of evil as a devil is a feature of medieval painting. 用魔鬼象徵罪恶是中世纪绘画的特色. (b) [C] instance of this 人格化; 拟人化; 象徵; 化身. 2 [C usu sing 通常作单数] ~ of sth person who possesses a quality or characteristic to an extreme degree 极具某品质或特点的人; 典型: He looked the personification of misery. 他那副样子可谓是苦难的典型. * She was the personification of elegance. 她是文雅的典范.

  personnel

  / 9p\:sE5nel; 9p[sn`Zl/ n 1 [pl v] people employed in one of the armed forces, a firm or a public office; staff 人员; 职员: trained personnel 培训过的职员 * Army personnel are not allowed to leave the base. 军事人员不准离开基地. * Airline personnel can purchase flight tickets at reduced prices. 航空公司的职员可以优惠价购买飞机票. * [attrib 作定语] a personnel carrier, ie a ship or an aeroplane that carries troops 运兵的船(或飞机). 2 [Gp] (also person`nel department) department in a firm which deals with employees, esp with their appointment and welfare 人事部门: Personnel is/are organizing the training of the new members of staff. 人事部门正在组织新雇员的培训. * [attrib 作定语] person`nel manager/officer 人事部主任[负责人].

  perspective

  / pE5spektIv; pL`spZktIv/ n 1 (a) [U] art of drawing solid objects on a flat surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth and position in relation to each other 透视法: She drew a row of trees receding into the distance to demonstrate the laws of perspective. 她画了一排由近而远高度递减的树以演示透视法的规律. * [attrib 作定语] a perspective drawing 一幅透视画. (b) [C] drawing made this way 透视图. =>illus 见插图. 2 [C] view, esp one stretching into the distance 远景, 景(尤指由近而远的): get a perspective of the whole valley 取整个山谷的远景 * (fig 比喻) a personal perspective of the nation's history 国家历史之我见. 3 (idm 习语) in/out of perspective (a) showing the correct/incorrect relationship between visible objects 可见物体的位置或比例正确[不正确]; 按照[不按照]透视法: draw the buildings in perspective 按比例画某建筑物 * That tree on the left of the picture is out of perspective. 画中左边那棵树不合比例. (b) [U] ina way that does not exaggerate any aspect/that exaggerates some aspects 不夸大[夸大]; 恰当[不恰当]: He sees things in their right perspective. 他观察事物很正确. * view/put/see sth in (its true/its proper) perspective 从实际的[恰当的]角度观察[处置/看待]某事物 * see the events in their historical perspective 用历史的观点看待这些事件 * get things badly out of perspective 处事极为失当.

  Perspex

  / 5p\:speks; `p[9spZks/ n [U] (propr 专利名) strong transparent plastic material that is often used instead of glass because it does not splinter 有机玻璃(一种高强度透明塑料).

  perspicacious

  / 9p\:spI5keIFEs; 9p[spI`keFEs/ adj (fml 文) having or showing great insight or judgement; discerning 有洞察力的; 判断力强的; 有识别力的: a perspicacious analysis of the problem 对问题的精辟分析 * It was very perspicacious of you to find the cause of the trouble so quickly. 你真是明察秋毫, 问题的原因这麽快就找出来了.

  perspicaciously

  adv.

  perspicacity

  / 9p:spI5kAsEtI; 9p[spI`kAsEtI/ n [U].

  perspicuous

  / pE5spIkjUEs; pL`spIkjJEs/ adj (fml 文) (a) expressed clearly 表达得清楚的. (b) (of a person) expressing things clearly; lucid (指人)有表达力的, 表达清楚的.

  perspicuously

  adv.

  perspicuousness, perspicuity

  / -5kju:EtI; -`kjuEtI/ ns [U].

  perspire

  / pE5spaIE(r); pL`spaIr/ v [I] (fml 文) give off moisture through the skin; sweat 出汗; 流汗: perspiring profusely after a game of squash 壁球赛後大汗淋漓.

  perspiration

  / 9p\:spE5reIFn; 9p[spE`reFEn/ n [U] (a) moisture given off by the body; sweat 汗; 汗水: drops of perspiration rolling down one's forehead 从额头上滚落的汗珠. (b) process of giving off moisture through the skin 出汗; 流汗: Perspiration cools the skin in hot weather. 天热时出汗可使皮肤降温.

  persuade

  / pE5sweId; pL`swed/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.t] ~ sb (into/out of sth) cause sb to do sth by arguing or reasoning with him 说服或劝说某人做某事: You try and persuade her (to come out with us). 你去试试劝她(跟我们一起出去)吧. * He is easily persuaded. 他这人好说话. * How can we persuade him into joining us? 怎麽才能说服他参加我们的活动呢? * He persuaded his daughter to change her mind. 他说服女儿改变主意. 2 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态, Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态, Dn.f] ~ sb (of sth) (fml 文) cause sb to believe sth; convince sb 使某人相信某事物; 使某人信服: I am not fully persuaded by the evidence. 这证据不足以使我充分信服. * We are persuaded of the justice of her case. 我们确信对她案件的审理是公正的. * How can I persuade you that I am sincere? 怎样才能使你相信我是真心实意的呢?

  persuasion

  / pE5sweIVn; pL`sweVEn/ n 1 [U] persuading or being persuaded 说服; 劝说; 信服: Defeated by her powers of persuasion, I accepted. 她的劝说很有力, 我完全接受. * After a lot of persuasion, he agreed to come.好说歹说, 他才同意来. * Gentle persuasion is more effective than force. 温和的说服胜於压服. 2 [C] (group who hold a) set of (esp religious or political) beliefs 持有(尤指宗教的或政治的)信仰(的宗派): people of all persuasions 持各种信仰的人们 * He is not of their (religious) persuasion. 他和他们的(宗教)信仰不同. 3 [sing] (fml 文) something that one believes; conviction 信念; 见解: It is my persuasion that the decision was a mistake. 我认为那个决定是错误的.

  persuasive

  / pE5sweIsIv; pL`swesIv/ adj able to persuade; convincing 能说服人的; 有说服力的; 令人信服的: apersuasive manner 晓人以理的态度 * persuasive arguments,reasons, excuses, etc 有说服力的论据、 理由、 藉口等.

  persuasively

  adv.

  persuasiveness

  n [U]: the persuasiveness of his argument 他的论据的说服力.

  pert

  / p\:t; p[t/ adj 1 (esp of a girl or young woman) not showing respect; cheeky (尤指女孩或年轻女子)无礼的, 冒失的: a pert child, reply 无礼的孩子、 回答 * Don't be so pert! 放庄重些! 2 (esp US) amusing; lively 好玩的; 别致的; 精神的: a pert little red hat 一顶别致的小红帽.

  pertly

  adv.

  pertness

  n [U].

  pertain

  / pE5teIn; pL`ten/ v [Ipr] ~ to sth (fml 文) (used esp in the continuous tenses 尤用於进行时态) 1 be connected with or relevant to sth 与某事物有关联: evidence pertaining to the case 与案件有关的证据. 2 belong to sth as a part of it 依附於或从属於某事物: (law 律) the manor and the land pertaining to it 庄园及其所属土地. 3 be appropriate to sth 符合於或适合於某事物: the enthusiasm pertaining to youth 青年特有的热情.

  pertinacious

  / 9p\:tI5neIFEs; ?@ -tn5eIFEs; 9p[tn`eFEs/ adj (fml 文) holding firmly to an opinion or a course of action; determined 坚持的; 固执的; 坚决的: His style of argument in meetings is not so much aggressive as pertinacious. 他在会议上的辩论态度并非锋芒逼人而是坚持己见.

  pertinaciously

  adv.

  pertinacity

  / p\:tI5nsEtI; US -tn5-; 9p[tn`AsEtI/ n [U].

  pertinent

  / 5p\:tInEnt; ?@ -tEnEnt; `p[tnEnt/ adj ~ (to sth) (fml 文) relevant (to sth); to the point 有关的; 中肯的; 恰当的: pertinent comments, points, questions, etc 中肯的意见、 观点、 问题等 * remarks not pertinent to the matter we are discussing 与我们正在讨论的事情不相干的话.

  pertinently

  adv.

  pertinence

  / -Ens; -Ens/ n [U].

  perturb

  / pE5t\:b; pL`t[b/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (fml 文) make (sb) very worried; disturb 使(某人)烦恼、 不安: perturbing rumours 令人不安的谣言 * We were perturbed to hear of his disappearance. 我们听说他失踪了, 都很不安.

  perturbation

  / 9p\:tE5beIFn; 9p[tL`beFEn/ n [U] (fml 文) state of being perturbed; anxiety 不安; 烦扰; 忧虑.

  peruse

  / pE5ru:z; pE`ruz/ v [Tn] 1 (fml 文) read (sth), esp carefully or thoroughly 读(某篇文字); (尤指)细阅, 审阅: peruse a document 细阅一文件. 2 (joc 谑) read (sth) quickly and without concentrating 匆匆读或心不在焉地浏览(某篇文字): absent-mindedly perusing the notices on the waiting-room wall 漫不经心地看等候室墙上的布告.

  perusal

  / pE5ru:zl; pE`ruzl/ n [C, U] (action of) reading carefully 细读.

  pervade

  / pE5veId; pL`ved/ v [Tn] spread to and be perceived in every part of (sth) 弥漫, 渗遍, 遍布, 充满(某处): The smell of baked apples pervaded the house.房子里弥漫著烤苹果的香味. * a pervading sense of disaster 普遍有大祸临头的感觉 * Her work is pervaded by nostalgia for a past age. 她的作品充满怀旧之情.

  pervasion

  / pE5veIVn; pL`veVEn/ n [U] (fml 文) pervading or being pervaded 弥漫; 渗透; 遍布; 充满.

  pervasive

  / pE5veIsIv; pL`vesIv/ adj present and perceived everywhere; pervading 无处不在的; 遍布的; 充斥各处的: pervasive smell, dust, damp etc 到处都有的气味、 尘埃、 湿气等 * the pervasive mood of pessimism 普遍存在的悲观情绪.

  pervasively

  adv.

  pervasiveness

  n [U].

  perverse

  / pE5v\:s; pL`v[s/ adj (fml 文) 1 (of a person) deliberately continuing to behave in a way that is wrong, unreasonable or unacceptable (指人)固执错误的, 背理的, 不合常情的: a perverse child 任性的孩子 * You are being unnecessarily perverse. 你无谓一意孤行. 2 [esp attrib 尤作定语] (of behaviour) stubbornly unreasonable (指行为)任性的, 蛮不讲理的: his perverse refusal to see a doctor 他那拒不就医的固执态度 * It would be perverse to take a different view. 持异议之见未免不近情理. * a perverse decision, judgement, etc, ie one that ignores the facts or evidence 罔顾事实的决定、 裁决等. 3 [esp attrib 尤作定语] (of feelings) unreasonableor excessive (指感情)不近情理的, 过分的: take a perverse pleasure in upsetting one's parents 以忤逆父母作反常之乐 * a perverse desire to shock 故意使人吃惊的反常心理.

  perversely

  adv: She continued, perversely, to wear shoes that damaged her feet. 她偏偏穿那双挤脚的鞋.

  perverseness, perversity

  ns [U].

  perversion

  / pE5v\:Fn; ?@ -Vn; pL`v[VEn/ n 1 (a) [U] changing sth from right to wrong; perverting 变错; 变坏; 反常: the perversion of innocence 纯洁心灵的变坏 * the perversion of the evidence to suit powerful interests 因利欲熏心而颠倒是非. (b) [C] perverted form of sth; distortion 歪曲; 颠倒; 曲解: Her account was a perversion of the truth. 她所讲的歪曲了事实. 2 [U] (a) (esp of sexual feelings) being or becoming unnatural or abnormal (尤指对性的情感)反常, 异常: the perversion of normal desires 欲望的反常. (b) [C] (esp sexual) taste or desire which has been perverted (尤指性的)变态心理, 倒错: the treatment of sexual perversion by psychotherapy 用心理疗法医治性变态 * His craving for publicity has become almost a perversion. 他渴望出风头已迹近病态.

  pervert

  / pE5v\:t; pL`v[t/ v [Tn] 1 turn (sth) away from its proper nature or use 误用, 滥用(某事物): pervert the truth/the course of justice 歪曲事实[妨碍司法公正] * an expression whose meaning has been perverted by constant misuse 积非成是的说法. 2 cause (a person, his mind) to turn away from what is right or natural使(人、 心理)入邪路、 反常或堕落: pervert (the mind of) a child 把儿童(的思想)教坏 * an idealist perverted by the desire for power 被权欲引入歧途的理想主义者 * Do pornographic books pervert those who read them? 看色情 书刊能诱人堕落吗? * a perverted desire to make others suffer 虐待他人的反常心理.

  pervert

  / 5p\:v\:t; `p[v[t/ n (derog 贬) person whose (esp sexual) behaviour is considered abnormal or unacceptable 走上邪路者; 堕落者; 反常者; (尤指)性变态者, 性欲倒错者.

  peseta

  / pE5seItE; pE`setE/ n (a) unit of money in Spain; 100 centimos 比塞塔(西班牙货币单位, 等於100分). (b) coin of this value 一比塞塔硬币.

  pesky

  / 5peskI; `pZskI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (US infml 口) causing trouble; annoying 引起麻烦的; 恼人的: pesky kids, mosquitoes, weeds 讨厌的孩子、 蚊子、 杂草.

  peso

  / 5peIsEU; `peso/ n (pl ~s) unit of money in many Latin American countries and the Philippines 比索(拉丁美洲国家和菲律宾的货币单位).

  pessary

  / 5pesErI; `pZsErI/ n (medical 医) 1 small tablet placed in a woman's vagina and left to dissolve (to prevent conception or to cure an infection); vaginal suppository 阴道栓(避孕或治疗炎症的). 2 device placed in a woman's vagina to prevent conception (also diaphragm pessary) or to support the womb 子宫帽(避孕用的); 子宫托(治疗子宫下垂的).

  pessimism

  / 5pesImIzEm; `pZsE9mIzEm/ n [U] 1 tendency to be gloomy and believe that the worst will happen 悲观: His pessimism has the effect of depressing everyone. 他的悲观情绪感染得大家情绪低落. 2 (philosophy 哲) belief that evil will always triumph over good 悲观主义. Cf 参看 optimism.

  pessimist

  / -Ist; -Ist/ n person who expects the worst to happen 悲观主义者: It's easy to sell insurance to a pessimist. 向悲观的人推销保险很容易. Cf 参看 optimist (optimism).

  pessimistic

  / 9pesI5mIstIk; 9pZsE`mIstIk/ adj ~ (about sth) influenced by or showing pessimism 悲观的; 悲观主义的: a pessimistic view of the world 对世界的悲观主义看法 * After the pessimistic sales forecasts, production was halved. 在做了悲观销售预测之後, 产量降低了一半.

  pessimistically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  pest

  / pest; pZst/ n 1 [C] (infml 口) annoying person or thing 讨厌的人; 害人虫; 坑人的事物: That child is an absolute pest he keeps ringing the doorbell and then running away! 那孩子讨厌极了--老是来按门铃, 按完就跑了! 2 [C] insect or animal that destroys plants, food, etc 害虫、 害兽、 害鸟等有害动物: Stores of grain are frequently attacked by pests, especially rats. 储存的 物经常受损坏, 尤其是老鼠为患最甚. * garden pests, eg slugs, greenfly 花园中的害虫(如蛞蝓、 蚜虫). Cf 参看 vermin 1. 3 [C, U] (arch 古) = pestilence.

  pest control

  [U] destruction of pests, eg with poison, traps, etc 消灭有害动物(如用毒药、 诱捕装置等).

  pester

  / 5pestE(r); `pZstL/ v [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.t] ~ sb (for sth); ~ sb (with sth) annoy or disturb sb, esp with frequent requests 打扰或纠缠某人(尤指不断提出要求): He told the photographers to stop pestering him. 他告诉照相的人别再缠著他. * The horses in the meadow were being pestered by flies. 牧场上的马不断受马蝇滋扰. * Beggars pestered him for money. 乞丐缠著向他讨钱. * He pestered her with requests for help. 他缠著她要她帮忙. * They pestered her to join in the scheme. 他们不断要求她参与那计画.

  pesticide

  / 5pestIsaId; `pZstE9saId/ n [C, U] chemical substance used to kill pests, esp insects 消灭有害动物的化学药物; (尤指)杀虫剂: The flea-infested room had to be sprayed with a strong pesticide. 房间里有跳蚤, 得喷强力杀虫剂. Cf 参看 insecticide (insect).

  pestilence

  / 5pestIlEns; `pZstlEns/ (also pest) n [C, U] (arch 古) (any of various types of) deadly infectious disease that spreads quickly through large numbers of people, esp bubonic plague 瘟疫; (尤指)腺鼠疫.

  pestilent

  / -Ent; -Ent/ (also pestilential / 9pestI5lenFl; 9pZstl`ZnFEl/) adj 1 of or like a pestilence (似)瘟疫的, 腺鼠疫的. 2 [attrib 作定语] (infml 口) very irritating 极讨厌的; 极恼人的; 极可恶的: the pestilential noise of aeroplanes coming in to land 飞机著陆的讨厌噪音 * We must get rid of these pestilential flies. 我们得把这些可恶的苍蝇消灭掉.

  pestle

  / 5pesl; `pZsl/ n heavy round-ended tool used for crushing and grinding things to powder, esp in a special bowl (mortar) (捣碎或研磨用的)杵.

  pet

  / pet; pZt/ n 1 tame animal or bird kept as a companion and treated with care and affection 玩赏动物; 宠物: They have many pets, including three cats. 他们有很多宠物, 猫就有三只. * [attrib 作定语] a pet mouse, snake, lamb, etc 作宠物的老鼠、 蛇、 羊羔等 * pet food 饲养宠物的食物. 2 (a) (often derog 常作贬义) (used esp in the expressions shown 尤用於以下示例) person treated as a favourite 宠儿; 宝贝: (a/the) teacher's pet 老师的得意门生 * make a pet of sb 宠爱某人. (b) thing that is given special attention by sb 某人特别关心的事物: [attrib 作定语] a pet project, theory, cause, etc 深受重视的工程、 理论、 事业等 * one's pet hate/aversion 耿耿於心的仇恨[反感]. 3 (infml 口) (a) kind or lovable person 善良的人; 讨人喜欢的人: Their daughter is a perfect pet. 他们的女儿很可爱. * Be a pet and post this letter for me. 做件好事, 替我把信发了吧. (b) (used as a term of affection, esp for a child or young woman 用作亲昵的称呼, 尤用於孩子或年轻女子): That's kind of you, pet. 谢谢你, 小宝贝.

  pet

  v (-tt-) 1 [Tn] treat (esp an animal) with affection, esp by stroking it 宠爱(尤指动物); (尤指)抚摸(动物). 2 [I] (infml 口) (of a man and a woman) kiss and caress each other (指男女)亲吻和爱抚: heavy (ie passionate) petting 热烈亲吻和爱抚.

  pet name

  name used affectionately, that is different from, or a short form of, a person's real name 爱称; 昵称. =>App 7 见附录7.

  pet shop

  shop where animals, birds etc are sold as pets 宠物商店.

  pet subject

  subject that obsesses one; hobby-horse 爱讲的话题: Once he starts talking about censorship you can't stop him it's his pet subject. 他一谈起新闻检查一类的事, 你就别想让他停--那是他最爱讲的话题.

  pet

  / pet; pZt/ n (idm 习语) in a `pet in a fit of bad temper, esp about sth trivial 发脾气, 生气(尤指为小事): There's no need to get in a pet about it! 没必要为这件小事发火!

  petal

  / 5petl; `pZtl/ n any of the delicate, coloured, leaf-like divisions of a flower 花瓣: yellow petals with black markings 带黑纹的黄色花瓣 * `rose petals 玫瑰花瓣. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page ii.

  petalled (US petaled)

  / 5petld; `pZtld/ adj (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) having petals 有花瓣的: a four-petalled flower 有四瓣的花 * blue-petalled flowers 蓝瓣的花.

  petard

  / pe5tB:d; pI`tBrd/ n (idm 习语) hoist with one's own petard => hoist.

  peter

  / 5pi:tE(r); `pitL/ v (phr v) peter out decrease or fade gradually before coming to an end 逐渐减少; 渐渐消失: The path petered out deep in the forest. 小路漫漫消失在密林深处. * The story begins dramatically but the plot peters out before the end. 这故事有些虎头蛇尾.

  petit bourgeois

  / 9petI 5bR:VwB:; ?@ -bUErV-; 9pZtI`bJrVwB/ n (pl unchanged 复数不变) (French 法) member of the lower middle class 小资产阶级: [attrib 作定语] petit bourgeois interests, occupations, prejudices, etc 小资产阶级的情趣、 职业、 偏见等.

  petite

  / pE5ti:t; pE`tit/ adj (approv 褒) (of a girl or a woman) having a small and dainty physique (指女孩或妇女)娇小的.

  petition

  / pE5tIFn; pE`tIFEn/ n ~ (to sb) 1 formal written request, esp one signed by many people appealing to sb in authority 请愿书: a petition against closing the swimming-pool signed by hundreds of local residents 数百名当地居民联合签名反对关闭游泳池的请愿书 * get up a petition about sth 就某事徵集签名请愿. 2 (law 律) formal application made to a court (向法院呈交的)诉状. 3 (fml 文) earnest request, esp to God; prayer 祈求; (尤指向上帝的)祈祷.

  petition

  v 1 [Dn.pr, Dn.t] ~ sb (for sth) make a formal request to sb (for sth) (为某事)向某人祈求或请愿: petition the government for a change in the immigration laws 向政府请愿要求修改移民法 * petition Parliament to allow shops to open on Sunday 向国会请愿要求准许商店星期日营业. 2 [Ipr] ~ for sth ask earnestly or humbly for sth 请求或恳求某事: (law 律) petition for divorce, ie ask a court of law to grant a divorce 请求批准离婚 * petition for a retrial in the light of new evidence 根据新证据请求重审. petitioner/-FEnE(r); -FEnL/ n person who petitions, esp in a court of law 请愿人; (尤指)原告, 上诉人.

  petrel

  / 5petrEl; `pZtrEl/ n any of several types of black and white sea-bird that fly far from land 海燕. Cf 参看 stormy petrel (storm).

  petrify

  / 5petrIfaI; `pZtrE9faI/ v (pt, pp -fied) 1 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (with sth) make sb unable to think, move, act, etc because of fear, surprise, etc 使某人惊呆或吓呆: The idea of making a speech in public petrified him. 一想到要在大庭广众面前讲演, 他就紧张得不知所措. * I was absolutely petrified (with fear). 我完全吓傻了. 2 [I, Tn] (cause sth to) change into stone (使某物)石化.

  petrifaction

  / 9petrI5fkFn; 9pZtrE`fAkFEn/ n [U] petrifying or being petrified 惊呆; 吓呆; 石化.

  petro-

  comb form 构词成分 1 of petrol 石油的: petrochemical. 2 of rocks 岩石的: petrology.

  petrochemical

  / 9petrEU5kemIkl; 9pZtro`kZmIkEl/ n [U, C] any of various chemical substances obtained from petroleum or natural gas 石油化学产品: [attrib 作定语] the petrochemical industry 石油化学工业.

  petrodollar

  / 5petrEUdClE(r); `pZtro9dBlL/ n US dollar earned by a country that exports petroleum 石油美元(国家出口石油所得的美元).

  petrol

  / 5petrEl; `pZtrEl/ (US gasoline, gas) n [U] inflammable liquid obtained from petroleum by arefining process and used as a fuel in internal-combustionengines 汽油: fill a car up with petrol 给汽车的油箱灌满汽油 * an increase in the price of petrol 汽油价格的提高.

  petrol bomb

  device (often a bottle) filled with petrol that explodes when it hits something 汽油弹(常为瓶中注入汽油者).

  petrol station (also filling station, service station)(US gas station)

  place beside a road where petrol and other goods are sold to motorists 汽车加油站. Cf 参看 garage 2.

  petrol tank

  container for petrol in a motor vehicle (机动车的)汽油箱. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xii.

  petroleum

  / pE5trEUlIEm; pE`trolIEm/ n [U] mineral oil that forms underground and is obtained from wells sunk into the ground, from which petrol, paraffin, diesel oil, etc are obtained by processing 石油.

  petroleum jelly (US petrolatum / 9petrE5leItEm;9pZtrE`letEm/)

  greasy jelly-like substance obtained from petroleum, used in ointments 矿脂; 凡士林.

  petrology

  / pE5trClEdVI; pE`trBlEdVI/ n [U] scientific study of rocks 岩石学.

  petrologist

  / -dVIst; -dVIst/ n person who specializesin petrology 岩石学家.

  petticoat

  / 5petIkEUt; `pZtI9kot/ n woman's or girl's lightweight undergarment of dress length, worn hanging from the shoulders or the waist; slip 衬裙.

  pettifogging

  / 5petIfCgIN; `pZtI9fB^IN/ adj (a) (of a person) paying too much attention to unimportant detail, esp in an argument (指人)吹毛求疵的, 挑剔的(尤指在争论中的). (b) unimportant; trivial 不重要的; 琐碎的: pettifogging details, objections, etc 无关宏旨的细节、 异议等.

  pettish

  / 5petIF; `pZtIF/ adj (a) (of a person) childishly bad-tempered or impatient, esp about unimportant things (指人)爱发小孩脾气的, 任性的, 不耐烦的(尤指为小事). (b) (of a remark or act) said or done in a bad-tempered, petulant way (指言行)发脾气时说的或做的.

  pettishly

  adv.

  pettishness

  n [U]

  petty

  / 5petI; `pZtI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (derog 贬) 1 small or trivial; unimportant 小的; 琐碎的; 不重要的: petty details, petty queries, regulations, troubles 细节、 小问题、 琐碎的规章、 小麻烦. 2 (a) concerned with small and unimportant matters 注重琐事的: petty observance of the regulations 遵守规章制度上的细节. (b) having or showing a small mind; mean 狭隘的; 器量小的; 小气的: petty and childish behaviour 小心眼和孩子气的行为 * petty spite 心胸狭窄的怨恨 * a petty desire to have her revenge 她想要报复的狭隘念头 * petty about money 金钱上很小气.

  pettily

  / 5petIlI; `pZtIlI/ adv.

  pettiness

  n [U]: The pettiness of their criticisms enraged him. 他们鸡毛蒜皮地挑剔, 他十分气愤.

  petty cash

  (usu small) amount of money kept in an office from or for small payments (通常指小额的)零用现金.

  petty larceny

  theft of articles of small value 小偷小摸.

  petty officer

  (abbr 缩写 PO) senior non-commissionedofficer in the navy 海军士官. =>App 9 见附录9.

  petulant

  / 5petjUlEnt; ?@ -tFU-; `pZtFElEnt/ adj unreasonably impatient or irritable 性急的; 暴躁的: the petulant demands of spoilt children 宠坏的孩子提出的任性要求.

  petulantly

  adv.

  petulance

  / -Ens; -Ens/ n [U]: He tore up the manuscript in a fit of petulance. 他一怒之下把手稿撕碎了.

  petunia

  / pE5tju:nIE; ?@ -5tu:-; pE`tunjE/ n garden plant with funnel-shaped flowers in white, pink, purple or red 矮牵牛; 碧冬茄.

  pew

  / pju:; pju/ n 1 any of the long bench-like seats with a back and (usu) sides, placed in rows in a church for people to sit on 教堂长椅. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page viii. 2 (infml joc 口, 谑) seat 座位 (used esp in the following expressions 尤用於以下示例): Take/Grab a pew! ie Sit down. 坐下吧!

  pewit

  = peewit.

  pewter

  / 5pju:tE(r); `pjutL/ n [U] (a) grey metal made by mixing tin with lead, used (esp formerly) for making mugs, dishes, etc 白蜡(锡、 铅合金, 尤於旧时用以制缸子、 碟等): [attrib 作定语] pewter goblets, bowls, tankards,etc 白蜡高脚杯、 碗、 带把啤酒杯等. (b) objects made of this 白蜡制品: a fine collection of old pewter 一批古白蜡器皿.

  peyote

  / peI5EUtI; pe`otI/ n 1 [C] type of Mexican cactus; mescal 佩奥特掌(墨西哥仙人掌属植物). 2 [U] drug made from this which causes hallucinations; mescaline 仙人球毒硷(取自佩奥特掌的致幻药).

  pfennig

  / 5fenIg; `fZnI^/ n (German coin of the value of) 100th part of a mark 芬尼(德国硬币, 为一马克的百分之一).

  PG

  / 9pi: 5dVi:; 9pi `dVi/ abbr 缩写 = parental guidence 1 (Brit) (of films) parental guidance, ie containing scenes unsuitable for young children (指电影)须有家长指导观看的(有儿童不宜的镜头). 2 paying guest. 搭伙房客. 3 postgraduate (大学的)研究生.

  phagocyte

  / 5fAgEsaIt; `fA^E9saIt/ n type of white blood cell capable of protecting the body against infection because it absorbs bacteria (吞)噬细胞.

  phalanx

  / 5flANks; `felANks/ n (pl phalanges / fE5lAndVi:z; fE`lAndViz/ or ~es) 1 (in ancient Greece) close formation, esp of infantry ready for battle (古希腊)方阵(尤指步兵作战时的). 2 number of people standing together to form a compact mass 密集队形: a phalanx of riot police 防暴警察的密集队伍. 3 (anatomy 解) any of the bones in a finger or toe 指骨; 趾骨. => illus at skeleton 见skeleton插图.

  phallus

  / 5fAlEs; `fAlEs/ n (pl -li / -laI; -laI/ or ~es) (esp in some religions) image of the erect penis as a symbol of the productive power of nature (尤指某些宗教的)视作生殖力象徵的勃起的阴茎像.

  phallic

  / 5fAlIk; `fAlIk/ adj of or like a phallus (似)阴茎像的: phallic imagery, symbolism, symbols, etc 阴茎的意象、 象徵、 象徵物等.

  phantasm

  / 5fAntAzEm; `fAntAzEm/ n (fml 文) 1 thing seen in the imagination; illusion 幻象; 幻影; 幻觉; 幻想. 2 = phantom.

  phantasmal

  / fAn5tAzmEl; fAn`tAzmEl/ adj (fml 文) of or like a phantasm (似)幻象的, 幻影的, 幻觉的, 幻想的: phantasmal images, figures, etc 幻想的形象、 人物等.

  phantasmagoria

  / 9fAntAzmE5gCrIE; ?@ -5gR:rIE;9fAntAzmE`^RrIE/ n (fml 文) changing scene of real or imagined figures, etc, eg as seen in a dream or created as an effect in a film (真实的或想像的)变 幻情景(如梦中所见的); 幻觉效应(如电影中的).

  phantasmagoric

  / -5gCrIk; ?@ -5gR:rIk; -`^RrIk/ adj (fml 文) of or like a phantasmagoria (似)变幻情景的, 幻觉效应的.

  phantasy

  = fantasy.

  phantom

  / 5fAntEm; `fAntEm/ n 1 (a) (also phantasm) ghostly image or figure; ghost 幽灵; 鬼魂: the phantom of his dead father 他亡父的幽灵 * [attrib 作定语] the legend of the phantom ship 鬼船的传说. (b) [esp attrib 尤作定语] (joc 谑) person whose actions are known about, but whose identity is (supposedly) not known 知其行为而不知其身分的人: The phantom cake-eater has been here again! 那神出鬼没的偷吃蛋糕的人又来过这儿了! 2 unreal or imagined thing, as seen in a dream or vision; illusion 不真实的或想像的事物; 梦幻之物; 幻觉: [attrib 作定语] the phantom visions created by a tormented mind 受折磨的心灵产生的幻觉 * phantom pregnancy, ie condition in which a woman wrongly believes she is pregnant and in which some of the symptoms of pregnancy may appear 精神性假妊娠.

  Pharaoh

  / 5feErEU; `fZro/ n (title of the) ruler of ancient Egypt 法老(古埃及国王或其称谓).

  pharmaceutical

  / 9fB:mE5sju:tIkl; ?@ -5su:-; 9fBrmE`sutIkl/ adj of or connected with the making and distribution of drugs and medicines 制药的; 配药的: the pharmaceutical industry 制药工业.

  pharmaceutics

  /-Iks; -Iks/ n [sing v] = pharmacy 1.

  pharmacist

  / 5fB:mEsIst; `fBrmEsIst/ n (a) person who has been trained to prepare medicines; pharmaceutical chemist 药剂师. (b) person trained in this way, whose job is to sell medicines 药商. Cf 参看 chemist.

  pharmacology

  / 9fB:mE5kClEdVI; 9fBrmE`kBlEdVI/ n [U] scientific study of drugs and their use in medicine 药理学; 药物学.

  pharmacological

  / 5fB:mEkE5lCdVIkl; 9fBrmEkE`lBdVIkEl/ adj of or concerning pharmacology 药理学的; 药物学的: pharmacological research 药理研究.

  pharmacologist

  / -5kClEdVIst; -`kBlEdVIst/ n person who specializes in pharmacology 药理学家; 药物学家.

  pharmacopoeia

  / 9fB:mEkE5pi:E; 9fBrmEkE`piE/ n book containing a list of medicinal drugs and directions for their use, esp one officially published for use in a particular country 药典: the British Pharmacopoeia 英国药典.

  pharmacy

  / 5fB:mEsI; `fBrmEsI/ n 1 [U] (study of the) preparation and giving out of medicines and drugs 药学; 药剂学; 制药; 配药. 2 [C] (a) place (eg in a hospital) where medicines are prepared and given out; dispensary 药房(如医院中的). (b) (US drugstore) (part of a) shop where medicines and drugs are sold; chemist's shop 药店; 药房; 医药用品商店.

  pharynx

  / 5fArINks; `fArINks/ n (pl pharynges / fE5rIndVi:z; fE`rIn9dViz/ or ~es) (anatomy 解) cavity at the back of the mouth and nose, where the passages to the nose and to the mouth connect with the throat 咽. =>illus at throat 见throat插图.

  pharyngitis

  / 9fArIn5dVaItIs; 9fArIn`dVaItIs/ n [U] (medical 医) inflammation of the pharynx 咽炎.

  phase

  / feIz; fez/ n 1 [C] stage in a process of change or development 阶段; 时期: a phase of history 历史的一个阶段 * a critical phase of an illness 疾病的危险期 * the most exciting phase of one's career 事业上最得意的时期 * The child is going through a difficult phase. 那孩子正经历著困难的阶段. * (infml 口) It's just a phase (she's going through), eg in childhood or adolescence. 就是(她正在经历的)那麽一个阶段(如处於儿童时期或青春期). 2 [C] amount of the bright surface of the moon that is visible at a given time (new moon, full moon, etc) (月球的)位相, 消长盈亏(新月、 满月等): the phases of the moon 月相. 3 (idm 习语) in/out of phase being/not being in the same state at the same time 同相[异相]; 同步[不同步]; 协调[不协调]: The two sets of traffic lights were out of phase (ie did not show the same change at the same time) and several accidents occurred. 那两组交通灯不同步因而发生了几起事故.

  phase

  v 1 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] plan or carry out sth in stages 按阶段计画或进行某事: The modernization of the industry was phased over a 20-year period. 工业现代化分20年逐步实现. * a phased withdrawal of troops 分阶段撤军. 2 (phr v) phase sth in introduce sth gradually or in stages 逐步或分阶段引进某事物: The use of lead-free petrol is now being phased in. 无铅汽油的应用现正逐步推广. phase sth out withdraw or discontinue sth gradually or in stages 逐步或分阶段撤出或中止某事物: The old currency will have been phased out by 1990. 旧币分阶段至1990年将全部禁止流通.

  PhD

  / 9pi: eItF 5di:; 9pi etF `di/ abbr 缩写 = Doctor of Philosophy 哲学博士学位; 博士学位: have/be a PhD in History 有历史学博士学位[为历史学博士] * Bill Crofts PhD 比尔·克罗夫茨哲学博士. Cf 参看 DPhil.

  pheasant

  / 5feznt; `fZznt/ n (a) [C] (pl unchanged or ~s 复数或不变或作 pheasants) any of several types of long-tailed bird that are often shot for sport and food, the male of which usu has brightly-coloured feathers 雉; 野鸡: a brace of pheasants 一对野鸡. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page v. (b) [U] its flesh prepared as food 野鸡肉: roast pheasant 烧野鸡.

  phenobarbitone

  / 9fi:nEU5bB:bItEUn; 9fino`bBrbI9ton/ n [U] medicinal drug that calms the nerves and helps one to sleep 苯巴比妥(用作镇静剂和催眠药).

  phenol

  / 5fi:nCl; `finRl/ n [U] = carbolic acid.

  phenomenal

  / fE5nCmInl; fE`nBmEnl/ adj 1 very remarkable; extraordinary 非凡的; 格外的; 了不起的: the phenomenal success of the film 影片非常成功 * The rocket travels at phenomenal speed. 火箭以惊人的速度飞行. * The response to the appeal fund has been phenomenal. 对呼吁募集基金的反应格外热烈. 2 (fml 文) of (the nature of) a phenomenon 现象的; 现象性质的.

  phenomenally

  / -nElI; -nlI/ adv (infml 口) to an amazing degree 惊人地: Interest in the subject has increased phenomenally. 人们对此事的兴趣激增.

  phenomenon

  / fE5nCmInEn; ?@ -nCn; fE`nBmE9nBn/ n (pl -ena / -InE; -EnE/) 1 fact or occurrence, esp in nature or society, that can be perceived by the senses 现象: natural, social, historical, etc phenomena 自然的、 社会的、 历史的...现象 * An eclipse of the moon is a rare phenomenon. 月蚀是罕见的现象. * Bankruptcy is a common phenomenon in an economic recession. 在经济衰退时破产是常见的现象. 2 remarkable person, thing or event 非凡的人、 物或事: the phenomenon of their rapid rise to power 他们迅速掌权的奇迹.

  phew

  / fju:; fju/ (also whew) interj (written representation of a short soft whistling sound made by blowing out or sucking in one's breath, and used to express relief, exhaustion or amazement 呼气或吸气发出的很短的口哨声, 用以表示松口气、 疲劳或惊奇): Phew! That was a nasty moment -- that car nearly hit us. (发出口哨声)当时可真危险--那辆汽车差点撞上我们.

  phial

  / 5faIEl; `faIEl/ (also vial) n small glass container, esp one for liquid medicine or perfume 玻璃的小容器; (尤指)小药水瓶, 小香水瓶.

  B Phil

  / 9bi: 5fIl; 9bi `fIl/ abbr 缩写 = Bachelor of Philosophy 哲学学士: have/be a B Phil 有哲学学士学位[为哲学学士] * Jill Green B Phil 哲学学士吉尔·格林.

  phil(o)-

  comb form 构词成分 liking or fond of 喜好; 爱好: philanthropy * philology.

  philander

  / fI5lAndE(r); fE`lAndL/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (with sb) (usu derog 通常作贬义) (of a man) amuse oneself by flirting with women (指男子)挑逗女子, 与女子调情: He spent his time philandering with the girls in the village. 他把时间花在和村子里的姑娘们调情上了.

  philanderer

  / -dErE(r); -dErL/ n (derog 贬) man who does this 挑逗女子或与女子调情的男子: He's a bit of a philanderer -- don't take him too seriously! 他这个人有点轻薄--别跟他太认真!

  philanthropy

  / fI5lAnWrEpI; fE`lAnWrEpI/ n [U] (a) concern for the welfare of mankind; benevolence 博爱; 慈善; 仁慈. (b) charitable actions inspired by this 慈善行为; 善事.

  philanthropic

  / 9fIlEn5WrCpIk; 9fIlEn`WrBpIk/ adj of or inspired by philanthropy 博爱的; 慈善的; 仁慈的: philanthropic organizations, eg to help poor or disabled people 慈善机构 * philanthropic motives 仁慈的动机.

  philanthropically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  philanthropist

  / fI5lAnWrEpIst; fE`lAnWrEpIst/ n person who helps others, esp through charitable work or donations of money 帮助他人的人; (尤指)慈善家, 捐款人: The university was founded by a millionaire philanthropist. 这所大学的创建人是位腰缠万贯的慈善家. Cf 参看 misanthropist.

  philately

  / fI5lAtElI; fE`lAtlI/ n [U] (hobby of) collecting and studying postage stamps 集邮(的爱好).

  philatelic

  / 9fIlE5telIk; 9fIlE`tZlIk/ adj.

  philatelist

  / fI5lAtElIst; fE`lAtlIst/ n (a) person who collects postage stamps 集邮者. (b) person with expert knowledge of postage stamps 邮票专家.

  philharmonic

  / 9fIlB:5mCnIk; 9fIlBr`mBnIk/ adj (esp in names of orchestras, music societies, etc) devoted to or loving music (尤用於管弦乐队、 音乐社团等名称中)爱好音乐的: the London Philharmonic Orchestra 伦敦爱乐管弦乐团.

  philhellene

  / 9fIl5heli:n; fIl`hZlin/ n, adj (person) friendly to or admiring the Greeks and Greek civilization 爱希腊人及其文明的(人).

  philhellenic

  / 9fIlhe5li:nIk; ?@ -5lenIk; 9fIlhZ`lZnIk/ adj.

  -philia

  comb form 构词成分 (forming ns 用以构成名词) 1 (esp abnormal) love of or fondness for (尤指不正常的)爱, 迷, 癖好. 2 inclination towards 倾向; 亲; 嗜: haemophilia. Cf 参看 -phobia.

  -phile (also -phil)

  comb form 构词成分 (forming ns and adjs 用以构成名词和形容词) (person who is) fond of 爱好(者): Anglophile * bibliophile. Cf 参看 -phobe (-phobia).

  -philiac

  (forming adjs 用以构成形容词).

  philippic

  / fI5lIpIk; fI`lIpIk/ n (fml 文) speech bitterly attacking sb; invective (抨击某人的)演说; 痛斥.

  philistine

  / 5fIlIstaIn; ?@ -sti:n; `fIlEs9tin/ n person who has no interest in or understanding of the arts, or is hostile to them; uncultured person 对艺术无兴趣或无认识的人; 讨厌艺术的人; 无教养的人: He accused those who criticized his work of being philistines. 他指责那些批评他的作品的人是对艺术一窍不通.

  philistine

  adj having no interest in or understanding of the arts, or being hostile to them 对艺术无兴趣的; 不懂艺术的; 讨厌艺术的: The philistine attitude of the public resulted in the work being abandoned. 由於公众对艺术不感兴趣, 那个作品备受冷遇.

  philistinism

  / -tInIzEm; -tInIzEm/ n [U]: the philistinismof the popular press 为大众服务的新闻界对艺术缺乏认识.

  philology

  / fI5lClEdVI; fI`lBlEdVI/ n [U] science or studyof the development of language or of a particular language 语文学; 语文研究. Cf 参看 linguistics (linguistic).

  philological

  / 9fIlE5lCdVIkl; 9fIlE`lBdVIkl/ adj of or concerning philology 语文学的; 语文研究的.

  philologist

  / fI5lClEdVIst; fI`lBlEdVIst/ n expert in or student of philology 语文学家; 研究语文学的人.

  philosopher

  / fI5lCsEfE(r); fE`lBsEfL/ n 1 (a) person who studies or teaches philosophy 研究或教授哲学的人; 哲学教师. (b) person who has developed a particular set of philosophical theories and beliefs 哲学家; 思想家: the Greek philosophers 希腊哲学家. 2 (a) person whose mind is untroubled by passions and hardships 不受强烈感情和苦难左右的人; 豁达的人. (b) person whose life is governed by reason 哲人; 贤人. (c) (infml 口) person who thinks deeply about things 善於思考的人: He's quite a philosopher. 他很爱动脑筋.

  philosopher's stone

  imaginary substance which, it was formerly believed by alchemists, would change any metal into gold; elixir 点金石(旧时炼金术士认为能使金属变成黄金的物质).

  philosophy

  / fI5lCsEfI; fE`lBsEfI/ n 1 (a) [U] search for knowledge and understanding of the nature and meaning of the universe and of human life 哲学: moral philosophy, ie study of the principles on which human behaviour is based; ethics 伦理学. (b) [C] any particular set or system of beliefs resulting from this search for knowledge 哲学体系: the philosophy of Aristotle 亚里士多德的哲学体系 * conflicting philosophies 互相矛盾的哲学体系. 2 [C] set of beliefs or an outlook on life that is a guiding principle for behaviour 人生哲学; 生活的信念或原则: a man without a philosophy of life 没有生活信念的人 * Enjoy yourself today and don't worry about tomorrow that's my philosophy! 且享今朝乐, 莫管明朝愁--这就是我的人生哲学! 3 [U] calm quiet attitude towards life even in the face of suffering, danger, etc 即使面对困苦、 危险等, 对生活仍持冷静沉著的态度; 达观: The philosophy of the prisoners during their worst sufferings impressed even their captors. 俘虏们在最困苦时仍处之泰然, 连捉住他们的人都深有感触.

  philosophical

  / 9fIlE5sCfIkl; 9fIlE`sBfIkl/ philosophic adjs 1 of or according to philosophy 哲学的; 根据哲学的: philosophical principles 哲学原则. 2 devoted to philosophy 研究哲学的: philosophical works 哲学著作. 3 ~ (about sth) having or showing the calmness and courage of a philosopher(2); resigned 豁达的; 达观的; 处之泰然的: She seemed fairly philosophical about the loss. 她对所受损失似乎很看得开. * He heard the news with a philosophical smile. 他听到那消息後若无其事地付之一笑.

  philosophically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv: He accepted the verdict philosophically. 他泰然自若地接受了那一裁决.

  philosophize, philosophise

  / fI5lCsEfaIz; fE`lBsE9faIz/ v 1 [I] think or argue as or like a philosopher 像哲学家般思考或辩论. 2 [I, Ipr] ~ (about/on sth) discuss orspeculate 讨论; 思考: They spend their time philosophizingabout the mysteries of life. 他们用很多时间探讨生命的奥秘.

  philosophy

  / fI5lCsEfI; fE`lBsEfI/ n 1 (a) [U] search for knowledge and understanding of the nature and meaning of the universe and of human life 哲学: moral philosophy, ie study of the principles on which human behaviour is based; ethics 伦理学. (b) [C] any particular set or system of beliefs resulting from this search for knowledge 哲学体系: the philosophy of Aristotle 亚里士多德的哲学体系 * conflicting philosophies 互相矛盾的哲学体系. 2 [C] set of beliefs or an outlook on life that is a guiding principle for behaviour 人生哲学; 生活的信念或原则: a man without a philosophy of life 没有生活信念的人 * Enjoy yourself today and don't worry about tomorrow that's my philosophy! 且享今朝乐, 莫管明朝愁--这就是我的人生哲学! 3 [U] calm quiet attitude towards life even in the face of suffering, danger, etc 即使面对困苦、 危险等, 对生活仍持冷静沉著的态度; 达观: The philosophy of the prisoners during their worst sufferings impressed even their captors. 俘虏们在最困苦时仍处之泰然, 连捉住他们的人都深有感触.

  phlebitis

  / flI5baItIs; flI`baItIs/ n [U] inflammation of a vein 静脉炎.

  phlegm

  / flem; flZm/ n [U] 1 thick semi-liquid substance which forms in the air passages, esp when one has a cold, and which can be removed by coughing 痰. 2 (dated or fml 旧或文) quality of being slow to act or react, or to show feeling; calmness 迟钝; 冷漠; 冷静: show considerable phlegm in facing the crisis 面对危机表现得相当冷静.

  phlegmatic

  / fleg5mtIk; flZ^`mAtIk/ adj calm and even-tempered; showing the quality of phlegm(2) 冷静而温和的; 迟钝的; 冷漠的: Commuting in the rush-hour requires a phlegmatic temperament. 在上下班交通高峰期间乘坐通勤车要有安之若素的心境.

  phlegmatically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  phlox

  / flCks; flBks/ n [U] (pl unchanged or ~es 复数或不变或作 phloxes) any of several types of garden plant with clusters of reddish, purple or white flowers 福禄考(园艺植物, 花簇生, 呈红色、 紫色或白色).

  phobia

  / 5fEUbIE; `fobIE/ n extreme or abnormal dislike or fear of sth; aversion (对某事物极端的或反常的)憎恶, 恐惧; 恐怖(症): learning to control one's phobia about flying 学会克服飞行的恐惧感 * Dislike of snakes or spiders is a common phobia. 害怕蛇或厌恶蜘蛛是很常见的事.

  -phobia

  comb form 构词成分 (forming ns 用以构成名词) extreme or abnormal fear of 对...极端的或反常的恐惧; 恐怖: claustrophobia * hydrophobia * xenophobia. Cf 参看 -philia.

  -phobe

  comb form 构词成分 (forming ns 用以构成名词) person who dislikes sth 憎恶某事物的人: Anglophobe * xenophobe.

  -phobic

  comb form 构词成分 (forming adjs 用以构成形容词) having or showing extreme or abnormal fear of 对...极端或反常恐惧的: claustrophobic * xenophobic. Cf 参看 -phile (-philia).

  phoenix

  / 5fi:nIks; `finIks/ n mythical bird of the Arabian desert, said to live for several hundred years before burning itself and then rising born again from its ashes 长生鸟(神话中的鸟, 在阿拉伯沙漠中, 可活数百年, 然後自焚为灰而再生).

  phon(o)-

  comb form 构词成分 of sound or sounds 声的; 音的: phonetic * phonograph.

  phone

  / fEUn; fon/ n 1 telephone 电话: tell sb sth/order sth over the phone, ie instead of writing 用电话把某事告诉某人[订购某物] * The phone is ringing. 电话铃响了. communicating by phone 通电话 * [attrib 作定语] make a phone call 打电话. 2 (idm 习语) (be) on the `phone (a) (be) talking on the phone 用电话交谈; 在通话: You can't see her now she's on the phone. 你现在不能见她--她正在打电话. * They've been on the phone for an hour. 他们已通话一小时了. (b) (of a person, business, etc) having a telephone (指人或公司等)有电话: Are you on the phone yet? 你安电话了吗?

  phone

  v 1 [I, Ip, Tn, Tn.p] ~ (sb) (up) telephone (sb) 给(某人)打电话: Did anybody phone? 有人打电话来吗? * I'll phone them up now. 我现在给他们打电话. 2 (phr v) phone in telephone (esp one's place of work) 打电话(尤指打至自己的工作处): phone in sick, ie telephone to say one is absent from work because of illness 打电话请病假.

  phone book

  = telephone directory (telephone).

  phone booth (also phone box)

  telephone kiosk; call-box 电话亭.

  phone-in

  (Brit) (US call-in) n radio or televisionprogramme in which telephoned questions and commentsfrom listeners or viewers are broadcast (电台或电视台的)听众可来电话的直播节目(向主持人提问和作评论): [attrib 作定语] a phone-in show 有听众来电话的直播节目.

  phone

  / fEUn; fon/ n (linguistics 语言) single sound (vowel or consonant) in speech 音子; 音素.

  -phone

  comb form 构词成分 1 (forming ns 用以构成名词) instrument using sound 使用声音的仪器: telephone * dictaphone * xylophone. 2 (forming adjs 用以构成形容词) speaking a particular language 说某种语言的: anglophone * francophone.

  -phonic

  comb form 构词成分 (forming adjs 用以构成形容词) of an instrument using sound 使用声音的仪器的: telephonic.

  phoneme

  / 5fEUni:m; `fonim/ n (linguistics 语言) any one of the set of smallest distinctive speech sounds in a language that distinguish one word from another 音位; 音素: English has 24 consonant phonemes. 英语有24个辅音音素. * In English, the `s' in `sip' and the `z' in `zip' represent two different phonemes. 英语中sip中的s和zip中的z为两个不同的音素.

  phonemic

  / fE5ni:mIk; fE`nimIk/ adj of or concerning phonemes 音位的; 音素的.

  phonemically

  / -klI; -kl庄 adv.

  phonemics

  n [sing v] study of the phonemes of a language 音位学.

  phonetic

  / fE5netIk; fE`nZtIk/ adj (linguistics 语言) 1 of or concerning the sounds of human speech 语音的. 2 (of a method of writing speech sounds) using a symbol for each distinct sound or sound unit (指标音法)使用音标的: phonetic symbols, alphabet, transcription 音标、 语音字母、 标音. 3 (of spelling) corresponding closely to the sounds represented (指拼写)拼写与发音相似的: Spanish spelling is phonetic. 西班牙语的拼写与发音相似.

  phonetically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  phonetician

  / 9fEUnI5tIFn; 9fonE`tIFEn/ n expert in or student of phonetics 语音学家; 研究语音学的人.

  phonetics

  n [sing v] study of speech sounds and their production 语音学.

  phonetic (Jones Vowels)

  / fE5netIk; fE`nZtIk/ The Jones phonetic symbols (音标) used in this dictionary contains the following vowels and diphthongs. Press the pronunciation button to hear the sounds they represent. 1. i: -- Example: see / si:; si/ 2. I -- Example: sit / sIt; sIt/ 3. e -- Example: ten / ten; tZn/ 4. A -- Example: hat / hAt; hAt/ 5. B: -- Example: arm / B:m; Brm/ 6. C -- Example: watch / wCtF; wBtF/ 7. R: -- Example: saw / sR:; sR/ 8. U -- Example: put / pUt; pJt/ 9. u: -- Example: too / tu:; tu/ 10. Q -- Example: cup / kQp; kQp/ 11. \: -- Example: fur / f\:(r); f[/ 12. E -- Example: ago / E5gEU; E`^o/ 13. eI -- Example: page / peIdV; pedV/ 14. EU -- Example: home / hEUm; hom/ 15. aI -- Example: five / faIv; faIv/ 16. aU -- Example: now / naU; naJ/ 17. RI -- Example: join / dVRIn; dVRIn/ 18. IE -- Example: near / nIE(r); nIE(r)/ 19. eE -- Example: hair / heE(r); hZE(r)/ 20. UE -- Example: tour / tUE(r); tJE(r)/

  phonetic (K.K. Vowels)

  / fE5netIk; fE`nZtIk/ The K.K. phonetic symbols (音标) used in this dictionary contains the following vowels and diphthongs. Press the pronunciation button to hear the sounds they represent. 1. i -- Example: see / si:; si/ 2. I -- Example: sit / sIt; sIt/ 3. e -- Example: ten / ten; tZn/ 4. A -- Example: hat / hAt; hAt/ 5. B -- Example: arm / B:m; Brm/ 6. C -- Example: watch / wCtF; wBtF/ 7. R -- Example: saw / sR:; sR/ 8. J -- Example: put / pUt; pJt/ 9. u -- Example: too / tu:; tu/ 10. Q -- Example: cup / kQp; kQp/ 11. [ -- Example: fur / f\:(r); f[/ 12. E -- Example: ago / E5gEU; E`^o/ 13. e -- Example: page / peIdV; pedV/ 14. o -- Example: home / hEUm; hom/ 15. aI -- Example: five / faIv; faIv/ 16. aJ -- Example: now / naU; naJ/ 17. RI -- Example: join / dVRIn; dVRIn/ 18. IE -- Example: near / nIE(r); nIE(r)/ 19. ZE -- Example: hair / heE(r); hZE(r)/ 20. JE -- Example: tour / tUE(r); tJE(r)/

  phonetic (Jones Consonants)

  / fE5netIk; fE`nZtIk/ The Jones phonetic symbols (音标) used in this dictionary contains the following consonants. Press the pronunciation button to hear the sounds they represent. 1. p -- Example: pen / pen; pZn/ 2. b -- Example: bad / bAd; bAd/ 3. t -- Example: tea / ti:; ti/ 4. d -- Example: did / dId; dId/ 5. k -- Example: cat / kAt; kAt/ 6. ^ -- Example: got / gCt; ^Bt/ 7. tF -- Example: chin / tFIn; tFIn/ 8. dV -- Example: June / dVu:n; dVun/ 9. f -- Example: fall / fR:l; fRl/ 10. v -- Example: voice / vRIs; vRIs/ 11. W -- Example: thin / WIn; WIn/ 12. T -- Example: then / Ten; TZn/ 13. s -- Example: so / sEU; so/ 14. z -- Example: zoo / zu:; zu/ 15. F -- Example: she / Fi:; Fi/ 16. V -- Example: vision / 5vIVn; `vIVEn/ 17. h -- Example: how / haU; haJ/ 18. m -- Example: man / mAn; mAn/ 19. n -- Example: no / nEU; no/ 20. N -- Example: sing / sIN; sIN/ 21. l -- Example: leg / leg; lZ^/ 22. r -- Example: red / red; rZd/ 23. j -- Example: yes / jes; jZs/ 24. w -- Example: wet / wet; wZt/

  phonetic (K.K. Consonants)

  / fE5netIk; fE`nZtIk/ The K.K. phonetic symbols (音标) used in this dictionary contains the following consonants. Press the pronunciation button to hear the sounds they represent. 1. p -- Example: pen / pen; pZn/ 2. b -- Example: bad / bAd; bAd/ 3. t -- Example: tea / ti:; ti/ 4. d -- Example: did / dId; dId/ 5. k -- Example: cat / kAt; kAt/ 6. ^ -- Example: got / gCt; ^Bt/ 7. tF -- Example: chin / tFIn; tFIn/ 8. dV -- Example: June / dVu:n; dVun/ 9. f -- Example: fall / fR:l; fRl/ 10. v -- Example: voice / vRIs; vRIs/ 11. W -- Example: thin / WIn; WIn/ 12. T -- Example: then / Ten; TZn/ 13. s -- Example: so / sEU; so/ 14. z -- Example: zoo / zu:; zu/ 15. F -- Example: she / Fi:; Fi/ 16. V -- Example: vision / 5vIVn; `vIVEn/ 17. h -- Example: how / haU; haJ/ 18. m -- Example: man / mAn; mAn/ 19. n -- Example: no / nEU; no/ 20. N -- Example: sing / sIN; sIN/ 21. l -- Example: leg / leg; lZ^/ 22. r -- Example: red / red; rZd/ 23. j -- Example: yes / jes; jZs/ 24. w -- Example: wet / wet; wZt/

  phoney (also phony)

  / 5fEUnI; `fonI/ adj (-ier -iest) (infml derog 口, 贬) (a) (of a person) pretending or claiming to be what one is not (指某人)假装的, 冒充的: There's something very phoney about him. 他这人有些地方很假. * a phoney doctor, ie a quack doctor 冒牌医生. (b) (of a thing) false or faked (指事物)假的, 伪造的: a phoney American accent 假装的美国腔 * phoney jewels, qualifications, mannerisms 假珠宝、 伪资格、 矫饰的风格 * some phoney excuse for the delay 因延误而找的假藉口 * The story sounds phoney to me. 我觉得这件事听起来有假.

  phoney (also phony)

  n (pl ~s) phoney person or thing 冒充者; 伪造物; 膺品: The man's a complete phoney. 这个男子的身分是冒充的. * This diamond is a phoney. 这钻石是假的.

  phoniness

  n [U].

  phonic

  / 5fCnIk; `fBnIk/ adj 1 of or concerning sound 声音的. 2 of or concerning the sounds of speech 语音的.

  phonograph

  / 5fEUnEgrB:f; ?@ -grAf; `fonE9^rAf/ n (dated 旧) = record player (record).

  phonology

  / fE5nClEdVI; fE`nBlEdVI/ n [U] (linguistics 语言) 1 study of the system of speech sounds, esp in a particular language 音位学, 音韵学, 音系学(尤指某语言的): a course in phonology 音系学课程. 2 system of sounds in a particular language, esp at a particular pointin its development 语音体系(尤指历时的): the phonologyof Old English 古英语语音体系.

  phonological

  / 9fEUnE5lCdVIkl; 9fonE`lBdVIkl/ adj.

  phonologist

  / fE5nClEdVIst; fE`nBlEdVIst/ n expert in or student of phonology 音位学、 音韵学、 音系学的专家或研究者.

  phooey

  / 5fu:I; `fuI/ interj (infml 口) (expressing contempt, disappointment or a refusal to accept the truth of sth 表示对某事物轻视、 失望或不信的叹词).

  phosgene

  / 5fCzdVi:n; `fBsdVin/ n [U] poisonous colourless gas used in chemical warfare, and in industry to make dyes, fertilizers, etc 光气; 碳酰氯.

  phosphate

  / 5fCsfeIt; `fBsfet/ n (a) [C, U] any salt or compound of phosphoric acid 磷酸盐; 磷酸酯. (b) [C often pl, U 作可数名词时常作复数, 亦作不可数名词] any artificial fertilizer composed of or containing these 磷肥.

  phosphorescence

  / 9fCsfE5resns; 9fBsfE`rZsns/ n [U] (a) giving out of light without heat or with so little heat that it cannot be felt 磷光; 磷火; 鬼火. (b) giving out of a faint glow in the dark, eg by certain insects or sea creatures (黑暗中的)微光(如某些昆虫或海洋生物的). Cf 参看 fluorescence.

  phosphorescent

  / -snt; -snt/ adj (a) giving out light without heat 发磷光的. (b) glowing in the dark 在黑暗中发光的.

  phosphorus

  / 5fCsfErEs; `fBsfErEs/ n [U] (chemistry 化) (a) pale yellow waxlike poisonous substance that glows in the dark and catches fire easily 磷. (b) red non-poisonous form of this, used for the coating on match heads 红磷. =>App 10 见附录10.

  phosphoric

  / fCs5fCrIk; ?@ -5fR:r; fBs`fRrIk/ (also phosphorous / 5fCsfErEs; `fBsfErEs/) adj concerning or containing phosphorus 磷的; 含磷的.

  photo

  / 5fEUtEU; `foto/ n (pl ~s / -tEUz; -toz/) (infml 口) = photograph.

  photo finish (in horse racing)

  finish of a race where the leading horses are so close together that only a photograph of them passing the winning-post can show which is the winner (马赛中的)摄影定名次(参赛者到达终点时需藉照片判断名次者).

  photo-

  comb form 构词成分 1 of light 光的: photoelectric* photosensitize * photosynthesis. 2 of photography 摄影的; 照相的: photocopy * photogenic.

  photocell

  / 5fEUtEUsel; `foto9sZl/ n = photoelectric cell (photoelectric).

  photocopy

  / 5fEUtEUkCpI; `foto9kBpI/ n photographic copy of (written, printed or graphic work) 照相复制本; 影印本. Cf 参看 Xerox, Photostat.

  photocopy

  v (pt, pp -pied) (a) [Tn] make a photographic copy of (written, printed or graphic work)照相复印, 影印(文字、 图表等). (b) [I] make photographic copies of documents, etc 照相复制; 影印: do some photocopying 影印.

  photocopier

  / -pIE(r); -pIL/ n machine for photocopying documents 照相复印机; 影印机.

  photoelectric

  / 9fEUtEUI5lektrIk; 9fotoI`lZktrIk/ adj of or using the electrical effects produced by light 光电的.

  photoelectric cell (also photocell, electric eye)

  electronic device that uses the effect of light to produce electric current (used eg in photographic light meters and burglar alarms) 光电管; 电眼.

  photogenic

  / 9fEUtEU5dVenIk; 9foto`dVZnIk/ adj (a) being a good subject for photography 适於拍照的: a photogenic sunset, village, kitten 适於拍照的日落、 村子、小猫. (b) (of a person) looking attractive in photographs(指人)上相的, 上镜的: I'm not very photogenic. 我这人不大上相.

  photograph

  / 5fEUtEgrB:f; ?@ -grAf; `fotE9^rAf/ (also infml 口语作 photo) n 1 picture formed by means of the chemical action of light on a specially prepared surface, eg film or a glass plate, and then transferred to specially prepared paper 照片; 相片: take a photograph (of sb/sth) 给(某人[某物])拍照. 2 (idm 习语) take a good `photograph look attractive in photographs; be photogenic 照出像来好看; 上相; 上镜.

  photograph

  v 1 [Tn] take a photograph of (sb/sth) 给(某人[某物])拍照: photograph the bride, the wedding, a flower 给新娘、 婚礼、 花拍照. 2 [I] (followed by an adv 後接副词) appear in a certain way in photographs 在照片上显出的某种样子: photograph well/badly 照出来好看[不好看]. photographer/ fE5tCgrEfE(r); fE`tB^rEfL/ n person who takes photographs, esp as a job 摄影者; (尤指)摄影师: The competition is open to both amateur and professional photographers. 业余的和职业的摄影者均可参赛. * a newspaper photographer 报社摄影记者 * one of the best photographers in the world 世界上最优秀的摄影师之一. Cf 参看 cameraman (camera).

  photographic

  / 9fEUtE5grAfIk; 9fotE`^rAfIk/ adj [usu attrib 通常作定语] 1 of, used in or produced byphotography 摄影(术)的; 摄影用的; 摄制的: photographic equipment, images, records, reproduction 摄影设备、 摄影影像、 摄制的纪录、 照相复制. 2 (of sb's memory) able to remember things in great detail, exactly as they were seen (指某人的记忆)记得详细准确的.

  photographically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  photography

  / fE5tCgrEfI; fE`tB^rEfI/ n [U] art or process of taking photographs 摄影术; 摄影: black and white/colour/still photography 黑白[彩色/静物]摄影 * Her hobby is photography. 她的业余爱好是摄影. * The photography in the film about arctic wildlife was superb. 那部影片中拍摄的极地野生动物好看极了.

  photolithography

  / 9fEUtEUlI5WCgrEfI; 9fotolI`WB^rEfI/ n [U] process of transferring an image onto a metal plate by a photographic method, and printing from it 照相平版印刷(术).

  photon

  / 5fEUtCn; `fotBn/ n (physics 物) indivisible unit of electromagnetic radiation 光子; 光量子.

  photosensitive

  / 9fEUtEU5sensEtIv; 9foto`sZnsEtIv/ adj reacting when exposed to light, esp by changing colour 光敏的; (尤指)感光的: photosensitive paper 感光纸.

  photosensitize, photosensitise

  / -taIz; -taIz/ v [Tn] make (sth) photosensitive 使(某物)具感光性; 使光敏.

  Photostat (also photostat)

  / 5fEUtEstAt; `fotE9stAt/ n (propr 专利名) photocopy 照相复印件; 影印本: [attrib 作定语] a Photostat copy 影印件.

  photostat

  v [Tn] make a photocopy of (sth) 照相复印, 影印(文字、 图表等).

  photosynthesis

  / 9fEUtEU5sInWEsIs; 9foto`sInWEsIs/ n [U] process by which green plants convert carbon dioxide and water into food using the energy in sunlight 光合作用. Cf 参看 chlorophyll.

  photosynthesize, photosynthesise

  / -EsaIz; -E9saIz/ v [Tn] change (eg carbon dioxide or water) into food by photosynthesis 对(如二氧化碳或水)进行光合作用.

  photosynthetic

  / -sIn5WetIk; -sIn`WZtIk/ adj.

  phrase

  / freIz; frez/ n 1 [C] (a) (grammar) group of words without a verb, esp one that forms part of a sentence 词组; 短语; 片语: `The green car' and `at half past four' are phrases. the green car(绿色的汽车)和at half past four(在四点半)都是词组. (b) group of words forming a short expression, esp an idiom or a clever, striking way of saying sth 固定词组; (尤指)习语, 成语, 警语, 隽语: an apt, a memorable, a well-chosen, etc phrase 恰当的、 值得记住的、 选用得切当的...习语 * That's exactly the phrase I was looking for myself. 这就是我一直找的那个成语. 2 [U] way of expressing oneself; style 个人的表达方式; 风格: the poet's beauty of phrase 该诗人表达风格之美. 3 [C] (music 音) short distinct passage forming part of a longer passage 乐句; 分句. 4 (idm 习语) to coin a phrase => coin v. turn a `phrase express oneself in an amusing and witty way 诙谐地表达; 作妙语. a turn of `phrase way of expressing or describing sth 表达方式; 措词: an interesting, unusual, unpleasant, etc turn of phrase 有趣的、 不寻常的、 令人不快的...措词.

  phrasal

  / 5freIzl; `frezl/ adj (a) of or concerning a phrase 词组的; 短语的; 片语的. (b) in the form of a phrase 词组形式的; 短语形式的: phrasal verbs such as `go in for', `fall over', `blow up' 短语动词, 如go in for、 fall over、 blow up.

  phrase

  v [Tn] 1 express (sth) in words (in the specified way) (以某种方式)措词表达(某事): phrase one's criticism very carefully 对批评用语字斟句酌 * How shall I phrase it? 我用什麽词语表达呢? * an elegantly phrased compliment 措词优雅的赞语. 2 divide (music) into phrases, esp in performance 将(乐曲)分成乐句(尤指演奏时). phrasing n [U] 1 (music 音) action or manner of dividing a line into phrases, in composing or performing 乐句划分; 分句法: The singer was criticized for her poor phrasing. 她演唱歌曲时乐句划分失当受到批评. 2 = phraseology a.

  phraseology

  / 9freIzI5ClEdVI; 9frezI`BlEdVI/ n [U] (a) choice or arrangement of words; wording 措词; 用词; 遣词. (b) study of fixed phrases and idioms 成语学.

  phrase-book

  n book listing common expressions and their equivalents in another language, esp for use by travellers in a foreign country 外语常用语手册(尤指供到国外旅游用的): a Spanish phrase-book 西班牙语常用语手册.

  phrenetic

  = frenetic.

  phrenology

  / frE5nClEdVI; frI`nBlEdVI/ n [U] (esp formerly) study of the shape of a person's skull, esp the natural bumps on it, in order to determine his character and abilities (尤指旧时)颅相学.

  phrenological

  / 9frenE5lCdVIkl; 9frZnE`lBdVIkEl/ adj.

  phrenologist

  / frE5nClEdVIst; frI`nBlEdVIst/ n person who practises phrenology 颅相学家.

  phut

  / fQt; fQt/ adv (idm 习语) go `phut (infml 口) (a) (esp of electrical or mechanical things) stop functioning; break down (尤指电器或机械用具)停止运转, 出故障: The washing machine has gone phut. 洗衣机坏了. (b) be ruined; collapse 毁掉; 垮掉: The business went phut. 公司倒闭了. * Our holiday plans have gone phut. 我们的假日计画已经吹了.

  phylum

  / 5faIlEm; `faIlEm/ n (pl -la / -lE; -lE/) (biology 生) major division in the animal or plant kingdom (动物或植物分类上的)门: The mollusc phylum includes all soft-bodied animals without backbones. 软体动物门包括所有无脊椎的软体动物. Cf 参看 class 7, order1 9, family 4, genus 1, species 1.

  physi(o)-

  comb form 构词成分 1 of or relating to nature or natural forces or functions 自然的; 自然力的;自然功能的: physiology. 2 physical 物理的: physiotherapy.

  physical

  / 5fIzIkl; `fIzIkl/ adj 1 of or concerning material things (contrasted with moral or spiritual matters) 物质的(与道德的或精神的相对): the physical world, universe, etc 物质世界、 宇宙等. 2 (a) of the body 身体的; 肉体的: physical fitness, well-being, strength, etc 健康、 安康、 体力 * physical exercise, eg walking, running, playing sports 体育活动 * physical education, eg athletics, gymnastics, games, etc 体育 * (Brit infml 口) physical jerks, ie gymnastics 体操. (b) bodily 身体的: physical presence 亲临. 3 of or according to the laws of nature 自然规律的; 按自然法则的: It is a physical impossibility to be in two places at once. 同时身处两地在自然法则上是不可能的. * physical necessity 自然法则的必然性. 4 [attrib 作定语] of the natural features of the material world 物质世界的自然特徵的: physical geography, ie geography of the earth's structure 自然地理学 * a physical map, ie one showing mountains, rivers, etc 自然地理图. 5 [attrib 作定语] of or concerning physics 物理的; 物理学的: physical chemistry, ie use of physics in the study of chemistry 物理化学 * physical science 物理学. 6 (infml euph 口, 婉) using violence; treating roughly 使用暴力的; 粗暴对待的: Are you going to co-operate or do we have to get physical? 你是跟我们合作呢还是要我们动武?

  physical

  n (infml 口) medical examination to see if one is fit 体格检查.

  physically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv (a) bodily 身体上: physically exhausted, fit, handicapped 身体疲劳、 健康、 残疾 * attack sb physically 攻击某人身体. (b) according to the laws of nature 根据自然法则: physically impossible 按照自然法则不可能.

  physician

  / fI5zIFn; fE`zIFEn/ n doctor, esp one specializing in areas of treatment other than surgery 医生; (尤指)内科医生. Cf 参看 surgeon.

  physicist

  / 5fIzIsIst; `fIzEsIst/ n expert in or student of physics 物理学家; 物理学研究者.

  physics

  / 5fIzIks; `fIzIks/ n [sing v] (scientific study of the) properties of matter and energy (eg heat, light, sound, magnetism, gravity) and the relationship between them 物理(学): Physics has made enormous progress in this century. 本世纪物理学的发展突飞猛进. * nuclear physics 原子核物理学 * the laws of physics 物理学定律 * [attrib 作定语] a physics textbook 物理学教科书 * the physics of the electron 电子物理学.

  physiognomy

  / 9fIzI5CnEmI; ?@ -5CgnEUmI; 9fIzI`B^nEmI/ n (fml 文) 1 [C] (a) features of a person's face 相貌; 容貌. (b) facial type 脸型: a typical North European physiognomy 典型的北欧人脸型. 2 [U] art of judging a person's character from the features of his face 相面术. 3 [C] physical features of a country or area (一国或一地的)地势, 地貌, 地理特徵.

  physiology

  / 9fIzI5ClEdVI; fIzI`BlEdVI/ n [U] (a) scientific study of the normal functions of living things 生理学: reproductive physiology 生殖生理学. (b) way in which the body of a particular living thing functions 生理机能: the physiology of the snake 蛇的生理机能.

  physiological

  / 9fIzIE5lCdVIkl; 9fIzIE`lBdVIkl/ adj (a) of or concerning physiology 生理学的: physiological research 生理学研究. (b) of or concerning the bodily functions 生理的; 生理机能的: the physiological effects of space travel 宇宙航行的生理影响.

  physiologist

  / 9fIzI5ClEdVIst; 9fIzI`BlEdVIst/ n expert in or student of physiology 生理学家; 生理学研究者.

  physiotherapy

  / 9fIzIEU5WerEpI; 9fIzIo`WZrEpI/ n [U] treatment of disease, injury or weakness in the joints or muscles by exercises, massage and the use of light, heat, etc 物理治疗; 理疗.

  physiotherapist

  / -pIst; -pIst/ n (also infml 口语作 physio / 5fIzIEU; `fIzIo/) person trained to give such treatment 理疗医生; 物理治疗师.

  physique

  / fI5zi:k; fI`zik/ n [C] general appearance and size of a person's body, esp of the muscles 体格, 体形(尤指肌肉方面): a well-developed physique 发育匀称的体格 * build up one's physique 长身体 * a fine/poor physique 健壮的[羸弱的]体格 * He doesn't have the physique for such heavy work. 干这样的重活他的体格不行.

  pi

  / paI; paI/ n 1 the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet (, ), represented in English spelling by `p' 希腊字母表的第十六个字母(), 英语拼写中用 p. 2 (geometry 几) symbol () representing the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (ie 3.14159) 圆周率(即3.14159).

  piano

  / 5pjB:nEU; pI`Bno/ adv, adj (music 音) (abbr 缩写 p) soft(ly) 柔和(的); 弱(的). Cf 参看 forte2.

  pianissimo

  / pIE5nIsImEU; 9piE`nIsE9mo/ adv, adj (abbr 缩写 pp) very soft(ly) 极弱(的).

  piano

  / pI5AnEU; pI`Ano/ n (pl ~s / -nEUz; -noz/) (also fml 文作 pianoforte / pI9AnEU5fR:tI; ?@ pI5AnEfR:rt; pI`AnE9fRrt/) large musical instrument played by pressing the black or white keys of a keyboard, thus causing small hammers to strike metal strings to produce different notes 钢琴: play a tune on the piano 用钢琴弹一个曲子 * grand piano, ie one with horizontal strings, esp used for concerts 大钢琴 * upright piano, ie one with vertical strings 竖式钢琴 * [attrib 作定语] piano music 钢琴曲 a piano teacher, lesson 钢琴教师、 课 * a piano-player 钢琴演奏者 * a piano-stool 钢琴凳. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page xi.

  pianist

  / 5pIEnIst; `piEnIst/ n person who plays the piano 钢琴演奏者; 钢琴家: She's a good pianist. 她钢琴弹得很好. * a famous concert pianist 著名的音乐会钢琴家.

  pianola (also Pianola)

  / pIE5nEUlE; 9pIE`nolE/ n (propr 专利名) type of mechanical piano in which the keys are operated by air pressure 自动钢琴.

  piano-accordion

  n = accordion.

  piastre (US piaster)

  / pI5AstE(r); pI`AstL/ n (a) 100th part of the unit of money in several Middle Eastern countries 皮阿斯特(中东几国的货币单位). (b) coin or banknote of this value (硬币或纸币的)一皮阿斯特.

  piazza

  / pI5AtsE; ?@ also pi:5B:zE; pI`AzE/ n public square or marketplace, esp in an Italian town; plaza 广场, 市场(尤指意大利城镇中的).

  pibroch

  / 5pi:brCk; `pibrBk/ n piece of music to be played on the bagpipes, consisting of a theme and variations 风笛变奏曲.

  pica

  / 5paIkE; `paIkE/ n 1 one of the sizes of letters used in typewriting (ten letters per inch) 英文打字机上相当於12点活字的字型(每英寸10个字母). 2 (in printing) unit of measurement for type2(1) (印刷)12点活字.

  picador

  / 5pIkEdR:(r); `pIkE9dRr/ n (in bullfighting) man mounted on a horse who attacks the bull with a lance in order to make it angry and weaken it 骑马斗牛士.

  picaresque

  / 9pIkE5resk; 9pIkE`rZsk/ adj (of a style or type of literature) dealing with the adventures of (often likeable) rogues and vagabonds (指文学的风格或体裁)以(常为讨人喜欢的)无赖和流浪汉的冒险事迹为题材的.

  piccalilli

  / 9pIkE5lIlI; 9pIkE`lIlI/ n [U] yellow hot-tasting pickle made from chopped vegetables, mustard and spices 辣泡菜.

  piccaninny

  / 9pIkE5nInI; `pIkE9nInI/ n (<!> dated offensive 讳, 旧, 蔑) young Negro or Aboriginal child 黑人小孩儿; 澳洲土著小孩儿.

  piccolo

  / 5pIkElEU; `pIkE9lo/ n (pl ~s) small musical instrument like the flute but producing notes an octave higher than those of the flute 短笛. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page x.

  pick

  / pIk; pIk/ n [sing] 1 (right of) selecting; choice 挑选; 选择; 选择权: Of course I'll lend you a pen. Take your pick, ie whichever one you choose. 我当然可以借给你钢笔用. 自己挑吧. * The winner has first pick of the prizes. 胜者有选择奖品的优先权. 2 the ~ of sth the best (example) of sth 最佳选择(的事物); 精华: Only the pick of the crop is good enough for us, eg in food advertising. 本公司原料皆为精选作物(如见於食品广告). * the pick of the new season's fashions 新款精选 * (infml 口) the pick of the bunch, ie the best of a number of things or people 出类拔萃者.

  pick

  / pIk; pIk/ n 1 (also pickaxe, US pickax / 5pIkks; `pIk9Aks/) large tool consisting of a curved iron bar with sharp ends fixed onto a wooden handle, used for breaking up stones, hard ground, etc 鹤嘴锄; 镐. =>illus at axe 见axe插图. 2 (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) instrument with a sharp point, used for the purpose specified 锄; 镐: an `ice-pick * a `toothpick.

  pick

  / pIk; pIk/ v 1 [Tn] choose or select (sth), eg from a group of things, esp thoughtfully and carefully 挑选, 选择(某物); (尤指)精选: You can pick whichever one you like. 你喜欢哪个就挑哪个. * Only the best players were picked to play in the match. 选出参赛的都是最佳选手. * pick one's words, ie express oneself carefully, eg so as not to annoy sb 斟酌词句(如以免得罪人) * pick one's way along a muddy path, ie walk carefully, choosing the best places to put one's feet 在泥泞的小道上走路时小心下脚. =>Usage at choose 用法见choose. 2 [Tn] pluck, gather or remove (flowers, vegetables, etc) from the place where they grow 采摘, 采集(花、 菜等): flowers freshly picked from the garden 从花园中新采的花 * pick lettuce, plums, spinach, strawberries, etc 收获莴苣、 梅子、 菠菜、 草莓等. 3 (a) [Tn, Cn.a] remove small pieces of matter from (sth), esp in order to clean it 从(某处)除掉小块物(尤指为弄乾净): pick one's nose, ie remove dried mucus from the nostrils 挖鼻孔 * pick one's teeth, ie use a small pointed piece of wood, etc to remove particles of food from one's teeth 剔牙 * The dogs picked the bones clean, ie removed all the meat from the bones. 狗把骨头啃得乾乾净净. (b) [Tn.pr] ~ sth (from/off sth) remove sth from a surface, esp with one's fingers or a sharp instrument (从物体表面)除掉某物(尤指用手指或尖物): pick the tacking threads (from a garment) 拆掉(衣服上的) 线 * pick a hair from the collar of one's coat 捡去衣领上的一根头发 * pick the toys off the floor 拾起地板上的玩具 * pick the nuts off the top of the cake 拣去蛋糕上的果仁. (c) [Tn] open (a lock) without a key, eg by using a piece of bent wire or a pointed tool (用尖细之物或铁丝)拨开(锁). 4 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (in sth) make (a hole) in sth by pulling at it or by using one's finger-nails or a sharp instrument (用指甲或尖物)扎开, 抠开(一孔): The child has picked a hole in his new jumper. 孩子的新毛衣上勾了一个洞. * The bird picked a hole in the ice with its beak. 那鸟在冰上啄出了一个洞. 5 (a) [In] (of birds) take up (grain, etc) in the bill (指鸟)叼起, 啄起(谷粒等): chickens picking corn 啄食玉米的小鸡. (b) [Ipr] ~ at sth eat (food) in very small amounts or without appetite 小口地吃(某物)(或吃时无食欲): Sparrows picked at the crumbs. 麻雀啄食著面包屑. * He never feels hungry and just picks at his food. 他从不觉得饿, 吃东西也没有胃口. 6 [Tn] = pluck 4: pick a banjo 弹班卓琴. 7 (idm 习语) have a bone to pick with sb => bone. pick and `choose make a selection from a number of things, esp in a slow, careful or fussy way 挑选; (尤指)挑挑拣拣: I spent days picking and choosing before deciding on the wallpaper and curtains. 我挑选壁纸和帘子用了好几天的时间. * We had to find a flat in a hurry there was no time to pick and choose. 我们只好匆忙找套房子--没有时间挑选了. pick sb's `brains ask sb questions in order to obtain information that one can use oneself 问某人问题以获取有用的信息: I need a new French dictionary. Can I pick your brains about the best one to buy? 我需要一部新的法语词典. 能否向您请教哪本最好? pick a `fight/`quarrel (with sb) deliberately cause a fight/quarrel (with sb), eg by behaving aggressively (向某人)寻衅, 找茬儿: He tried to pick a quarrel with me about it but I refused to discuss the matter. 他极力想就那事找我的茬儿, 但我绝不谈论此事. * It was foolish of you to pick a fight with a heavyweightboxing champion! 你傻了, 竟敢和重量级的拳击冠军寻衅闹事! pick holes in sth find fault with sth 挑某事物的毛病; 找某事物的漏洞: It was easy to pick holes in his argument. 在他的论据里不难找到漏洞. * They pick holes in everything I suggest. 只要是我提的建议他们就挑毛病. pick sb's `pocket steal money, etc from sb's pocket 扒窃. pick/pull sb/sth to pieces => piece1. pick up/take up/throw down the gauntlet => gauntlet1. pick up the `pieces/`threads restore to normality or make better (a situation, one's life, etc), esp after a setback, shock, disaster, etc 恢复或改进(局面、 生活状况等)(尤指於受挫、 受惊、 受灾等之後): Their lives were shattered by the tragedy and they are still trying to pick up the pieces. 他们的生活被这场悲剧摧垮了, 但他们仍尽力重新整顿. pick up `speed go faster 加速: We reached the outskirts of town and began to pick up speed. 我们到达市郊後开始加速. pick a `winner (a) (in horse-racing) choose correctly the horse which will win the race, esp in order to bet on it (马赛中)挑中定能跑赢的马. (b) make a very good choice 挑选得极好: (ironic 反语) I really picked a winner with this car it's always breaking down! 这辆汽车我算挑著了--总出故障! 8 (phr v) pick sb off shoot (a person, an animal, a bird, etc, esp one of a group) after aiming carefully (有选择地)瞄准射击(人、 兽、 鸟等): A sniper hidden on a roof picked off three of the soldiers on patrol. 藏在屋顶上的狙击手击毙了三名巡逻兵.

  pick on sb

  (a) choose sb (esp repeatedly) for punishment, criticism or blame 选中某人(尤指屡次)惩罚、 批评或责怪: She felt that her parents were picking on her. 她觉得父母老是偏偏责备她. (b) choose sb for a task, esp an unpleasant one 选中某人做某事(尤指厌恶的事): I was picked on to announce the bad news. 偏偏选中我去宣布这个坏消息.

  pick sb/sth out

  (a) choose sb/sth from a number of people/things 挑选出某人[某事物]: She was picked out from thousands of applicants for the job. 从数千申请人中挑选出她来做那份工作. * He picked out the ripest peach. 他把熟得最透的桃挑了出来. (b) distinguish sb/sth from surrounding people or things 分辨出某人[某事物]: pick out sb/sb's face in a crowd 在人群中认出某人[某人的脸] * It was just possible to pick out the hut on the side of the mountain. 那小舍座落在山边, 隐约可见. * The window frames are picked out in blue against the white walls. 蓝色的窗框衬在白墙上十分显眼. pick sth out (a) play (a piece of music), eg on the piano, esp hesitantly or by trial and error, without having written music to follow 凭记忆奏(乐曲)(如用钢琴). (b) discover or recognize sth after careful study 细心研究後发现或领会某事物: pick out recurring themes in an author's work 领会出作者作品中反覆出现的主题思想 * Can you pick out the operatic arias quoted in this orchestral passage? 你能听出这段管弦乐曲里有歌剧式的咏叹调吗?

  pick sth over

  look carefully at (vegetables, fruit, clothing, etc) in order to select the best or throw away bad ones 检查(蔬菜、 水果、 衣物等)以挑出最佳者或剔除劣品: Pick over the lentils carefully in case there are any stones amongst them. 把这些豆子里的沙粒挑出去.

  pick up

  (a) become better; improve 好转; 改善: The market always picks up in the spring. 一到春天市场就活跃了. * We're waiting until the weather picks up a bit. 我们等到天气好些再说. * The performance started badly but picked up towards the end. 演出开始时很差劲, 但近结尾处就好多了. * Her health soon picked up after a few days' rest. 她休息了几天, 身体很快复元了. (b) start again; continue 重新开始; 继续 : We'll pick up where we finished yesterday. 我们从昨天停止的地方继续进行. pick oneself up get to one's feet, esp after a fall 站起来(尤指跌倒後): Pick yourself up and brush yourself down. 自己站起来, 把衣服掸乾净. pick sb up (a) give sb a lift in a car; collect sb 用汽车搭载某人或接某人: I'll pick you up at 7 o'clock. 7点钟我开车来接你. * He picked up a hitch-hiker. 他中途让个搭便车的人上了车. (b) (infml often derog 口, 常作贬义) make the acquaintance of sb casually 偶然结识某人: He picked up the girl at a college disco. 他在学校的迪斯科舞会上偶然结识了那姑娘. * She's living with some man she picked up on holiday. 她与一个在假日认识的男人同住. (c) rescue sb (eg from the sea) 救起某人(如从海上): The lifeboat picked up all the survivors. 救生船救起了全部幸存者. (d) (of the police, etc) stop and seize sb (eg for questioning) (指警方等)逮捕某人(如为讯问): The police picked him up as he was trying to leave the country. 他正要离开该国时, 警方把他捉住了. * He was picked up and taken for questioning. 他被拘捕接受审讯. (e) reprimand sb 责备某人: She picked him up for using bad language. 她指责他出言不逊. pick sb/sth up (a) take hold of and lift sb/sth 举起或抬起某人[某物]; 拿起; 拾起: He picked up the child and put her on his shoulders. 他抱起孩子让她骑在自己的肩膀上. * I picked up your bag by mistake. 我错拿了你的手提包. * pick up a stitch, ie in knitting 补织一针(编织中) * He picked up the book from the floor. 他从地板上把书拾起来. * She picked up the telephone and dialled his number. 她拿起电话就拨了他的号码. (b) see or hear sb/sth, esp by means of apparatus 见到, 听到(尤指藉助仪器): They picked up the yacht on their radar screen. 他们在雷达屏上看到了那艘游艇. * I was able to pick you up on the short wave radio. 我能用短波收音机收听到你的信号. * The equipment picked up the signal from the satellite. 这设备收到了卫星发出的信号. pick sth up (a) learn (a foreign language, a technique, etc) by practising 通过实践学会(外语、 技术等): She soon picked up French when she went to live in France. 她到法国居住後很快就学会了法语. * The children have picked up the local accent. 孩子都学会了当地口音了. * pick up bad habits 染上陋习. (b) catch (an illness) 得, 染(疾病): pick up an infection, a cold, the flu, etc 受传染、  凉、 得流感. (c) buy sth, esp cheaply or luckily 买到某物(尤指价廉或运气好): She picked up a valuable first edition at a village book sale. 她在乡村图书展销会上买到一本珍贵的首版书. * They picked up most of the furniture at auctions in country towns. 他们大部分的家具都是在乡村镇上的拍卖处买的. (d) hear or learn (gossip, news, etc) 听到(闲话等); 获悉或打听到(消息等): He picked up an interesting piece of news. 他听到一则有趣的新闻. * See if you can pick up anything about their future plans. 你看能不能打听到他们未来计画的消息. (e) collect sth 取或收集某物: I've got to pick up my coat from the cleaners. 我得到洗染店去取大衣了. * I'll pick up (ie buy) something for dinner on my way home. 我在回家的路上要顺便买些东西做饭. * We can pick up the tickets an hour before the play begins. 我们可以在话剧开演前一小时去取票. (f) draw or derive sth 吸取或得到某物: The trolley bus picks up current from an overhead wire. 无轨电车的电能是通过架空线供给的. (g) find sth; locate sth; (re)join 发现某事物; 找到某事物; (重新)接合或会合: pick up a trail, a scent 发现踪迹、 察出气味 * pick up the track on the other side of the river 在河对岸发现踪迹. pick up with sb (often derog 常作贬义): She's picked up with some peculiar people. 她勾搭上一些不三不四的人.

  picker

  n (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) person or thing that picks (pick3 2) 采摘者; 采集者; 采摘机; 采摘工具: `hop-pickers 啤酒花采集者 * a mechanical `apple-picker 摘苹果机.

  pick-me-up

  / 5pIkmIQp; `pIkmIQp/ n (infml 口) drink taken as a tonic when one feels weak, tired, ill, etc, esp medicine or an alcoholic drink (虚弱、 疲劳、 生病等时饮的)提神饮料(尤指含药或酒精者).

  pickpocket

  / 5pIkpCkIt; `pIk9pBkIt/ n person who steals money, etc from other people's pockets, esp in crowded places 扒手(尤指在人多处行窃的).

  pick-up

  n 1 (infml derog 口, 贬) person one has met casually, esp in a sexual context 偶然结识的人(尤指涉及性关系的). 2 part of a record-player that holds the stylus 拾音器; 唱头. 3 (also `pick-up truck) small van or truck, open and with low sides, used by builders, farmers, etc 轻型小货车. =>illus at jeep 见jeep插图.

  pick-a-back

  / 5pIkEbAk; `pIkE9bAk/ (also piggyback/ 5pIgIbAk; `pI^I9bAk/) adv on the shoulders or back like a bundle 在背上; 在肩上: carry a child pick-a-back 背著孩子.

  pick-a-back (also piggyback)

  n ride on a person's back 骑在某人背上: Her father gave her a pick-a-back (ride) for the last bit of the journey. 在最後的一段路程上她父亲背著她走.

  picket

  / 5pIkIt; `pIkIt/ n 1 worker or group of workers stationed outside the entrance to a place of work during a strike to try to persuade others not to enter (罢工时守在工作地点门口阻拦他人上班的)纠察队员, 纠察队: Five pickets were injured in the scuffle. 在混战中有五名罢工纠察队员受伤. * [attrib 作定语] a `picket line, ie a line of pickets, eg outside a factory 罢工纠察线. 2 small group of people on police duty or of soldiers sent out to watch the enemy 警察或士兵的警戒队. 3 pointed stake set into the ground, eg as part of a fence or to tether a horse to 尖板条(作篱笆或栓马用的): [attrib 作定语] a picket fence 尖板条栅栏.

  picket

  v 1 (a) [Tn] place pickets at (a place of work) (在工作地点)设置罢工纠察队: picket all the company's offices 在公司所有的办公室附近设置罢工纠察队. (b) [I, Tn] act as a picket at (a place of work) 担任罢工纠察员: Some of the union members did not want to picket. 工会的一些会员不想担任罢工纠察员. 2 [Tn] place (guards) in position 布置(警卫)警戒. 3 [Tn] enclose (a place) with stakes or make secure with a stake 用尖板条围住(某地); 用尖板条围护.

  pickings

  / 5pIkINz; `pIkINz/ n [pl] 1 profits or gains that are easily or dishonestly earned or obtained 轻易挣得的或来路不正的财物、 好处、 利益等: He promised us rich pickings if we bought the shares immediately. 他向我们保证假若我们立刻买进股票, 很容易赚大钱. 2 left over scraps of food, etc 残留的食物等.

  pickle

  / 5pIkl; `pIkl/ n 1 (a) [U] food (esp vegetables) preserved in vinegar or salt water 腌菜(尤指蔬菜): red cabbage pickle 红卷心菜泡菜. (b) [C usu pl 通常作复数] particular vegetable preserved in this way 泡菜: The dish was accompanied by a variety of pickles. 这盘菜配有什锦泡菜. * cheese and pickles 奶酪加泡菜. (c) [U] liquid used to preserve food in this way 泡菜水; 腌菜的汁: leave an ox tongue in salt pickle 把牛口条放在腌菜汁里腌制. Cf 参看 relish 3, sauce 1. 2 [C] (Brit infml 口) mischievous child 调皮孩子: She's a real little pickle! 她真是个小调皮! 3 (idm 习语) (in) a sad, sorry, nice, pretty, etc `pickle (in) a difficult or unpleasant situation; (in) a mess 处境困难或不愉快; 又脏又乱.

  pickle

  v [Tn] preserve (vegetables, etc) in pickle (用腌菜汁)腌渍(蔬菜等): pickled cabbage, onions, walnuts, etc 腌洋白菜、 洋葱、 胡桃等. pickled adj (infml 口) drunk 醉的: By this time, he was hopelessly pickled. 到这时他已经烂醉如泥了.

  picky

  / 5pIkI; `pIkI/ adj (-ier, iest) (infml derog 口, 贬 esp US) fussy; choosy 挑剔的; 难以取悦的.

  picnic

  / 5pIknIk; `pIknIk/ n 1 (a) (esp Brit) meal eaten out of doors, esp as part of a pleasure trip 野餐(尤指旅游中的): We'll go to the river and take a picnic with us. 我们要到河边玩耍并带著野餐. * [attrib 作定语] a picnic table, hamper, lunch 野餐桌、 食篮、 盒饭. (b) pleasure trip that includes a picnic 带有野餐的旅游: It's a nice day let's go for a picnic. 天气真好--咱们去野餐游玩吧. 2 (idm 习语) be no `picnic (infml 口) be difficult or troublesome 有困难或麻烦: Bringing up a family when you are unemployed is no picnic. 失了业又要养家, 这可不是玩儿的.

  picnic

  v (-ck-) [I, Ipr] take part in or have a picnic 参加野餐; 去野餐: They were picnicking in the woods. 他们正在林子里野餐. picnicker n person who picnics 野餐者: Picnickers are requested not to leave litter behind, eg on a notice. 野餐者不得随地丢弃垃圾(如告示牌上所示者).

  picric acid

  / 9pIkrIk 5AsId; 9pIkrIk `AsId/ n [U] bitteryellow substance used in dyeing and in making explosives 苦味酸.

  pictorial

  / pIk5tR:rIEl; pIk`tRrIEl/ adj (a) represented in a picture or pictures 用图片、 照片等表示的: a pictorial record of the wedding 婚礼的照片集. (b) having pictures; illustrated 有图片、 照片等的; 用图片、 照片等说明的: a pictorial calendar, magazine, etc 带画的日历、 杂志等.

  pictorial

  n newspaper or magazine in which pictures are the most important feature 画报.

  pictorially

  / -ElI; -ElI/ adv.

  pictorial

  / pIk5tR:rIEl; pIk`tRrIEl/ adj (a) represented in a picture or pictures 用图片、 照片等表示的: a pictorial record of the wedding 婚礼的照片集. (b) having pictures; illustrated 有图片、 照片等的; 用图片、 照片等说明的: a pictorial calendar, magazine, etc 带画的日历、 杂志等.

  pictorial

  n newspaper or magazine in which pictures are the most important feature 画报.

  pictorially

  / -ElI; -ElI/ adv.

  picture

  / 5pIktFE(r); `pIktFL/ n 1 [C] (a) painting, drawing, sketch, etc, esp as a work of art 绘画, 图画, 素描(尤指作为艺术作品): His picture of cows won a prize. 他画的牛的作品获了奖. * Draw a picture of the house so we know what it looks like. 画出房子的图来让我们看看是什麽样子的. (b) photograph 照片; 相片: They showed us the pictures of their wedding. 他们给我们看结婚照片. * She's taking a picture of the children. 她正给孩子们拍照. (c) portrait (of sb) (某人的)肖像画: Will you paint my picture? 您给我画像行吗? 2 [C usu sing 通常作单数] beautiful object, scene, person etc 美丽的物、 景、 人等: The park is a picture when the daffodils are in bloom. 水仙花开时公园非常漂亮. * The children were a picture in their pretty dresses. 孩子们穿上漂亮的衣服好看极了. 3 [C usu sing 通常作单数] (a) account or description of sth that enables one to form a mental picture or impression of it 形象的叙述: The book gives a good picture of everyday life in ancient Rome. 那部书对古罗马人的日常生活描写得很生动. (b) this mental picture 心目中的情景: Her careful description enabled us to form an accurate picture of what had happened. 她描述得十分细致, 使我们对所发生的事历历如见. 4 [C] (quality of the) image on a television screen 电视图像(的清晰度): The picture is much clearer with the new aerial. 装上新天线後画面清晰多了. 5 (Brit dated 旧) (a) [C] cinema film 影片; 电影: Have you seen her latest picture? 你看过她新拍的电影吗? (b) the pictures [pl] cinema 电影院: We don't often go to the pictures. 我们不常到电影院看电影. 6 (idm 习语) be/put sb in the `picture be/cause sb to be fully informed about sth 了解[使某人了解]实情: Are you in the picture now? 你现在知道怎麽回事了吗? * Members of Parliament insisted on being put in the picture about the government's plans. 议员坚持要充分了解政府计画的详情. be the picture of health, happiness, etc look very healthy, happy, etc 看上去很健康、 愉快等. get the `picture (infml 口) understand 明白; 理解: I get the picture you two want to be left alone together. 我现在明白了--你们俩想单独在一起. pretty as a picture => pretty.

  picture

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (to oneself) form a mental image of sth; imagine sth 想像或设想某事物: He pictured to himself what it might be like to live in Java. 他想像要是生活在爪哇的情形. * I can't picture the village without the old church. 我无法设想村子里没有那座旧教堂像什麽样子. 2 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] make a picture of (sth/sb) 画(某物[某人])的画; 给(某物[某人])拍照: They were pictured against a backgroundof flowers. 他们在画中背景有很多花.

  picture-book

  n book with many pictures, esp one for children 图画书(尤指为儿童阅读的).

  picture-card

  n (in a pack of playing-cards) card with a picture on it, ie the king, queen or knave; court-card (纸牌中的)人像牌(即K、 Q、 J).

  picture-gallery

  room or building in which paintings are exhibited 绘画陈列室; 画廊.

  picture postcard

  postcard with a picture on one side 美术明信片.

  picturesque

  / 9pIktFE5resk; 9pIktFE`rZsk/ adj 1 forming a pretty scene; charming or quaint 美如画的; 迷人的; 奇特有趣的: a picturesque fishing village in the bay 风景如画的海湾渔村 * a picturesque setting 别致有趣的背景. 2 (of language) strikingly expressive; vivid (指语言)绘声绘色的, 生动的. 3 (of a person, his appearance,his manner, etc) strange or unusual; eccentric (指人、 外貌、 举止等)奇持的, 异常的, 古怪的: a picturesque figure in her flowery hat and dungarees 她戴著花帽子穿著粗蓝布工作服的怪样子.

  picturesquely

  adv.

  picturesqueness

  n [U].

  piddle

  / 5pIdl; `pIdl/ v [I] (infml 口) urinate 撒尿.

  piddle

  n [U, C] (infml 口) urine 尿: dog piddle 狗尿 * The puppy has done a piddle on the carpet. 小狗在地毯上撒了一泡尿.

  piddling

  / 5pIdlIN; `pIdlIN/ adj [esp attrib 尤作定语] (infml derog 口, 贬) (a) unimportant; trivial 不重要的; 琐碎的: I don't want to hear all the piddling little details! 我不想听那些琐碎的事! (b) small 小的: It's annoying to have to get authorization for spending such piddling amounts of money. 花这麽一点钱也要去请示, 真烦人.

  pidgin

  / 5pIdVIn; `pIdVIn/ n any of several languages resulting from contact between European traders and local peoples, eg in W Africa and SE Asia, containing elements of the local language(s) and esp English,French or Dutch, and still used for internal communication 洋泾滨语: speak in pidgin 讲洋泾滨话 * [attrib 作定语] pidgin English, ie language derived from English and another language 洋泾滨英语. Cf 参看 creole.

  pie

  / paI; paI/ n [C, U] 1 (a) (Brit) meat or fruit encased in pastry and baked in a (usu deep) dish 排; 肉馅排; 果馅排: an apple pie 苹果排 * Have some more pie. 再吃点排吧. (b) (US) meat or fruit cooked in a pastry-lined dish, with or without a covering of pastry (有盖或无盖的)肉馅排, 果馅排. Cf 参看 flan, tart2. 2 (idm 习语) easy as pie => easy1. eat humble pie => eat. have a finger in every pie => finger. ,pie in the `sky (infml 口) hoped-for or planned event that is very unlikely to happen 希望中的或计画中的事情(不大可能实现的): Their ideas about reforming the prison system are just pie in the sky. 他们打算改革监狱制度的想法纯粹是空中楼阁.

  pie chart

  diagram consisting of a circle divided into sections that represent specific proportions of the whole, eg in order to show spending in various areas as part of total expenditure 圆形统计图; 饼分图. =>illus at chart 见chart插图.

  piecrust

  / 5paIkrQst; `paI9krQst/ n [U] baked pastry covering on a pie 排的盖或皮.

  pie-eyed

  adj (infml 口) drunk 醉的.

  piebald

  / 5paIbR:ld; `paI9bRld/ adj (of a horse) covered with irregularly-shaped patches of two colours, usu black and white (指马)有花斑的, (通常指)有黑白斑的. Cf 参看 skewbald.

  piebald

  n piebald horse or pony (黑白)花斑马.

  piece

  / pi:s; pis/ n 1 [C usu pl 通常作复数] (used esp after the preps in, into, to 尤用於介词in、 into、 to之後) (a) any of the parts of which sth is made 部件; 部分: He lost one of the pieces of his model engine. 他的火车头模型缺了一个零件. * The table is made in five pieces. 这桌子是五部分组成的. * pull sth/take sth/come to pieces 拆散某物[散成碎块] * The furniture is delivered in pieces and you have to assemble it yourself. 家具送货时是散件的, 得自己装配. (b) any of the portions into which sth breaks 碎片; 碎块; 断片: The vase shattered into a thousand pieces. 花瓶已经粉碎了. * The cup lay in pieces on the floor. 地上是那杯子的碎片. * break, hack, pull, smash, tear sth to pieces 打碎、 劈碎、 扯碎、 砸碎、 撕碎某物 * The boat (was) smashed to pieces on the rocks. 船触礁而撞碎了. 2 [C] ~ (of sth) (a) amount of a substance (separated or broken from a larger piece) (从大物体上分离下来的)块, 片, 段, 截: buy a piece of glass to fit the window frame 买块玻璃安窗户 * put a piece of wood on the fire 向火里添块木头 * get a piece of grit in one's eye 眼里迷进一粒沙子 * a piece (ie a slice) of bread, cake, meat, etc 一块面包、 蛋糕、 肉等. (b) amount or area of sth, esp for a particular purpose (某物质的)块, 片, 段, 截(尤指有某用途的): a piece of chalk, ie for writing with 一枝粉笔 * a piece of land, ie for farming or building on 一块地(耕地或建筑用地) * a piece (ie a sheet) of paper 一张纸. =>Usage 见所附用法. 3 [C] ~ of sth (a) single instance or example of sth (事情的)项, 桩, 条: a piece of advice, information, luck, news, treachery 一个忠告、 一项信息、 一件幸事、 一则新闻、 一宗背叛事件 * a fine piece of work 一部好作品. (b) single article; item 件; 个: a piece of furniture, jewellery, luggage, porcelain 一件家具、 珠宝、 行李、 瓷器. 4 [C] (a) (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) any of the parts of a set 一套中的任何一件、 一部分:a jigsaw with 1000 pieces 有一千块板片的拼图玩具 * a three-piece suite, ie a sofa and two armchairs 三件一套的沙发(一张长沙发及两张单座沙发) * a 50-piece orchestra, ie with 50 players 50人的管弦乐队. (b) any of the small objects or figures used in board games, esp in chess 棋子. 5 [C] standard length of cloth, wallpaper, etc as an item for sale (按标准长度整件出售的布、 壁纸等的)匹, 卷, 条: cloth sold by the piece 按匹发售的布. 6 [C] ~ (of sth) (a) (in art, music, etc) single work or composition (艺术品、 音乐等的)幅, 篇, 首: a piece of music, poetry, sculpture 一支乐曲、 一首诗、 一件雕刻. (b) essay or newspaper article 文章; 报道: Did you read her piece in today's paper? 你看过今天报纸上她那篇文章吗? 7 [C] coin 硬币: a ten-pence piece 十便士硬币 * a five-cent piece 五分硬币 * a piece of eight, ie an old Spanish silver coin 一个西班牙旧时银币. 8 [C usu sing 通常作单数] (infml becoming dated derog 口, 渐旧, 贬) woman or girl 女人; 丫头: a nice little piece 小乖妞儿 * Do you know the piece he was with last night? 你认识昨晚和他一起的那个女人吗? 9 [C] (dated 旧) (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) gun 枪; 炮: a `fowling-piece, ie a gun for shooting wildfowl 鸟枪. 10 [sing] (US infml 口) distance 距离: His house is over there a piece. 他的房子在那边, 离这儿有一段距离. 11 (idm 习语) a bit/piece of tail => tail. bits and pieces => bit1. give sb a piece of one's `mind (infml 口) tell sb frankly what one thinks, esp when one disapproves of his behaviour 坦诚相告(尤指不满对方行为). go (all) to `pieces (of a person) have a breakdown; lose control of oneself (指人)(精神、 身体方面)崩溃, 失去自制力: After the car accident, she seemed to go to pieces. 撞车事故後, 她好像精神崩溃了. * He went to pieces when they told him the tragic news. 人们告诉他那悲惨的消息後, 他已六神无主了. in one `piece (of a person) unharmed, esp after a dangerous experience (指人)无恙, 平安, (尤指)脱险: They were lucky to get back in one piece. 他们安全返回, 十分幸运. a nasty piece of work => nasty. (all) of a piece with sth (a) consistent with sth 与某事物一致: The new measures are all of a piece with the government's policy. 新措施和政府的政策完全一致. (b) of the same substance or character as sth 与某物同一物质或同一性质. pick/pull sb to `pieces criticize sb, esp when they are absent 批评, 痛斥某人(尤指背後). pick/pull sth to `pieces argue against sth; find fault with sth 批驳某事; 吹毛求疵. pick up the pieces/threads => pick3. ,piece by `piece one part at a time 一块一块地: The bridge was moved piece by piece to a new site. 把那桥一段一段地运到了新址. a piece/slice of the action => action. a ,piece of `cake (infml 口) thing that is very easy 容易的事: The exam paper was a piece of cake. 那份试卷十分容易. * Persuading him to give us the day off won't be a piece of cake. 要说通他放我们假可不是容易事. a piece of goods => goods. say one's piece => say. take a piece out of sb reprimand sb severely 痛斥某人. the villain of the piece => villain.

  piece-work

  n [U] work paid for by the amount done and not by the hours worked 计件工作. `piece-worker n.

  piece

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: The word piece can often be replaced by a more specific word *piece一词常可用较具体的词替换: a slice of bread 一片面包 * a bar of soap 一块肥皂. Please consult the relevant entry to find the correct word for the item concerned. 查阅与物品搭配用的确切量词, 请参考有关词条.

  piece

  / pi:s; pis/ v (phr v) piece sth together (a) assemble sth from individual pieces 拼合、 凑合或组装某物: piece together a jigsaw 装配好线锯 * piece together the torn scraps of paper in order to read what was written 把破碎的文件拼凑起来以阅读其内容. (b) discover (a story, facts, etc) from separate pieces of evidence 从各种证据中发现(事情原委、 事实等): We managed to piece together the truth from several sketchy accounts. 我们从几方面粗略的说法中设法弄清了真相.

  piece de resistance

  / 9pjes dE re5zIstB:ns; ?@ -9rezI5stB:ns; pi9ZsdErE9zi`stBns/ n (pl pieces de resistance /,pjes dE-; pi9ZsdE-/) (French 法) (a) (esp of creative work) the most important or impressive item (尤指创造性的工作)主要项目, 得意之作: The architect's piece de resistance was the City Opera House. 这位建筑师的最得意之作是市歌剧院. (b) (at a meal) the most impressive (usu the main) dish1(2) (一餐中的)主菜.

  piecemeal

  / 5pi:smi:l; `pis9mil/ adv piece by piece; a part at a time 一块一块地; 一件一件地; 零碎地: work done piecemeal 一部分一部分做完的工作.

  piecemeal

  adj arriving, done, etc piecemeal 一块一块的; 一件一件的; 零碎的: I've only had a piecemeal account of what happened. 我对发生的事情只有支离破碎的了解.

  pied

  / paId; paId/ adj (esp of birds) having mixed colours, esp black and white (尤指鸟)杂色的, (尤指)黑白的: a pied wagtail 一只黑白斑的

  pied-a-terre

  / 9pjeId B: 5teE(r); 9pjedB`tZr/ n (pl pieds-a-terre / 9pjeId B:-; 9pjedB-/) (French 法) small flat or other accommodation that one keeps for use when necessary (私人备用的)小公寓, 住所: They own a cottage in Scotland and a house in London as well as a pied-a-terre in Paris. 他们在苏格兰有一村舍, 在伦敦有一所房子, 在巴黎还有一套备用公寓.

  pier

  / pIE(r); pIr/ n 1 (a) structure of wood, iron, etc built out into the sea, a lake, etc so that boats can stop and take on or put down passengers or goods (伸入海、 湖等的)码头; 突码头. Cf 参看 jetty. (b) similar structure built as a promenade at a seaside resort, often with a restaurant and places of entertainment on it (供散步游乐的)突堤(常设有餐厅及娱乐场所). =>illus 见插图. 2 one of the pillars supporting an arch or a span of a bridge 桥墩. 3 wall between two windows or other openings 窗间壁; 户间壁; 扶壁.

  pierce

  / pIEs; pIrs/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] (a) (of sharp-pointed instruments) go into or through (sth) (指尖物)刺入, 刺透(某物): The arrow pierced his shoulder. 那枝箭刺入他的肩膀. * (fig 比喻) Her suffering pierced their hearts, ie moved them deeply. 她遭受的苦难使他们心如刀绞. (b) make a hole in or through (sth), esp with a sharp-pointed instrument 在(某物)上扎眼、 穿孔: pierce holes in leather before sewing it 先在皮子上扎眼然後再缝 * pierce the skin of cooking sausages with a fork 用叉子在要烹调的香肠上扎孔 * She had her ears pierced so that she could wear ear-rings. 她已扎了耳朵眼好戴耳环. 2 [Tn] (of light, sound, etc) penetrate (sth) (指光、 声等)透入, 进入(某处): Her shrieks pierced the air. 她尖锐的叫声直刺云天. * The beam of the searchlight pierced the darkness. 探照灯的光柱射入黑暗中. 3 [Ipr] ~ through sth force a way into sth; penetrate sth 穿入、穿过或进入某处: Earth-moving equipment pierced through the jungle. 推土机穿过丛林.

  piercing

  adj (a) (of voices, sounds, etc) shrill; penetrating (指声音等)尖锐的, 刺耳的: a piercing shriek 尖锐的叫声. (b) (of wind, cold, etc) bitter; penetrating (指风、 寒冷等)刺骨的, 穿透的: a piercing chill, breeze 透心的寒冷、 沁人心脾的微风.

  piercingly

  adv: a piercingly cold wind 刺骨寒风.

  pierrot

  / 5pIErEU; 9piE`ro/ n (fem 阴性作 pierrette / pIE5ret; pi`rZt/) 1 (also Pierrot) character in French pantomime 法国童话剧中的角色. 2 (esp formerly) member of a group of entertainers performing esp at seaside resorts, dressed in loose white clothes and with whitened faces (尤指旧时)穿肥大的白衣涂白脸的表演者(尤指在海滨娱乐场的).

  pieta

  / 9pi:e5tB:; pie`tB/ n (Italian 意) painting or sculpture of the Virgin Mary holding the dead body of Christ on her lap 圣母怜子(圣母马利亚抱耶稣遗体於膝上的画像或雕像).

  piety

  / 5paIEtI; `paIEtI/ n (a) [U] devotion to God and respect for religious principles; being pious (对上帝的)虔敬, 虔诚: filial piety, ie respect for and obedience to a parent 孝顺. (b) [C] act showing this 虔敬; 虔诚.

  piezo-electric

  / pi:9eIzEUI5lektrIk; pi9ezoI`lZktrIk/ adj worked by electricity which is produced by exerting pressure on certain crystals 压电的.

  piffle

  / 5pIfl; `pIfl/ n [U] (infml derog 口, 贬) meaningless or worthless talk; nonsense 废话; 无聊的话: You're talking piffle! 你胡说八道!

  piffling

  / 5pIflIN; `pIflIN/ adj (infml derog 口, 贬) (a) trivial 琐碎的: piffling complaints 无谓的牢骚. (b) very small; worthless 极小的; 无价值的: He got paid a piffling sum after weeks of work. 他工作数周所得甚微.

  pig

  / pIg; pI^/ n 1 (a) [C] domestic or wild animal with short legs, cloven hooves and a broad blunt snout 猪;野猪. Cf 参看 boar, hog 1, sow1, swine. (b) (also `pig-meat) [U] its flesh as meat, ie bacon, ham or pork 猪肉. 2 [C] (infml derog 口, 贬) (a) dirty, greedy, inconsiderate or ill-mannered person 肮脏的、 贪婪的、 不顾别人的或粗野的人: Don't be such a pig! 别这麽贪心! * You pig! 你可真脏! * Some drivers are real pigs. 有些人开车真粗野. (b) difficult or unpleasant thing, task, etc 困难的或讨厌的事情: a pig of a job, day, exam 讨厌的工作、 日子、 考试. 3 (a) [C] oblong mass of metal (esp iron or lead) from a smelting furnace 金属锭; (尤指)铁锭, 铅锭. (b) [U] = pig-iron. 4 [C] (dated sl 旧, 俚) policeman (男)警察. 5 (idm 习语) buy a pig in a poke => buy. make a `pig of oneself (infml 口) eat or drink too much 吃得或喝得过多. make a `pig's ear (out) of sth (infml 口) do sth badly; make a mess of it 弄糟或弄乱某事物. pig/piggy in the `middle person who is caught eg between two people who are fighting or arguing, and suffers because of it 夹在打架或争吵双方之间的人; 受夹板气的人. ,pigs might `fly (saying 谚) (used to express disbelief 用以表示对某事不相信) miracles may happen but they are extremely unlikely 即使能有奇迹也不太可能出现: Tom give up smoking? Yes, and pigs might fly! 汤姆戒烟? 嘿, 能有这种事儿!

  pig

  v (-gg-) 1 [Tn] ~ oneself (infml 口) overeat greedily 贪食过量. 2 (idm 习语) `pig it/pig to`gether live or behave in a dirty or untidy way 生活或行为方面邋遢.

  piggery

  / 5pIgErI; `pI^ErI/ n (a) place where pigs are bred 猪圈; 养猪场. (b) pig-farm 养猪场. (c) pigsty 猪圈.

  piggish

  / 5pIgIF; `pI^IF/ adj (a) like a pig 像猪的. (b) dirty or greedy 肮脏的; 贪婪的.

  piggishly

  adv.

  piggishness

  n [U].

  piggy

  / 5pIgI; `pI^I/ n (infml 口) little pig 小猪. adj (infml 口) piggish 像猪的; 肮脏的; 贪婪的: He has piggy eyes! 他的眼睛像猪的眼睛似的! `piggyback adv, n = pick-a-back. `piggy bank money-box, usu shaped like a pig, with a slot for putting in coins 扑满, 储蓄罐(通常为猪形).

  pigheaded

  adj stubborn 顽固的; 固执的.

  pigheadedly

  adv.

  pigheadedness

  n [U].

  pig-iron

  n [U] impure form of iron from a smelting furnace 生铁.

  pigskin

  / -skIn; -9skIn/ n [U] (leather made from a) pig's skin 猪皮革: [attrib 作定语] a ,pigskin `briefcase 猪皮公事包.

  pigsty

  / -staI; -staI/ (also sty) n 1 (US `pigpen) building in which pigs are kept 猪圈. =>illus 见插图. 2 (infml 口) very dirty or untidy place 肮脏或邋遢的地方: He makes a pigsty of the kitchen whenever he does the cooking. 他一做饭就把厨房弄得很脏.

  pigswill

  / -swIl; -9swIl/ n [U] = swill n 2.

  pigeon

  / 5pIdVIn; `pIdVEn/ n 1 (a) [C] any of several types of wild or tame bird of the dove family 鸽子: a `carrier-/`homing-pigeon, ie one trained to carry messagesor to race as a sport 信鸽. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page iv. (b) [U] flesh of a wild pigeon eaten as food 野鸽肉: [attrib 作定语] pigeon pie 鸽肉排. 2 (idm 习语) `one's pigeon (infml 口) one's responsibility or business 自己的责任或事情: I don't care where the money comes from: that's not `my pigeon. 我不管钱从哪儿来, 那不是我的事. put/set the cat among the pigeons => cat1.

  pigeon-breasted

  adj (of a person) having a deformed chest with the breastbone curving outwards (指人)鸡胸的.

  pigeon-hole

  n any one of a set of small open boxes, esp in a desk, for keeping papers in, or fixed on a wall for messages, letters, etc (文件或信件的)分类格架. v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] 1 put (papers, etc) in a pigeon-hole (and ignore or forget them) 将(文件等)放进分类架中(置之不理或搁置): The scheme was pigeon-holed after a brief discussion. 那计画草议後就搁置一边了. 2 classify or categorize (sth) esp in a rigid manner 将(某事物)分类、 归档(尤指硬性地): She felt her son had been pigeon-holed as a problem child. 她认为自己的儿子硬被划入了有问题儿童之列.

  pigeon-toed

  adj (of a person) having toes that turn inwards (指人)足趾内翻的.

  piglet

  / 5pIglIt; `pI^lIt/ n young pig 小猪. =>illus at pig 见pig插图.

  pigment

  / 5pIgmEnt; `pI^mEnt/ n 1 [U, C] colouring matter used for making dyes, paint, etc 颜料: pigment in powder form 颜料粉 * mix pigment with oil 把颜料与油混合 * They used only natural pigments to dye the wool. 他们只用天然颜料染毛. 2 [U] colouring matter occurring naturally in the skin, hair, etc of living beings 色素.

  pigmentation

  / 9pIgmen5teIFn; 9pI^mEn`teFEn/ n [U] colouring of the skin, hair, etc by pigment 色素沉著: The disease causes patches of pigmentation on the face. 这种疾病能引起面部色素斑沉著.

  pigmy

  = pygmy.

  pigtail

  / 5pIgteIl; `pI^9tel/ n plait of hair that hangs from the back of the head 辫子. =>illus at plait 见 plait 插图.

  pike

  / paIk; paIk/ n type of spear with a long wooden handle, formerly used as a weapon by soldiers on foot 矛.

  pikestaff

  / -stB:f; -9stAf/ n 1 wooden handle of a pike (木制的)矛柄. 2 (idm 习语) plain as a pikestaff => plain1.

  pike

  / paIk; paIk/ n (pl unchanged 复数不变) large freshwater fish with a long narrow snout and very sharp teeth 狗鱼.

  pike

  / paIk; paIk/ n (dialect 方) (in N England) pointed or peaked top of a hill (在英格兰北部)尖峰, 陡峰: Langdale Pike in the Lake District 湖区的兰代尔峰.

  pike

  / paIk; paIk/ n = turnpike.

  pilaff

  / pI5lAf; ?@ -5lB:f; pE`lBf/ (also pilaf, pilau / pI5laU; pI`laJ/) n [U, C] oriental dish of steamed rice, vegetables and spices, often with meat or fish 肉饭(有蔬菜和佐料的东方风味蒸饭, 常有肉或鱼).

  pilaster

  / pI5lAstE(r); pE`lAstL/ n rectangular column, esp an ornamental one set into a wall and partly projecting from it 长方柱; (尤指)壁柱, 半露柱.

  pilchard

  / 5pIltFEd; `pIltFLd/ n small sea-fish similar to a herring, eaten as food 沙丁鱼.

  pile

  / paIl; paIl/ n heavy column of wood, metal or concrete placed upright in the ground or the sea-bed as a foundation for a building, support for a bridge, etc (桥梁等的)桩.

  pile-driver

  n machine for forcing piles into the ground 打桩机.

  pile

  / paIl; paIl/ n 1 number of things lying one upon another 堆; 摞; 叠: a pile of books, laundry, wood 一堆书、 洗的衣物、 木头 * The rubbish was left in a pile on the floor. 地板上堆著垃圾. 2 (often pl 常作复数) ~ of sth (infml 口) a lot of sth 一大堆; 一大批; 一大团; 大量: a pile of work to do 要做的大量工作* The children eat piles of butter on their bread. 孩子们吃面包爱多抹黄油. * The engine seems to need piles of oil. 这种发动机似乎需要很多油. 3 (fml or joc 文或谑) large impressive building or group of buildings 高大的建筑物. 4 (also `funeral pile) = pyre. 5 dry battery for making electric current 乾电池. 6 (also atomic `pile) nuclear reactor 核反应堆. 7 (idm 习语) make a `pile (infml 口) earn a lot of money 赚大钱; 发财: I bet they are making a pile out of the deal. 我肯定他们这笔生意一定赚大钱. make one's `pile (infml 口) make enough money to live on for the rest of one's life; make one's fortune (为以後的生活)挣够钱; 发财: He made his pile during the property boom. 在房地产生意兴隆期间他发了大财.

  pile

  / paIl; paIl/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) put (things) one on top of the other; form a pile of (things) 堆叠、 堆积、 堆放或堆起(东西): pile the books into a stack 把书堆成一摞 * pile (up) the logs outside the door 把木头码在门外 * pile the books up 把书摞起来 * pile up the old furniture in the shed 把旧家具堆放到棚子里. 2 [Tn.pr] ~ A on(to) B/~ B with A put sth on sth in a pile; load sth with sth 将某物堆在某物上; 将某物放到某处: pile papers on the table 把报纸堆放在桌子上 * pile the table with papers 桌子上堆著报纸 * pile plenty of coal onto the fire 往火上加很多煤 * a table piled high with dishes 桌子上高高地摞著碟子. 3 (idm 习语) pile it `on (infml 口) exaggerate 夸张; 夸大: It's probably not as bad as she says she does tend to pile it on. 大概不像她说的那麽糟--她确实有意夸大事实. pile on the `agony (infml 口) treat an unpleasant situation as if it was worse than it really is (and enjoy doing so) (欣欣然)夸大坏的情况: The situation is frightful, but it's just piling on the agony to keep discussing it. 情况很可怕, 可是还一个劲儿地议论让人觉得更可怕. 4 (phr v) pile into sth/out of sth; pile in/out enter/leave sth in a disorderly way 一窝蜂地进入[离开]某处: The taxi arrived and we all piled in. 计程车一到, 我们一拥而上.* The children piled noisily into the bus. 孩子们闹哄哄地挤上了公共汽车. * The police were waiting for the hooligans as they piled out of the train. 那些流氓从火车上纷纷下来, 警察早已在那儿等著他们了. pile up (a) increase in quantity; accumulate 增多; 积累: Evidence was piling up against them. 不利於他们的证据越来越多. * Her debts are piling up and she has no money to pay them. 她债台日高已无力偿还. (b) (of a number of vehicles) crash into each other, esp with each car hitting the one in front (指若干辆车)互相碰撞, (尤指)连环碰撞.

  pile-up

  n crash involving several vehicles 几辆车相撞: The thick fog has caused several bad pile-ups on the motorway. 因大雾弥漫, 高速公路上发生了几起严重的连环撞车事故.

  pile

  / paIl; paIl/ n [U] soft surface, eg of velvet or of certain carpets, formed from cut or uncut loops of fibre 绒面, 绒头(如织物或地毯的): the thick pile of a luxurious bath towel 华丽浴巾的厚绒面 * [attrib 作定语] a deep pile carpet 厚绒地毯. Cf 参看 nap2.

  piles

  / paIlz; paIlz/ n [pl] = haemorrhoids.

  pilfer

  / 5pIlfE(r); `pIlfL/ v [I, Ipr, Tn] ~ (sth) (from sb/sth) steal (sth, esp of small value or in small quantities) 偷窃(尤指价值低的或少量的东西); 小偷小摸: He was caught pilfering. 他行窃当场被抓住. * She had been pilfering from the petty cash for months. 她多月来一直从零用现金中偷钱.

  pilferer

  / 5pIlfErE(r); `pIlfErL/ n.

  pilferage

  / 5pIlfErIdV; `pIlfErIdV/ n [U] (a) action of pilfering 小偷小摸. (b) loss caused by pilfering, esp during transport or storage of goods 被窃的损失(尤指货物在运输或贮藏中发生的): Pilferage in the warehouse reduces profitability by about two per cent. 仓库中的失窃使利润损失了百分之二.

  pilgrim

  / 5pIlgrIm; `pIl^rEm/ n person who travels to a holy place as an act of religious devotion 朝圣者; 香客: pilgrims on their way to Mecca 赴麦加的朝圣者 * pilgrims visiting the shrine 到圣徒墓地朝圣的人.

  pilgrimage

  / -IdV; -IdV/ n 1 [C, U] journey made as a pilgrim 朝圣之行: go on/make a pilgrimage to Benares 到贝拿勒斯朝圣 * Santiago de Compostela was an important place of pilgrimage in the Middle Ages. 中世纪圣地亚哥一德孔波斯特拉是朝圣的要地. 2 [C] journey made to a place associated with sb/sth one respects 到敬仰的某人[某事物]处之行: a pilgrimage to Shakespeare's birthplace 到莎士比亚诞生地的参谒.

  the Pilgrim Fathers (also the Pilgrims)

  name given to the English Puritans who went to America in 1620 and founded the colony of Plymouth, Massachusetts 1620年到美洲创立麻省普里茅斯殖民地的英国清教徒.

  pill

  / pIl; pIl/ n 1 [C] small ball or flat round piece of medicine made to be swallowed whole 药丸; 药片: a vitamin pill 维生素丸 * He has to take (ie swallow) six pills a day until he recovers. 他每天要服六粒药丸直到痊愈. 2 the pill (also the Pill) [sing] (infml 口) artificialhormone in pill form taken regularly to prevent conception; oral contraceptive 口服避孕药: be/go on the pill, ie be/start taking contraceptive pills regularly 正[开始]按时服用避孕药 * do research on the side-effects of the pill 研究口服避孕药的副作用. 3 (idm 习语) a bitter pill => bitter. sugar/sweeten the pill make sth unpleasant seem less unpleasant 降低某事物令人厌恶的程度.

  pillbox

  n 1 small round box used as a container for pills 药丸盒; 药片盒. 2 small concrete shelter for soldiers, often partly underground, from which a gun may be fired 混凝土射击掩体; 碉堡. 3 small round hat 小圆帽.

  pillage

  / 5pIlIdV; `pIlIdV/ n [U] (fml 文) (esp formerly) stealing or damaging of property, esp by soldiers in war (尤指旧时)掠夺, 抢劫(尤指战时士兵所为). Cf 参看 loot, plunder.

  pillage

  v [I, Tn] rob (sb/sth) of goods, crops, etc with violence, as in war 掠夺, 抢劫(某人[某处]的物品、 庄稼等)(如於战时): The town was pillaged by the invading army. 入侵的军队将该市掠夺一空. pillager/-IdVE(r); -IdVL/ n person who pillages 掠夺者; 抢劫者.

  pillar

  / 5pIlE(r); `pIlL/ n 1 (a) upright column of stone, wood, metal, etc used as a support or an ornament, a monument, etc 柱子; 支柱. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page viii. (b) thing in the shape of this 柱形物: a pillar of cloud, fire, smoke, etc 云柱、 火柱、 烟柱. 2 ~ of sth strong supporter of sth (某事物的)强大支持者: a pillar of the Church, the establishment, the faith 教会、 统治集团、 该信仰的拥护者 * a scandal involving several pillars (ie respected members) of society 涉及几个社会要人的丑闻 * She was a pillar of strength to us (ie supported us strongly) when our situation seemed hopeless. 在我们近乎绝望之际, 她给了我们有力的支持. 3 (idm 习语) (go) from ,pillar to `post (go) from one person or thing to another (esp in an unsatisfactory or upsetting way) 到处奔走; (尤指)到处碰壁: She was driven from pillar to post and each person she spoke to was more unhelpful than the last. 她被迫四处奔走求救於人, 但愿意帮她的人一个不如一个.

  pillar-box

  n (Brit) public post-box in the shape of a pillar about five feet high and painted bright red 邮筒, 信筒(柱形, 约五英尺高, 大红色): [attrib 作定语] pillar-box red 邮筒的红色.

  pillion

  / 5pIlIEn; `pIljEn/ n seat for a passenger behind the driver of a motor cycle 摩托车後座: [attrib 作定语] pillion passenger/seat 摩托车後座坐著的人[座位].

  pillion

  adv: ride pillion, ie ride on the pillion 坐在摩托车後座上.

  pillory

  / 5pIlErI; `pIlErI/ n wooden framework with holes for the head and hands, into which wrongdoers were locked in former times, so that they could be publicly ridiculed 枷. =>illus 见插图.

  pillory

  v (pt, pp -ried / -lErId; -lErId/) [Tn] attack or ridicule (sb) in public 公开攻击或嘲笑(某人): She was pilloried in the press for her extravagant parties. 她的聚会十分铺张, 新闻界对她大加揶揄.

  pillow

  / 5pIlEU; `pIlo/ n (a) cushion used to support the head, esp in bed 枕头: sit in bed propped up with pillows 靠著枕头坐在床上. (b) anything on which one rests one's head when sleeping 睡觉时枕著的任何物件: He was found asleep on a pillow of leaves and moss. 有人看见他枕著树叶和苔藓睡著了.

  pillow

  v [Tn] rest or support (sth) on or as if on a pillow 将(某物)放在枕头等物上; 以枕头等支撑(某物): He pillowed his head on her lap. 他把头枕在她的大腿上.

  pillowcase (also `pillowslip)

  n removable washablecover made of cotton, linen, etc for a pillow 枕套.

  pillow-fight

  n mock fight between children using pillows as weapons 儿童用枕头打闹的游戏.

  pilot

  / 5paIlEt; `paIlEt/ n 1 person who operates the controls of an aircraft (飞行器的)驾驶员; 飞行员. 2 person with special knowledge of a canal, the entrance to a harbour, etc who is licensed to guide ships through them (船舶的)领航员, 领港员. 3 person or thing acting as a guide 作向导的人或事物.

  pilot

  adj [attrib 作定语] done as an experiment, esp on a small scale, to test sth before it is introduced on a large scale 试验性的; 试点的: a `pilot project, study, survey, etc 试验性工程、 研究、 勘察等 * a pilot edition of a new language course 新语言教程的试用版 * a pilot scheme to vaccinate children against German measles 为儿童接种抗风疹疫苗的试验计画.

  pilot

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (through sth) (a) act as a pilot of sth 驾驶(飞行器); (为船)引航: pilot a plane 驾驶飞机 * pilot a ship through the Panama Canal 引领一船通过巴拿马运河. (b) guide sb/sth 带领、 指引或引导某人[某事物]: pilot sb through a crowd 带领某人穿过人群. (c) (in Parliament) make sure that sth (esp a bill) is successful (在议会中)使(尤指法案)顺利通过: pilot a bill through the House 使法案在议会中获得通过. 2 [Tn] test (sth) by means of a pilot scheme 试行, 试用(某事物): Schools in this area are piloting the new maths course. 这一带的学校正试用新的数学教程.

  pilot-boat

  n boat that takes a pilot to a ship at sea 领航船(送领航员到轮船上的小船).

  pilot-fish

  n type of small fish that accompanies ships or swims together with sharks, etc 引水鱼, 舟鱼师(跟随船或鲨等的小鱼).

  pilot-light (also `pilot-burner)

  n small flame that burns continuously, eg on a gas cooker or boiler, and lights a larger burner when the gas is turned on 引火火苗(如为引燃煤气用具的常燃火苗).

  Pilot Officer

  (Brit) officer in the Royal Air Force below the rank of Flying Officer 英国皇家空军少尉. =>App 9 见附录9.

  pimento

  / pI5mentEU; pI`mZnto/ n (pl ~s) 1 (a) (also allspice) [U] dried aromatic berries used as a spice 多香果(乾後用作香料). (b) [C] West Indian tree on whichthese grow 多香果树(产自西印度). 2 (also pimiento / pI5mjentEU; pI`mjZnto/) [C] sweet pepper; capsicum 甜辣椒; 番椒.

  pimp

  / pImp; pImp/ n (a) (also pander) man who finds customers for a prostitute or a brothel (为妓女、 男妓或妓院)拉皮条的男子. (b) man who controls prostitutesand lives on the money they earn 妓院男老板.

  pimp

  v [I, Ipr] ~ (for sb) find customers (for a prostitute or brothel); act as a pimp (指男子为妓女、 男妓或妓院)拉客, 拉皮条; 当拉皮条的.

  pimpernel

  / 5pImpEnel; `pImpL9nZl/ n wild plant with small, star-shaped, scarlet, blue or white flowers that close up in wet or cloudy weather 海绿(矮小野生植物, 花星形, 呈红、 蓝或白色, 阴雨天闭合).

  pimple

  / 5pImpl; `pImpl/ n small raised inflamed spot on the skin 丘疹; 小脓疮; 粉刺: a pimple on one's chin 下巴上的小脓疮 * teenage pimples 青少年长的粉刺.

  pimpled

  adj having pimples 有丘疹、 小脓疮或粉刺的: a pimpled back 长丘疹的背.

  pimply

  / 5pImplI; `pImplI/ adj 1 having pimples 有丘疹、 小脓疮或粉刺的: a pimply face 长粉刺的脸 * pimply skin 有丘疹的皮肤. 2 (infml derog 口, 贬) (of a person) immature (指人)未成熟的: I don't want to speak to some pimply youth, I want to see the manager! 我不想和小青年说话, 我要见经理!

  bobby pin

  / 5bCbI pIn; `bBbI pIn/ (US) small metal hair-grip (金属的)小发夹.

  pin

  / pIn; pIn/ n 1 [C] (a) short thin piece of stiff wire with a sharp point at one end and a round head at the other, used for fastening together pieces of cloth, paper, etc 大头针. (b) (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) similar piece of wire with a sharp point and a decorated head, used for a special purpose 饰针: a diamond pin * a `tie-pin * a `hat-pin. 2 [C] (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) peg of wood or metal for various special purposes 锁; 钉; 插头; 闩: a 2-pin plug, ie a type of electric plug * a `drawing-pin * a `hairpin * a `rolling-pin * `ninepins * (US) a `clothes-pin, ie a clothes-peg. 3 [C] (also `safety pin) clip on a hand grenade that stops it from exploding (手榴弹上的)保险针, 保险锁. 4 pins [pl] (infml 口) legs 腿. 5 (idm 习语) clean as a new pin => clean1. for two pins with very little persuasion or provocation 只要再有一点外力或再受一点招惹: For two pins I'd tell him what I think of him. 再有个风吹草动, 我就把对他的看法挑明了. hear a pin drop => hear. not care/give a `pin/two `pins (for sth) attach no importance or value to sth 对某事物毫不重视或毫不在乎: He doesn't give two pins for what the critics say about his work. 他毫不在乎别人对他作品的批评. on one's pins (infml 口) when standing or walking 站立或行走时: She's not very steady on her pins. 她站得不太稳. * be quick on one's pins 腿脚矫健.

  pin-ball

  n [U] game in which small metal balls are aimed at numbered pins placed on a sloping board 弹球戏(弹出金属小球沿斜板滚入记分钉孔处的游戏): [attrib 作定语] a pin-ball machine 弹球机.

  pincushion

  n small pad used (esp by dressmakers) for sticking pins in when they are not being used 针插(尤指裁缝用的).

  pin-head

  n (infml 口) (a) (derog 贬) stupid person 傻瓜; 笨蛋. (b) very small thing or spot 极小的东西或斑点.

  pin-money

  n [U] (a) (esp formerly) small amount of money given to a woman or earned by her for her personal needs, esp clothes (尤指旧时)(给女子的或女子挣的)零花钱, 私房钱(尤指买衣物用的). (b) money saved or earned for small extra expenses 小积蓄; 少量备用钱.

  pinpoint

  n (a) sharp end of a pin 针尖. (b) anything that is very small or sharp 小的或尖的东西.

  pinpoint

  v [Tn] (a) find the exact position of (sth) 找出(某物)的确切位置: pinpoint the spot on a map 找出该处在地图上的位置. (b) define (sth) exactly 准确解释或确定(某事物): pinpoint the causes of the political unrest 确定政治动乱的原因 * pinpoint the areas in most urgent need of help 确定需要紧急帮助的地区.

  pinprick

  n thing that is annoying although small or unimportant 令人烦恼的小事或不重要的事.

  pins and needles

  tingling sensation in a part of the body, esp a limb, caused by the blood flowing again after being stopped by pressure 针刺感, 发麻(尤指手脚).

  pin-stripe

  n very narrow stripe in cloth (布上的)细条纹: [attrib 作定语] a pin-stripe suit 一套细条纹服装.

  pin-table

  n table used in pin-ball 弹球戏桌.

  pin

  / pIn; pIn/ v (-nn-) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth to sth; ~ sth (together) attach sth with a pin or pins用针、 别针等固定、 钉住或别住某物: Be careful when you try on the dress it's only pinned. 试穿这件连衣裙要小心--只是用针别住的. * a note pinned to the document 别在文件上的便条 * Pin the bills together so you don't lose them. 把帐单别在一起以防遗失. * (fig 比喻) They held him with his arms pinned to his side. 他们抓住了他, 把他的胳膊按在肋部. 2 [Tn.pr] ~ sth on sb attach or fix sth to sb 将某事物附加在某人身上: We're pinning all our hopes on you, ie relying on you completely. 我们把希望完全寄托在你身上了. 3 (phr v) pin sb/sth against/under sth make it impossible for sb to move/sth to be moved 使某人[某物]不能动: They pinned him against the wall. 他们把他按在墙上使他不能动弹. * She was pinned under the wreckage of the car. 撞毁的汽车把她压在下面动弹不得. * The car was pinned under a fallen tree. 汽车被倒下的树压住了. pin sth back/down/up fasten sth with pins in the position specified 用针或别针等将某物固定在某处: pin up a notice on the board, ie with drawing-pins 用图钉把通知按在布告板上. pin sb down (a) make sb unable to move, esp by holding him firmly 使某人不能动(尤指捉住或抱住): He was pinned down by his attackers. 袭击他的人把他按住了. (b) make sb be specific or declare his intentions clearly 使某人具体或确切说明意图: She's a difficult person to pin down. 她这人行事、 说话没个准儿. pin sb down (to sth/doing sth) make sb agree (to sth) 使某人同意(某事): I managed to pin him down to meeting us after work. 我设法让他同意下班後和我们见面了. * You'll find it difficult to pin him down to (naming) a price. 到时候你就知道了很难让他说出个准价. pin sth down define sth exactly 明确说明或确定某事物: There's something wrong with this colour scheme but I can't quite pin it down. 这种颜色搭配不太合适, 可是我也说不清楚怎麽不合适. pin sth on sb make sb seem responsible or take the blame for sth 使某人似应对某事负责; 将责任推到某人身上: The bank manager was really to blame, though he tried to pin it on a clerk. 真正受责备的应该是银行经理, 可是他却想把责任推到一个职员身上.

  pin-up

  n (infml 口) (a) picture of an attractive or famous person, eg a film star, for pinning on a wall (可钉在墙上的漂亮的或有名的人的)画像, 照片(如影星的): [attrib 作定语] a pin-up pose 海报中名人的姿势. (b) person portrayed in such a picture (可钉在墙上的)画像或照片中的人.

  PIN

  abbr 缩写 = (also PIN number) personal identification number (issued by a bank, etc to a customer for use with a cash card) (银行等发给顾客与提款卡配合使用的)身分号码.

  pinafore

  / 5pInEfR:(r); `pInE9fRr/ n loose sleeveless garmentworn over clothes to keep them clean; apron 连胸围裙. =>illus at apron 见apron插图.

  pinafore dress

  dress without sleeves or a collar, worn over a blouse or sweater 无袖或无领的连衣裙.

  pince-nez

  / 9pAns5neI; `pAns9ne/ n (pl unchanged 复数不变) [sing or pl v] pair of spectacles with a spring that clips on the nose, instead of side-pieces which fit over the ears 夹鼻眼镜.

  pincer

  / 5pInsE(r); `pInsL/ n 1 [C] either of the pair of curved claws of certain types of shellfish, eg lobsters,crabs, etc (甲壳动物的)螯(如龙虾、 蟹等的). 2 pincers[pl] tool made of two crossed pieces of metal and used for pulling nails, etc out of wood 钳子: a pair of pincers 一把钳子. =>illus 见插图.

  pincer movement

  military attack on an enemy position by forces advancing from two sides 钳形攻势; 钳形突击.

  pinch

  / pIntF; pIntF/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] (a) take or hold (sth) in a tight grip between the thumb and finger 捏, 掐(某物): He pinched the child's cheek playfully. 他捏那孩子的脸颊玩. (b) hurt (sb) by holding his flesh in this way 掐, 捏, 拧(某人): The child was crying because somebody had pinched her. 那孩子哭了, 因为有人掐她. * I was so amazed I had to pinch myself in case it was all a dream. 我非常惊讶, 连忙掐了自己一把看是否这一切都是一场梦. (c) have (sth) in a tight grip between two hard things that are pressed together 夹紧(某物): The door pinched my finger as it shut. 关门时把我手指夹住了. 2 [I, Tn] (esp of shoes) hurt (sb) by being too tight (尤指鞋)夹痛(某人), 夹脚: These new boots pinch (me). (我 觉得)这双新靴子挤脚. 3 [Tn] ~ sth (from sb/sth) (infml 口) take sth without the owner's permission; steal sth 擅自拿走或偷窃某物: He's been pinching money from the cashbox. 他一直在偷钱箱里的钱. * Who's pinched my dictionary? 谁把我的词典拿去了? 4 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (sl 俚) (of the police) catch and arrest (sb) (指警察)捉住, 逮捕(某人): He was still carrying the stolen goods when he was pinched. 抓住他的时候他身上还带著赃物. * get pinched for driving while drunk 因醉酒开车被逮住. 5 (idm 习语) pinch and `save/`scrape live in a very miserly way 省吃俭用: Her parents pinched and scraped so that she could study singing abroad. 她父母省吃俭用好让她出国学习声乐. Cf 参看 scrimp and save (scrimp). 6 (phr v) pinch sth off/out remove sth by pinching 掐掉某物: pinch out the weak shoots on a plant 掐掉植物上发育不良的芽 * pinch off the dead flowers 掐掉凋谢的花.

  pinch

  n 1 act of pinching; painful squeeze 捏; 掐; 拧; 夹; 挤: She gave him a pinch (on the arm) to wake him up. 她掐了他(胳膊)一下, 把他叫醒. 2 as much as can be held between the tips of the thumb and forefinger 能捏住或掐住的量: a pinch of chilli powder 一捏辣椒粉 * Put another pinch of tea in the pot. 往茶 里再捏点茶叶. 3 (idm 习语) at a `pinch just possibly, in a case of necessity 必要时: We can get six people round this table at a pinch. 必要时这张桌子可以坐六个人. feel the pinch => feel1. if it ,comes to the `pinch in a case of necessity or in an emergency 必要时; 紧急时: If it comes to the pinch, we shall have to sell the house. 实在不行我们只好把房子卖了. take sth with a pinch of salt think that sth is not likely to be true; not wholly believe sth 认为某事物不大可能属实; 对某事物半信半疑.

  pinched

  adj (a) ~ (with sth) suffering (from sth); wretched (因某事物)受苦的, 受罪的, 痛苦的: be pinched with cold/poverty 受冻[穷] * look pinched/have a pinched look, ie drawn or haggard 愁眉苦脸. (b) [pred 作表语] ~ for sth not having enough of sth 不足; 缺乏: pinched for money, space, time 金钱、 空间、 时间不足.

  pinchbeck

  / 5pIntFbek; `pIntFbZk/ n [U] alloy of copper and zinc that looks like gold and is used in cheap jewellery, etc 金色铜, 铜锌合金(仿金合金, 用以制廉价首饰等).

  pinchbeck

  adj imitation; sham 仿造的; 假的.

  pine

  / paIn; paIn/ n (a) [C] (also `pine tree) any of several types of evergreen tree that bear cones and have needle-shaped leaves growing in clusters 松树: [attrib 作定语] pine-scented, ie (esp of a deodorant, disinfectant, soap, etc) smelling of pines 有松树香味的(尤指除臭剂、 消毒剂、 香皂等). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page i. (b) [U] its pale soft wood, used in making furniture, floors, window frames, etc 松木: [attrib 作定语] a pine dresser 松木碗橱.

  pine-cone

  n fruit of the pine 松球; 松果.

  pine-needle

  n leaf of the pine 松针; 松叶.

  pine

  / paIn; paIn/ v 1 [I] be very unhappy, esp because sb has died or gone away 痛苦(尤指因生离死别): She certainly hasn't been pining while you were away! 你不在的时候她可并不难受! 2 [Ipr, It] ~ (for sb/sth) long for or miss sb/sth 渴望或想念某人[某事物]: She was pining for her mother. 她思念著母亲. * They were pining to return home. 他们渴望返回家园. 3 (idm 习语) peak and pine => peak2. 4 (phr v) pine away become ill or waste away (and die) because of grief (因悲哀)憔悴, 消瘦(而死亡): She lost interest in living and just pined away. 她已了无生趣, 日渐憔悴.

  pineal

  / 5paInIEl; `paInIEl/ adj shaped like a pine-cone 松球状的.

  pineal gland

  cone-shaped gland in the brain 松果腺; 松果体.

  pineapple

  / 5paInApl; `paIn9Apl/ n (a) [C, U] large juicy tropical fruit with sweet yellow flesh and a prickly skin 凤梨; 菠萝: fresh/tinned pineapple 新鲜的[罐头的]菠萝 * [attrib 作定语] `pineapple juice 菠萝汁. =>illus at fruit 见fruit插图. (b) [C] tropical plant that bears this fruit 凤梨(植物).

  ping

  / pIN; pIN/ n short sharp ringing sound (as) of a hard object hitting a hard surface 硬物相碰发出的声音: the ping of a spoon hitting a glass 羹匙碰到玻璃杯的丁当声 * the ping of bullets hitting the rocks 子弹击中石头的乒乓声 * There was a loud ping as the elastic broke. 橡皮带断裂时发出砰的一声巨响.

  ping

  v 1 [I, Tn] (cause sth to) make this sound (使某物)发出撞击声: bullets pinging overhead 在头顶上乒乓作响的子弹 * ping a knife against a glass 用刀碰到玻璃杯发出丁当声. 2 [I] (US) = pink3.

  ping-pong

  / 5pINpCN; `pIN9pBN/ n [U] (infml 口) (also `table tennis) game played like tennis with bats and a plastic ball on a table with a net across it 乒乓球运动: a game of ping-pong 乒乓球比赛 * [attrib 作定语] a ping-pong champion 乒乓球冠军.

  pinion

  / 5pInIEn; `pInjEn/ n (fml 文) 1 (a) outer segment of a bird's wing (鸟翼的)翼梢. (b) (dated 旧) bird's wing 鸟翼; 翅膀. 2 any of the stiff feathers which support a bird when it is flying; flight-feather 飞羽; 拨风羽.

  pinion

  v 1 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sb/sth against/to sth; ~ sth together bind or hold (sb or sb's arms) to prevent him moving 绑住或固定住(某人或某人的胳膊): They were pinioned against the wall by the lorry. 那辆卡车把他们挤到墙根动弹不得. * He was held with his arms pinioned together behind his back. 他被捉住反剪著双臂. 2 [Tn] cut off the pinions from (a bird or its wing) to prevent it from flying 剪去(鸟或鸟翼)的飞羽.

  pinion

  / 5pInIEn; `pInjEn/ n small cog-wheel with teeth which fit into those of a larger cog-wheel 小齿轮; 副齿轮. Cf 参看 rack1 3.

  pink

  / pINk; pINk/ adj 1 of a pale red colour 粉红色的; 淡红色的: rose/salmon pink walls 淡玫瑰红的[浅橙色的]墙壁 * go/turn pink with confusion, embarrassment, etc 因困惑、 尴尬等而脸红. 2 (infml 口) having slightly left-wing political views 略带左翼政治观点的. Cf 参看 red2. 3 (idm 习语) be tickled pink/to death => tickle.

  pink

  n 1 [U] (clothes of a) pink colour 粉红色(的衣物): Pink is her favourite colour. 她喜欢的颜色是粉红色. * dressed in pink 穿著粉红色的衣服. 2 [C] garden plant with sweet-smelling pink, crimson or variegated flowers 石竹. 3 (idm 习语) in the pink (of condition/health) extremely healthy; in perfect condition 极健康; 极佳状况: The children all looked in the pink after their holiday. 孩子度假後个个红光满面.

  pinkish

  adj fairly pink 略呈粉红色的: a pinkish glow 略带粉红色的光泽.

  pink-eye

  n [U] infectious disease causing inflammation of the surface of the eye; conjunctivitis 红眼病; 传染性结膜炎.

  pink gin

  drink of gin flavoured (and coloured slightly pink) with angostura bitters 苦味杜松子酒(含安古苦味汁, 略呈粉红色).

  pink

  / pINk; pINk/ v [Tn] 1 pierce (sth) slightly (轻轻地)刺, 扎, 戳(某物). 2 cut a zigzag or scalloped edge on (sth) 将(某物)的边剪成锯齿形或扇边形.

  pinking shears (also pinking scissors)

  scissors with serrated blades used to make a zigzag edge on fabric and prevent it from fraying 齿边布样剪刀. =>illus at scissors 见scissors插图.

  pink

  / pINk; pINk/ (US ping / pIN; pIN/) v [I] (of a car engine) make small explosive sounds when not running properly; knock2(4) (指汽车发动机)(运转不正常时)发响爆声, 爆震.

  pinkie (also pinky)

  / 5pINkI; pINkI/ n (Scot or US 苏格兰或美) the smallest finger of the human hand; the little finger (手的)小指.

  pinnace

  / 5pInIs; `pInIs/ n small motor boat carried on a ship for taking people ashore, loading goods, etc 船载艇, 舰载艇(用以载客上岸、 装运货物等). Cf 参看 lighter2.

  pinnacle

  / 5pInEkl; `pInEkl/ n 1 small pointed ornament built on to a roof or buttress (屋顶或扶壁上的)小尖塔, 尖顶. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page viii. 2 high pointed rock or mountain peak 尖锥形岩石; 山峰; 高峰. 3 (fig 比喻) highest point; peak 顶点; 顶峰: the pinnacle of one's career, fame, success, etc 事业、 声誉、 成功等的顶峰.

  pinnate

  / 5pIneIt; `pInet/ adj (botany 植) (of a leaf) formed of a stem with a row of small leaves on either side (指叶)羽状的.

  pinny

  / 5pInI; `pInI/ n (infml 口) pinafore 连胸围裙: Where's my kitchen pinny? 我厨房用的围裙在哪儿呢?

  pint

  / paInt; paInt/ n 1 (abbr 缩写 pt) (a) (Brit) unit of measure for liquids and some dry goods, --- of a gallon (equal to 0.568 of a litre) 品脱(液量或某些乾量的计量单位, 等於---加仑, 或0.568升): a pint of beer, milk, shrimps 一品脱啤酒、 牛奶、 小虾. (b) (US) similar measure (equal to 0.473 of a litre) 品脱(等於0.473升). =>App 5 见附录5. 2 this quantity of (esp) milk or beer 一品脱(尤指)牛奶或啤酒: They stopped at the pub for a pint. 他们到酒店喝了一品脱的啤酒. 3 (idm 习语) put a quart into a pint pot => quart.

  pint-sized

  adj (infml 口) very small 极小的.

  pinto

  / 5pIntEU; `pInto/ n (pl ~s) (US) horse with irregular markings of two or more colours; piebald 有花斑的马; (通常指)有黑白斑的马.

  pinto

  adj mottled 斑驳的; 杂色的: `pinto beans 斑豆.

  pioneer

  / 9paIE5nIE(r); 9paIE`nIr/ n 1 (a) person who is among the first to go into an area or country to settle or work there 拓荒者; 开发者: land cleared by the pioneers 拓荒者开垦的土地 * [attrib 作定语] pioneer wagons 拓荒者的四轮大车. (b) person who goes into previously unknown regions; explorer 探险者: pioneers in space 探索宇宙空间的人. 2 person who is the first to study a new area of knowledge 探索新知识领域的人: They were pioneers in the field of microsurgery. 他们是显微外科学领域的创始人. * [attrib 作定语] pioneer work 探索新知识领域的工作. 3 any one of a group of soldiers who go into an area in advance of an army to clear paths, make roads, etc 工兵.

  pioneer

  v 1 [I] act as a pioneer(1a) 当拓荒者; 当开发者. 2 [Tn] open up (a way, etc) 开辟(道路等): pioneer a new route to the coast 开辟通往海岸的新路线. 3 [Tn] be the first person to develop (new methods); help the early development of (sth) 倡导(新方法); 促进(某事物)的初期发展: She pioneered the use of the drug. 是她最先使用的这种药品.

  pious

  / 5paIEs; `paIEs/ adj 1 having or showing a deep devotion to religion (对宗教)虔诚的. 2 (derog 贬) hypocritically virtuous 假虔诚的; 虚伪的: He dismissed his critics as pious do-gooders who were afraid to face the facts. 他把批评他的人斥之为不敢面对事实的假善人.

  piously

  adv.

  piousness

  n [U].

  pip

  / pIp; pIp/ n seed, esp of a lemon, an orange, an apple, a pear or a grape 种子(尤指柠檬、 橙子、 苹果、 梨或葡萄的).

  pip

  / pIp; pIp/ n (idm 习语) give sb the `pip (Brit infml 口) give sb a feeling of annoyance, bad temper or depression 使某人恼怒、 生气或沮丧: She gives me the pip. 她老让我生气. * His disgusting jokes gave everybody the pip. 他那些令人作呕的笑话弄得大家都不痛快.

  pip

  / pIp; pIp/ n (usu pl 通常作复数) short high-pitched sound used esp as a time-signal on the radio or telephone; bleep (电台报时信号的或电话中的)尖而短的声音: Wait until you hear the pips and then put in more money, eg when using a pay phone. 等听到嘟嘟声时再加投硬币(如使用投币电话时). * The weather forecast is followed by the pips at 6 o'clock. 天气预报之後即为6点钟报时信号.

  pip

  / pIp; pIp/ n 1 any of the spots on playing-cards, dice and dominoes (纸牌、 色子、 骨牌上的)点. 2 (Brit infml 口) star on the shoulder-strap of an army officer's uniform (军官肩章上的)星.

  pip

  / pIp; pIp/ v (-pp-) (infml 口) 1 [Tn] hit (sb) with a shot 以枪弹击中(某人): pipped in the shoulder 肩部中弹. 2 (idm 习语) pip sb at the post (esp passive 尤用於被动语态) defeat sb narrowly or at the last moment 险胜某人; 终於击败某人: We didn't win the contract: we were pipped at the post by a firm whose price was lower. 我们未得到那份合同的生意, 最後是让一家出价低的公司击败了我们.

  pip-squeak

  / 5pIpskwi:k; `pIpskwik/ n (infml or derog 口或贬) small, young or unimportant person, esp one who is conceited 小人, 年轻人, 不重要的人(尤指自负的).

  pipal (also peepul)

  / 5pi:pEl; `pipEl/ n large Indian fig-tree 菩提树(印度产).

  pipe

  / paIp; paIp/ n 1 [C] (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) tube through which liquids or gases can flow 管子: a `water-pipe * a `gas-pipe * a `drain-pipe * the `windpipe, ie air-passage in the body. 2 [C] (a) (also to`bacco pipe) narrow tube with a bowl at one end, used for smoking tobacco 烟斗: smoke a pipe 吸烟斗 * [attrib 作定语] `pipe tobacco 烟斗丝. (b) (also pipeful / -fUl; -fJl/) amount of tobacco this can hold 一烟斗的烟丝. 3 [C] (music 音) (a) wind instrument consisting of a tube with holes that are covered and uncovered by the fingers to make musical notes 管乐器: pipes of Pan, ie pan-pipes 排箫. (b) each of the tubes from which sound is produced in an organ (管风琴的)音管. (c) pipes [pl] = bagpipes. 4 [C] (sound of a) whistle used by a boatswain 水手长吹的哨子(声). 5 [C] song or note of a bird 鸟鸣; 鸟鸣声. 6 [C] (contents of a) cask which can hold about 105 gallons of wine 大酒桶(约容105加仑); 一大酒桶的量. 7 (idm 习语) put `that in your pipe and smoke it (infml 口) you have to accept what I have said, whether you like it or not 我说的话不管你喜欢不喜欢都得听: I'm not giving up my holiday to suit you, so you can put that in your pipe and smoke it! 我不打算放弃我的假日来迁就你, 你不听也得听!

  pipeclay

  n [U] fine white clay used (esp formerly) for making tobacco pipes and for whitening leather, etc 白陶土(尤於旧时用以制烟斗、 使皮革增白等).

  pipe-cleaner

  n flexible piece of wire covered with soft material, for cleaning inside a tobacco pipe 烟斗通条(清除烟垢用的).

  pipe-dream

  n hope or plan that is impossible or unworkable 不切实际的希望; 行不通的计画.

  pipeline

  n 1 series of connected pipes, usu underground,for conveying oil, gas, etc to a distant place (长距离输送油、 气等的)管道(通常指地下的). 2 (fig 比喻) channel of information or supply, esp direct, privileged or confidential (信息或供应的)渠道, 途径(尤指直接的、 基於特权而获得的或秘密的): a pipeline to head office, the Prime Minister, the manufacturer 联系总部、 首相、 厂商的渠道. 3 (idm 习语) in the `pipeline (a) (of goods, orders, etc) being dealt with; on the way (指货物、 定单等)在处理或运送中. (b) (of changes, laws, proposals, etc) being prepared or discussed; about to happen (指变化、 法令、 建议等)在准备、 讨论或酝酿中, 即将发生: New laws to deal with this abuse are in the pipeline. 正在制定处理这种弊端的新法令.

  pipe

  / paIp; paIp/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] convey (water, gas, etc) in pipes 用管道输送(水、 煤气等): pipe water into a house/to a farm 用管道向住宅[农场]送水 * pipe oil across the desert 用管道穿过沙漠输油. 2 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tn.pr] transmit (esp music) by wire or cable (用有线系统等)传送(尤指音乐): Nearly all the shops have piped music, ie recorded music played continuously. 差不多所有商店都连续播放有线广播的音乐. 3 [I, Tn] (a) play (a tune) on a pipe or pipes 用管乐器演奏(一曲): He piped (a jig) so that we could dance. 他用笛子吹奏(吉格舞曲)好让我们跳舞. (b) (of a bird) whistle or sing (sth) (指鸟)鸣啭或唱(某声音). (c) (of a person, esp a child) speak (sth) in a high voice (指人, 尤指儿童)尖声说(某事). 4 [Tn.pr, Tn.p] (nautical 海) (a) summon (sailors) by blowing a boatswain's pipe 吹水手长用的哨子召集(水手): pipe all hands on deck 吹哨召集所有水手到甲板上. (b) lead or welcome (sb) by the sound of a boatswain's pipe用水手长的哨声引领或欢迎(某人): pipe the captain aboard/on board 用哨声欢迎船长登船 * pipe the guests in 用哨声迎接客人. 5 [Tn] (a) trim or decorate (sth) with piping(2a) 为(衣物等)绲边: pipe a skirt, cushion, etc with blue silk 给裙子、 垫子等绲蓝绸边. (b) put a decoration on (a cake) with icing 在(糕点)上加奶油、 巧克力等花饰: pipe `Happy Birthday' on a cake 在蛋糕上加上`生日快乐'字样. 6 (phr v) pipe down (infml 口) be less noisy; stop talking 安静些; 停止谈话: She told the children to pipe down while she was talking on the telephone. 她告诉孩子别吵了, 她正在打电话. pipe up (infml 口) begin to sing or speak, esp suddenly and in a high-pitched voice 开始唱或说(尤指突然而声音尖).

  piper

  / 5paIpE(r); `paIpL/ n 1 person who plays on a pipe, esp the bagpipes 吹奏者; (尤指)风笛吹奏者. 2 (idm 习语) he who pays the piper calls the tune => pay.

  pipette

  / pI5pet; pI`pZt/ n (esp in chemistry) slender tube, usu filled by sucking, used in a laboratory for transferring or measuring small quantities of liquids (尤 指用於化学实验的)吸(量)管; 移液管.

  piping

  / 5paIpIN; `paIpIN/ n [U] 1 (a) (system of) pipes, esp for water or drains 管道, 管道系统, 管道设备(尤指给水或排水的): The piping will need to be renewed. 这套管子该换了. (b) pipe of a certain length 一段管子: ten feet of lead piping 十英尺长的铅管. 2 (a) folded strip of fabric, often enclosing a cord, used to decorate the edges or seams of a garment, cushion, etc 花饰边, 绲边(常包有绳). (b) cord-like lines of icing or whipped cream used to decorate a cake, etc (巧克力、 奶油等的)线条(用以装饰蛋糕等). 3 (sound made by) playing a pipe1(3a) 吹奏管乐器(的声音): We heard their piping in the distance. 我们听见他们在远处吹奏的笛声.

  piping

  adj 1 (esp of a person's voice) high-pitched (尤指人声)尖声的, 声调高的. 2 (idm 习语) piping `hot (of liquids, food) very hot (指液体、 食物)烫的: a bowl of soup served piping hot 滚烫的一碗汤.

  pipit

  / 5pIpIt; `pIpIt/ n type of small songbird resembling a lark 鹨.

  pippin

  / 5pIpIn; `pIpIn/ n type of apple that can be eaten raw 苹果.

  piquant

  / 5pi:kEnt; `pikEnt/ adj 1 having a pleasantly sharp taste 辛辣而开胃的: Bland vegetables are often served with a piquant sauce. 清淡的蔬菜常以辛辣的沙司调味. 2 pleasantly exciting and stimulating to the mind 令人兴奋的; 刺激的: a piquant bit of gossip 有趣的闲谈.

  piquancy

  / -EnsI; -EnsI/ n [U] quality or state of being piquant 辛辣; 刺激; 兴奋: the delicate piquancy of the soup 那汤的香辣可口.

  piquantly

  adv.

  pique

  / pi:k; pik/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] 1 hurt the pride or self-respect of (sb); offend 伤害(某人)的自尊心; 冒犯: She seemed rather piqued. 她似乎很生气. * He was piqued to discover that he hadn't been invited. 他因未被邀请而觉受辱. 2 arouse (a person's interest or curiosity) 引起(兴趣); 产生(好奇心): Her curiosity was piqued. 她产生了好奇心.

  pique

  n [U] feeling of annoyance or hurt, usu because one's pride has been offended; resentment 恼怒, 生气(通常指自尊心受到伤害); 怨恨: When he realized nobody was listening to him, he left the room in a fit of pique. 他发觉谁也没听他讲话, 一气之下就走了. * Out of pique they refused to accept the compromise offered. 他们气得拒不接受对方提出的妥协建议.

  piquet

  / pI5ket; pI`kZt/ n [U] card-game for two players, played with a pack of 32 cards 皮克牌(用32张牌二人玩的牌戏).

  piranha

  / pI5rB:njE; pI`rBnjE/ n any of various types of small tropical American freshwater fish which attack and eat live animals 锯脂鲤, 比拉鱼(南美淡水小鱼, 能掠食活动物).

  pirate

  / 5paIErEt; `paIrEt/ n 1 (a) (esp formerly) person on a ship who attacks and robs other ships at sea (尤指旧时)海盗: [attrib 作定语] a pirate crew, ship, flag 海盗团伙、 船、 旗. (b) (esp formerly) ship used for this purpose (尤指旧时)海盗船. Cf 参看 corsair. 2 person who copies illegally sth protected by copyright, esp in order to sell it 侵犯版权非法复印或复制者, 盗印者, 盗制者(尤指为出售): [attrib 作定语] a pirate edition, video, tape, etc 盗印版、 盗制的录像带、 盗制的录音带. 3 (a) (also pirate `radio) radio station that broadcasts without a licence (esp from a ship) 无执照电台(尤指从船上播音的): interference with radio reception caused by pirates 无执照电台造成的无线电接收干扰. (b) broadcaster on an illegal radio station 无执照电台的广播员.

  piracy

  / 5paIErEsI; `paIrEsI/ n (a) [U] robbery by pirates (pirate 1a) 海盗的掠夺. (b) [U] illegal copying or broadcasting 非法复制或广播. (c) [C] instance of either of these 非法复制或广播.

  pirate

  v [Tn] illegally use or reproduce (printed or recorded material which is protected by copyright), esp for profit 非法窃用或复制(有版权的印刷品或录制的材料)(尤指为牟利): a pirated edition of the plays 戏剧集的盗印本. =>Usage at smuggle 用法见 smuggle.

  piratical

  / 9paIE5rtIkl; paI`rAtIkl/ adj of or in the manner of a pirate 海盗的; 海盗式的; 盗印的; 盗制的.

  piratically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  pirouette

  / 9pIrU5et; 9pIrJ`Zt/ n rapid turn or spin made by a ballet-dancer while balanced on the point of the toe or the ball of the foot (跳芭蕾舞者的)单足旋转.

  pirouette

  v [I] perform a pirouette or pirouettes (跳芭蕾舞时)用单足旋转.

  piscatorial

  / 9pIskE5tR:rIEl; 9pIskE`tRrIEl/ adj 1 of or concerning fishing or fishermen 渔业的; 渔民的. 2 (of a person) enthusiastic about fishing (指人)爱钓鱼的.

  Pisces

  / 5paIsi:z; `paIsiz/ n 1 [pl] the twelfth sign of the zodiac, the Fishes 双鱼官(黄道第十二宫). 2 [C] person born under the influence of this sign 属双鱼宫星座的人.

  Piscean

  n, adj. =>Usage at zodiac 用法见zodiac. =>illus at zodiac 见 zodiac 插图.

  piss

  / pIs; pIs/ v (<!> sl 讳, 俚) 1 (a) [I] pass urine; urinate 撒尿. (b) [Tn] ~ oneself make oneself wet when doing this 尿湿自己: (fig 比喻) piss oneself laughing, ie laugh uncontrollably 笑得止不住. (c) [Tn] pass (blood) with urine 尿(血): piss blood 尿血. 2 (phr v) piss (sb) about/around act (towards sb) in a foolish, time-wasting or deliberately unhelpful way (对某人)胡闹、 浪费时间或故意捣乱: Stop pissing about and get on with your work. 别再胡闹了, 干你的事去吧. * We were pissed around for hours before they finally gave us the right form. 他们浪费了我们好几个小时, 最後才把那份表格给我们. piss down rain heavily 下大雨. piss off (esp Brit) (used esp as a command) go away (尤用作命令)滚开. piss sb off (esp passive 尤用於被动语态) annoy or bore sb 使某人恼怒或厌烦: Everybody is pissed off (with all the changes of plan). 大家(对计画的诸多变动)均感厌烦.

  piss

  n (<!> sl 讳, 俚) 1 (a) [U] urine 尿. (b) [C esp sing 尤作单数] (act of) urination 撒尿: go for/have a piss 去撒尿. 2 (idm 习语) take the `piss (out of sb) make fun (of sb) 取笑(某人).

  pissed

  adj (<!> Brit sl 讳, 俚) 1 drunk 醉. 2 (idm 习语) (as) pissed as a `newt very drunk 大醉.

  pistachio

  / pI5stB:FIEU; ?@ -AFIEU; pIs`tAFI9o/ n (pl ~s) (a) (also pi`stachio nut) nut with a green edible kernel 阿月浑子, 开心果(其仁色绿, 可吃): [attrib 作定语] pistachio ice-cream 开心果冰激凌. (b) tree on whichthis nut grows 阿月浑子树. (c) (also pistachio `green) colour of this kernel 开心果绿; 淡草绿色.

  piste

  / pi:st; pist/ n (French 法) track of firm snow for skiing on 滑雪道.

  pistil

  / 5pIstl; `pIstl/ n female seed-producing part of a flower 雌蕊.

  pistol

  / 5pIstl; `pIstl/ n 1 type of small gun, held and fired with one hand 手枪: an automatic pistol 自动手枪. =>illus at gun 见 gun 插图. 2 (idm 习语) hold a pistol to sb's head (try to) force sb to do sth he does not want to do by using threats 胁迫某人做某事物.

  piston

  / 5pIstEn; `pIstn/ n 1 round plate or short cylinder,usu made of metal or wood, that fits closely inside another cylinder or tube and moves up and down or backwards and forwards inside it; used eg in steam or internal combustion engines to cause other parts to move by means of a connecting rod (`piston-rod) 活塞. =>illus 见插图. 2 sliding valve in a trumpet or other brass wind instrument (铜管乐器上的)活门.

  piston-engined

  adj (of an aircraft) having engines with pistons, not jet engines (指飞机)有活塞发动机的(非喷气式的).

  piston ring

  split metal ring that fits into a groove on the rim of a piston to make a gas-tight seal 活塞环.

  pit

  / pIt; pIt/ n 1 [C] large (usu deep) hollow or opening in the ground (地面的)大坑, (通常指)深坑. 2 [C] (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) (a) hole in the ground, usu with steep sides, from which esp minerals are dug out 坑; (尤指)矿井: a `chalk-pit 白垩取土坑 * a `gravel-pit 采石场 * a `lime-pit 石灰采石场. (b) hole in the ground made for any of various industrial purposes(作工业用途的)坑: a `saw-pit 锯木坑. 3 [C] = coal-mine (coal): go down the pit, ie work as a miner 下井(做矿工). 4 [C] natural hollow in the surface of a plant or an animal's body 动植物体的自然凹陷处; 窝; 凹: the pit of the stomach, ie the hollow between the ribs below the breastbone, thought to be the place where fear is felt 胸口 * `armpit, ie hollow underneath the shoulder where the arm joins the body 腋窝. 5 [C] (a) hollow scar left on the skin, esp after smallpox; pock-mark 皮肤上凹陷的疤痕; (尤指天花的)麻点, 痘痕. (b) small hollow on a surface, esp of metal or glass 物体表面的小凹陷处(尤指金属或玻璃的). 6 the pit [sing] (Brit) (people sitting in) seats on the ground floor of a theatre behind the stalls 剧院正厅後座(的观众). 7 [sing] (also `orchestra pit) sunken part of the floor of a theatre infront of the stage, for the orchestra 乐池. =>illus at App 1见附录1插图, page ix. 8 (a) [C] sunken area in the floor of a garage or workshop where the underneath part of a vehicle can be examined or repaired (修车处的)检修坑. (b) the pits [pl] (in motor racing) place near the race-track where cars can stop for fuel, new tyres, etc during a race (机动车赛中的)检修加油站. 9 [sing] (US) (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) part of the floor of a commodity exchange used for a particular commodity (某些商品的)交易场所: the `wheat-pit 小麦交易场. 10 the pit [sing] (Bible or rhet 《圣经》或修辞) hell 地狱. 11 [C] hole dug as a trap for wild animals; pitfall (捕猎野兽用的)陷阱. 12 (idm 习语) be the pits (infml 口 esp US) be very bad or the worst example of sth 极坏; 最糟糕: The comedian's performance was the pits! 这喜剧演员的表演糟透了! * The food in this restaurant is the pits! 这家饭馆的东西难吃极了!

  pit

  v (-tt-) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ sth (with sth) make pits (pit 5) or hollows in sth 使某物上有凹陷、 有麻点: Acid had pitted the surface of the silver. 酸把银器的表面腐蚀了. * a face pitted with smallpox 麻子脸 * The surface of the moon is pitted with craters. 月球表面有很多环形坑. 2 (phr v) pit sb/sth against sb/sth test sb/sth in a struggle or competition with sb/sth 使某人[某事物]与他人[他事物]较量: pit one's wits against the bureaucracy of the tax office 与税务局的官僚作风斗智 * pit oneself against the reigning champion 与本届冠军较量.

  pit-head

  n entrance of a coal-mine and the offices, machinery, etc in the area around it 煤矿井口处及周围的办公室、 机械设备等: [attrib 作定语] a pit-head ballot,ie a vote, esp about union matters, taken by miners at the pit-head (矿工的)井口投票表决(尤指关於工会事宜).

  pit pony

  pony used (esp formerly) underground in a mine to pull heavy loads (尤指旧时的)矿井下运输用的小马.

  pit-prop

  n prop used to support the roof of a part of a coal-mine from which coal has been removed (煤矿的)坑木, 支柱.

  pit

  / pIt; pIt/ n (esp US) = stone 5.

  pit

  v [Tn] (-tt-) (esp US) remove pits from (fruit) 除去(水果)的核: pitted olives 去核的橄榄.

  pit-a-pat

  / 9pItE5pAt; `pItE9pAt/ (also pitter-patter / 9pItE5ptE(r); `pItL9pAtL/) adv with the sound of quick light steps or tapping 有轻快的步伐或拍击声的; 劈劈啪啪地: Her heart/feet went pit-a-pat. 她的心噗噗地跳[她的脚步声劈劈啪啪的].

  pit-a-pat (also pitter-patter)

  n this sound 劈啪声: the pit-a-pat of the rain on the roof 雨点打在屋顶上的劈啪声.

  pitch

  / pItF; pItF/ n [U] 1 black substance made from coal tar, turpentine or petroleum which is sticky and semi-liquid when hot, and hard when cold, and is used to fill in cracks or spaces, eg between the planks of a floor or of a ship's deck, to make roofs waterproof, etc 沥青. 2 (idm 习语) black as ink/pitch => black.

  pitch-black

  adj completely black 乌黑的.

  pitch-dark

  adj (a) with no light at all 黑暗无光的. (b) completely black 乌黑的. the ,pitch-dark n [U] state of complete darkness 黑暗: We couldn't see our way in the pitch-dark. 我们在黑暗中看不见路.

  pitch-pine

  n [U, C] (wood of a) type of pine-tree which gives off a lot of resin 刚松(木).

  pitch

  / pItF; pItF/ v 1 [Tn] erect and fix in place (a tent or camp), esp for a short time 搭(帐篷), 扎(营)(尤指临时): They pitched camp on the moor for the night. 他们在高沼地搭帐篷过夜. Cf 参看 strike2 11. 2 [Tn.pr, Cn.a] (a) (in music) set in a certain pitch3(3a) or key (音乐)定调: The song is pitched too low for me. 这歌起调太低, 我唱不了. * pitch sth in a higher key 把某乐曲的调子定高一些 * a high-/low-pitched voice 高[低]嗓音 * (fig 比喻) pitch one's hopes high 把希望定得很高. (b) (fig 比喻) express (sth) in a particular style or at a particular level 以某形式、 风格或水平表达(某事物): The programme was pitched at just the right level. 大纲所定水平恰到好处. * an explanation pitched at a simple level so that a child could understand it 使用浅显的解释以便於儿童理解 * pitch sth a bit high/strong, ie exaggerate 表达某事略过甚其词. 3 [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] (cause sb/sth to) fall heavily, esp forwards or outwards (使某人[某物])重重倒下(尤指向前或向外): He pitched (forward) on his head. 他(向前)一头栽倒. * The car hit the child and she pitched over backwards. 汽车把那孩子撞了, 她重重向後倒下. * The carriage overturned and the passengers (were) pitched out. 马车翻了, 车上的人都(被)摔出来了. 4 [I, Ip] (of a ship or an aircraft) move up and down on the water or in the air (指船或飞行器)颠簸: The ship pitched and rolled and many passengers were sick. 那轮船颠簸摇晃, 很多乘客头晕恶心. Cf 参看 roll2 6. 5 [Tn, Tn.pr] throw (sb/sth) in the specified direction; toss 将(某人[某物])向某方向投、 掷、 扔或抛: Let's pitch out the troublemakers. 把这些捣乱分子赶出去. * pitch a stone into the river 向河中扔石头 * People just pitch their rubbish over the wall. 人们径直把垃圾扔过墙去. 6 (a) [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn.p] (in cricket) (cause the ball to) strike the ground near or around the wicket (板球戏中)(使投出的球)在三柱门附近触地: The ball was pitched short. 投的球是短球. * pitch the ball up a bit 把球投高一点. (b) [I, Tn] (in baseball) throw (the ball) to the batter (棒球戏中)将(球)投给击球员. 7 [Tn] (infml 口) tell (a story) or give (an excuse) 讲(故事); 使用(藉口): They pitched a yarn about finding the jewels. 他们编了一个找到宝石的故事. 8 (phr v) pitch in; pitch into sth (infml 口) (a) start working energetically 使劲地干起来: They all pitched in and soon finished the job. 大家七手八脚, 工作很快就完成了. * They pitched into the work immediately. 他们立刻干了起来. (b) eat (sth) with a good appetite 大吃(某物): We had prepared supper for the team and they all pitched in. 我们给队员准备了晚餐, 他们全都大吃起来. * They pitched into the meal. 他们大吃了一顿. pitch into sb (infml 口) attack sb violently猛烈攻击某人. pitch in (with sth) offer help or support主动帮助或支持: They pitched in with contributions of money. 他们主动捐款支援此事.

  pitched

  adj (of a roof) sloping from a ridge; not flat (指屋顶)倾斜的, 坡的. pitched `battle battle fought with troops arranged in prepared positions and using all available resources 对阵战: (fig 比喻) Conservationists fought a pitched battle with developers over the future of the site. 主张保护自然环境的人同地产开发公司就该地前途进行了针锋相对的论战. Cf 参看 skirmish.

  pitch-and-toss

  n [U] game of skill and chance in which coins are thrown at a particular mark 掷硬币游戏.

  pitchfork

  / 5pItFfR:k; `pItF9fRrk/ n long-handled fork with sharp prongs for lifting and moving hay, etc 乾草叉. v 1 [Tn] lift or move (sth) (as) with a pitchfork 用乾草叉(般)叉起或叉走(某物). 2 (phr v) pitchfork sb into sth force sb into (a position, job, etc), esp suddenly 强行使某人进入(某位置)或做(某工作)(尤指突然间): young men pitchforked into the army 被强徵入伍的年轻人.

  pitch

  / pItF; pItF/ n 1 [C] (sport 体) (a) (in cricket) part of the ground between the wickets (板球的)球场. =>illus at cricket 见cricket插图. (b) (in football, hockey,etc) area of ground marked out for a game; sports ground or field (足球、 曲棍球等的)球场. =>illus at Association football (association) 见Association football (association)插图. 2 [C] (a) act or process of throwing sth; toss 投; 掷; 扔; 抛. (b) (in cricket) way in which the ball is bowled (板球的)投球: a full pitch, ie a bowled ball that does not bounce before reaching the batsman 全场球(投出的球直至击球员, 中间不落地). (c) (in baseball) act or manner of throwing the ball (棒球的)投球. 3 [U] (a) degree of highness or lowness of a musical note or a voice (音符或嗓音的)高度; 音高: give the pitch 定出音高 * have absolute/perfect pitch, ie the ability to recognize or reproduce the pitch of a note 有绝对[完全]音高感(对一乐音音高的识别力或演唱、 演奏的能力). (b) quality of a sound in music 音质. 4 [sing] degree or intensity of sth 程度; 强度: Speculation has reached such a pitch that a decision will have to be made immediately. 这种胡乱猜测甚嚣尘上, 已经到了必须立即解决的程度了. 5 [U] ~ of sth highest point of sth 最高点: the pitch of perfection 完美的顶点. 6 [U] movement of a ship up and down on the water (船的)颠簸. Cf 参看 roll1 3. 7 [U] degree of slope (esp of a roof) 倾斜度(尤指屋顶的). 8 [C] (esp Brit) place where a street trader usu does business or a street entertainer usu performs (街头的)商贩摊位, 艺人表演场地. 9 [C] (also `sales pitch) persuasive talk or arguments used by a salesman to sell things 推销员唱的高调: a clever sales pitch 动听的推销员高调. 10 (idm 习语) at concert pitch => concert. at/to fever pitch => fever. queer sb's pitch => queer v.

  pitchblende

  / 5pItFblend; `pItF9blZnd/ n [U] black shiny mineral ore which is the main source of uranium and radium 沥青铀矿.

  pitcher

  / 5pItFE(r); `pItFL/ n (a) (esp Brit) large (usu earthenware) container for liquids, with one or two handles and a lip for pouring (单柄或双柄, 带嘴的, 通常为陶制的)大罐, 大壶. (b) (US) jug 罐.

  pitcher

  / 5pItFE(r); `pItFL/ n (in baseball) player who throws the ball to the batter (棒球的)投手.

  piteous

  / 5pItIEs; `pItIEs/ adj (fml 文) arousing or deservingpity 值得同情的; 可怜的: a piteous cry, sight, story 值得同情的哭声、 情景、 事情 * in a piteous condition 可怜的境地.

  piteously

  adv.

  piteousness

  n [U].

  pitfall

  / 5pItfR:l; `pIt9fRl/ n 1 unsuspected danger or difficulty 意想不到的危险或困难: This text presents many pitfalls for the translator. 这篇文字有很多潜在的难点, 译者稍一不慎就要出错. 2 = pit1 11.

  pith

  / pIW; pIW/ n 1 [U] (a) soft spongy substance that fills the stems of certain plants, eg reeds (木)髓(某些植物茎中的海绵样组织, 如芦苇的茎髓). (b) similar substance inside the skin of oranges, etc (柑橘等果皮肉的)类似髓的组织. 2 [sing] (fig 比喻) the ~ of sth most important or essential part of sth; essence 最重要部分; 精髓: That was the pith of his argument. 那就是他论据的重点.

  pithy

  adj (-ier, -iest) 1 concise and full of meaning; terse 精练的; 简洁的: a pithy description of the event 对事件的简明扼要的叙述 * a pithy comment, remark, saying, etc 简要的评论、 话、 谚语等. 2 of, like or full of pith(1) 有髓的; 似木髓的; 多髓的.

  pithily

  / -IlI; -IlI/ adv in a pithy(1) manner 精简地; 简洁地.

  pithiness

  n [U] state of being pithy(1) 精练; 简洁: Her work is known for pithiness of style. 她的作品以简洁著称.

  pith hat (also `pith helmet)

  hat made of dried pith(1a) worn (esp formerly) to protect the head from the sun 木髓制的遮阳帽(尤指旧时用的).

  pitiable

  / 5pItIEbl; `pItIEbl/ adj 1 deserving or arousing pity 令人怜悯的; 可怜的: in a pitiable state 处境可怜 * pitiable misery 令人哀怜的不幸. 2 deserving contempt 可鄙的: a pitiable attempt to save himself from disgrace 他为保全面子的卑鄙做法 * a pitiable lack of talent 可鄙的无能.

  pitiably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv.

  pitiful

  / 5pItIfl; `pItIfEl/ adj 1 arousing pity 令人怜悯的; 可怜的: a pitiful condition, invalid, sight 可怜的情形、 病人、 情景 * Their suffering was pitiful to see. 他们受的苦让人见了感到同情. 2 deserving contempt 可鄙的: pitiful efforts, excuses, lies 卑劣的做法、 藉口、 谎言 * a pitiful coward 可鄙的胆小鬼.

  pitifully

  / -fElI; -flI/ adv 1 in a pitiful(1) manner 令人怜悯地: pitifully injured 伤得很惨 * The child was pitifully thin. 那孩子瘦得可怜. 2 in a pitiful(2) manner 可鄙地: a pitifully bad performance 可鄙的拙劣表演.

  pitiless

  / 5pItIlIs; `pItIlIs/ adj 1 showing no pity or mercy; cruel 无怜悯心的; 无情的; 残酷的: a pitiless killer, bandit, tyrant, etc 残酷的杀手、 匪徒、 暴君等 * pitiless retribution, revenge, etc 无情的报应、 复仇等. 2 (fig 比喻) very harsh or severe; unrelenting 严酷的; 严厉的; 冷酷的: a scorching, pitiless sun 灼人烈日 * the pitiless winds of a Siberian winter 西伯利亚冬天凛冽的寒风.

  pitilessly

  adv.

  pitilessness

  n [U].

  piton

  / 5pi:tCn; `pitBn/ n (sport 体) metal spike or peg, with a ring at one end to hold a rope, that is hammered into a rock or a crack between rocks to support a rope or climber (登山者用的)钢锥(顶端有环可穿绳索).

  Pitot tube

  / 5pi:tEU tju:b; ?@ -tu:b; `pito 9tub/ n (propr 专利名) small tube, open at one end, used in instruments that measure fluid pressure or velocity 皮托管(用以测量流体压力或速度的管).

  pitta

  / 5pItE; `pItE/ n [U] (also pita, `pitta bread) type of bread in flat loaves, eaten esp in Greece and the Middle East 希腊人和中东人食用的一种扁平的面包.

  pittance

  / 5pItns; `pItns/ n (usu sing 通常作单数) very small or insufficient amount of money paid or received as wages or an allowance 微薄的工资或津贴: work all day for a mere pittance 为菲薄的报酬整天工作 * She could barely survive on the pittance she received as a widow's pension. 她靠著极少的孤寡抚恤金仅够糊口.

  pitter-patter

  = pit-a-pat.

  pituitary

  / pI5tju:ItErI; ?@ -tu:EterI; pI`tuE9tZrI/ n (also pituitary gland) small gland at the base of the brain which secretes hormones that influence growth and development 垂体; 脑下垂体.

  pity

  / 5pItI; `pItI/ n 1 [U] ~ (for sb/sth) feeling of sorrow caused by the suffering, troubles, etc of others 同情; 怜悯: be full of/filled with pity for sb 十分同情某人 * be moved to pity by sb's suffering 受某人的痛苦所感动而产生同情 * do sth out of pity for sb, ie because one feels pity for him 出於怜悯为某人做某事 * feel very little pity for sb 不太可怜某人. 2 [sing] ~ (that...) cause for mild regret or sorrow (but not a real disaster) 遗憾的事; 可悲的事: It's a pity the weather isn't better for our outing today. 我们今天出去游玩天气不见好, 真遗憾. * What a pity that you can't come to the theatre with us tonight. 你今晚不能和我们一起去看戏, 真可惜. * The pity (of it) is that..., ie The regrettable thing is that... 遗憾的是.... 3 (idm 习语) have pity on sb show mercy towards sb 对某人表示同情或怜悯. ,more's the `pity (infml 口) unfortunately 真不幸: `Did you insure the jewels before they were stolen?' `No, more's the pity!' `你那些被窃的珠宝买保险了吗?'`没有, 真倒霉!' take pity on sb help sb because one feels pity for him 出於同情或怜悯而帮助某人.

  pity

  v (pt, pp pitied) [Tn] 1 feel pity for (sb) 对(某人)感到同情或怜悯: Pity the poor sailors at sea in this storm! 可怜可怜在这场风暴中在海上航行的那些倒霉的水手吧! * Survivors of the disaster who lost their relatives are much to be pitied. 灾难中丧失亲人的幸存者很值得同情. 2 feel contempt for (sb) 觉得(某人)可鄙: I pity you if you think this is an acceptable way to behave. 你要是认为这种行为可以原谅, 那你就太可鄙了. * I pity you (ie I am threatening you) if you can't pay me the money by tomorrow. 你明天不把钱还给我, 我就不客气了. pitying adj (a) expressing pity 同情的; 怜悯的: He lay helpless in the street under the pitying gaze of the bystanders. 他零零地躺在路边, 旁观的人都投以怜悯的目光. (b) showing pity and some contempt 表示同情或怜悯并带有一些鄙夷的: The performer received only pitying looks from his audience. 从观众的表情看, 那表演者得到的只是同情和怜悯.

  pityingly

  adv.

  pivot

  / 5pIvEt; `pIvEt/ n 1 central point, pin or shaft on which sth turns 中心点; 支点; 枢; 枢轴. 2 (fig 比喻) central or most important person or thing 中心的或最重要的人或事物: Because her job had been the pivot of her life, retirement was very difficult. 因为她的工作一向是她生命的支柱, 所以退休後的日子很不好过. * That is the pivot of the whole argument. 这是整个论据的关键. =>illus at scale 见scale插图.

  pivot

  v 1 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (on sth) turn (as) on a pivot (似)在枢轴上转动: The doll pivots at the waist and neck. 那洋娃娃的腰和颈可以转动. * She pivoted on her heels and swept out. 她一转身, 匆匆走了出去. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr] provide (sth) with a pivot; mount on a pivot 给(某物)安枢轴; 装於枢轴上. 2 (phr v) pivot on sth(no passive 不用於被动语态) (of an argument, etc) dependon sth central or essential; hinge on sth (指论证等)取决於某中心或要点, 随某事物而转移: The whole discussion pivots on this one point. 整个讨论内容均以此点为准.

  pivotal

  / -tl; -tl/ adj 1 of or forming a pivot 轴的; 作为旋轴的. 2 (fig 比喻) of great importance because other things depend on it; central (因受其他事物的依附)极重要的, 关键的, 中心的: a pivotal decision 重要的决策.

  pixie (also pixy)

  / 5pIksI; `pIksI/ n small elf or fairy (eg in children's fairy-tales) 小精灵, 小仙子(如童话中的).

  pizza

  / 5pi:tsE; `pitsE/ n [C, U] Italian dish consisting of a flat (usu round) piece of dough covered with tomatoes, cheese, anchovies, etc and baked in an oven 意大利饼(饼上覆蕃茄、 奶酪、 anchovies 等, 在烤箱中烘制).

  pizzicato

  / 9pItsI5kB:tEU; 9pItsI`kBto/ adj, adv (music 音) (played) by plucking the strings of a violin, etc instead of using the bow (提琴等)用指弹拨(的), 拨奏(的).

  pizzicato

  n (pl ~s) note or passage (of music) (to be) played in this way 拨奏的音符或(乐曲的)片段.

  Pk

  abbr 缩写 = (esp on a map 尤用作地图上的标记) Park: St (ie Saint) James' Pk 圣·詹姆斯公园.

  pkg

  abbr 缩写 = package.

  pkt

  abbr 缩写 = packet: 1 pkt cigarettes 一包香烟.

  Pl

  abbr 缩写 = (esp on a map 尤用作地图上的标记) Place: St (ie Saint) James' Pl 圣·詹姆斯街.

  pl

  abbr 缩写 = (grammar) plural.

  placard

  / 5plAkB:d; `plAkBrd/ n written or printed notice (designed to be) publicly displayed, eg by being fixed to a wall or carried on a stick 布告; 招贴; 海报; 标语牌; 告示牌: The placards condemned the government's action. 那些标语牌上写著谴责政府措施的词句. =>illus at flag 见 fla 插图.

  placard

  v [Tn] 1 stick placards on (sth) 将布告、 海报或标语张贴於(某处). 2 announce (sth) by using placards (用布告、 海报等)公布(某事).

  placate

  / plE5keIt; ?@ 5pleIkeIt; `pleket/ v [Tn] make (sb) less angry; soothe or pacify 安慰, 抚慰(某人); 使(某人)平静、 息怒.

  placatory

  / plE5keItErI; ?@ 5pleIkEtR:rI; `plekE9tRrI/ adj designed to placate or having this effect 安慰的; 抚慰的; 和解的: placatory remarks 安抚的话.

  place

  / pleIs; ples/ n 1 [C] particular area or position in space occupied by sb/sth 地方; 场所; 所在地: Is this the place where it happened? 这就是事发地点吗? * This place seems familiar to me I think I've been here before. 这地方好像很熟悉--大概我从前来过这里. * I can't be in two places at once. 我分身乏术. * He loves to be seen in all the right places, ie at all the important social events. 他喜欢在所有重大的社交场合上出头露面. 2 [C] city, town, village, etc 城、 镇、 村等: We saw so many places on the tour I can't remember them all. 我们旅行到过很多地方, 我记都记不清. * This town is the coldest place in Britain. 这镇子是英国最寒冷的地方. * Australia is a big place. 澳大利亚这个地方很大. 3 [C] ~ (of sth) (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) building or area of land used for a particular purpose or where sth occurs (作某用途或发生某事的)建筑物或场所: a `meeting-place, `birthplace, `hiding-place, etc 会面地点、 出生地、 隐蔽所 * places of amusement/entertainment,ie theatres, cinemas, etc 娱乐场所(戏院、 影院等) * a place of worship, ie a church 礼拜的场所(教堂) * He can usually be contacted at his place of business/work. 通常可在他的办公[工作]地点和他联系. * a place of learning, eg a university 做学问的地方(如大学) * one's place of birth/death 出生[死亡]之地. 4 [C] particular spot or area on a surface 物体表面的某点或某处: a sore place on my foot 脚的痛处 * The wall was marked with damp in several places. 那堵墙有几处潮斑. 5 [C] particular passage or point in a book, play, etc (书、 戏剧等的)某段落或某点: The audience laughed in all the right places, eg in a play. 观众看到有趣处无不大笑不已(如在观剧时). * Put a piece of paper in (ie in your book) to mark your place. 在你读到的地方夹上张纸条. 6 [C] seat or position, esp one reserved for or occupied by a person, vehicle, etc 座位或位置(尤指某人、 车等保留或占据的): Come and sit here I've kept you a place. 到这儿来坐--我给你占了一个座位. * There's only one place left in the car park. 停车场里只剩一个位置了. * the place of honour at the head of the table 餐桌上首的贵宾席 * There will always be a place for you here if you decide to come back. 只要你决定回来, 这里永远给你保留位置. * Return to your places and get on with your work. 各回各位去干自己的工作吧. * (fig 比喻) have an assured place in history 在历史上占有一定的地位 * I went to buy a newspaper and lost my place in the queue. 我去买了份报纸, 回来就找不到我排队中的位置了. =>Usage at space 用法见space. 7 [sing] rank, position or role in society (used esp with the vs shown) (社会的)等级, 地位, 身分(尤与所示动词连用): keep/know one's place 保持个人的地位[知道自己的身分] * forget one's place, ie not behave according to one's social position 举止与身分不合 * not be one's place (ie one's proper role) to give advice 无资格进言. 8 [C] (a) position or office, esp as an employee 职位或职务(尤指雇员的): She hopes to get a place in the Civil Service. 她希望获得一份公职. (b) opportunity to study at a school or university (在学校)学习或研究的机会: She was awarded a place at the Royal College of Music. 她获得皇家音乐学院的学籍. * The ballet school offers free places to children who are exceptionally talented. 该芭蕾舞蹈学校给有特殊天赋的儿童提供免费学习的机会. (c) membership of a sports team 运动队员的资格或身分: She worked hard for her place in the Olympic team. 她为进入奥林匹克运动队而努力. 9 [C] (a) natural or suitable position (for sth) (某物的)自然的或恰当的位置: Put everything away in its correct place. 把东西放到该放的地方去. * (saying 谚) A place for everything and everything in its place. 物各有其位, 物各在其位. * The dustbin is the only place for most of these clothes. 这些衣服大都只配进垃圾箱. (b)(usu negative 通常用否定式) suitable or proper location(for sb to be) (某人的)相宜的或应在的地方: A railway station is no place for a child to be left alone at night. 火车站可不是让儿童在晚上独自呆的地方. * City streets are no place to be if you don't like noise or crowds. 要是怕吵、 怕人多就别上街. 10 [C] (mathematics 数) position of a figure after a decimal point, etc (小数点後的)位:calculated/correct to 5 decimal places/5 places of decimals,eg 6.57132 计算[精确]到小数点後5位数(如6.57132). 11 [C usu sing 通常作单数] (a) (in a competition) position among the winning competitors (竞赛中)获胜者的名次: He finished in third place. 他得了第三名. (b) (in horse-racing) position among the first three, esp second or third (赛马的)位置(获胜的前三名, 尤指第二名或第三名): Did you back the horse for a place or to win? 那匹马你买的是位置还是独赢? 12 [C] (a) house, esp a large one in the country 房子; (尤指)乡间巨宅: They have a flat in town as well as a place in the country. 他们在城里有一套公寓, 在乡村还有一所房子. (b) (infml 口) home 家: We're having the party at my place. 我们的聚会在我家举行. 13 Place [sing] (esp Brit) (a) (as part of a name for a short street, square etc 用於短街、 广场等名称中): Langham Place 兰厄姆广场. (b) (as part of a name for a large country house 用於乡村巨宅的名称中): Wakehurst Place 韦克赫斯特山庄. 14 (idm 习语) all `over the place (infml 口) (a) everywhere 到处: Firms are going bankrupt all over the place. 各地的商行都纷纷破产了. (b) in an untidy state; disordered 凌乱; 紊乱; 杂乱: The contents of the drawers were strewn all over the place. 抽屉里的东西乱七八糟.* Your hair is all over the place. 你的头发乱蓬蓬的. change/swap `places (with sb) (a) take sb's position, seat, etc and let him take one's own 与某人交换位置、 座位等: Let's change places you'll be able to see better from here. 咱们换一下位置吧--你从这儿看清楚些. (b) be in sb else's situation or circumstances 在他人的处境或环境: I'm perfectly happy I wouldn't change places with anyone. 我十分愉快--这种幸福我跟谁都不换. fall, fit, slot, etc into `place (of a set of facts or series of events) begin to make sense in relationship to each other (指一系列事实或事件)开始有头绪: It all begins to fall into place. 一切开始明朗了. give place to sb/sth be replaced by sb/sth; give way to sb/sth 为某人[某事物]所取代; 让位给某人[某事物]: Houses and factories gave place to open fields as the train gathered speed. 火车越开越快, 把房子和工厂抛在後面进入了一片开阔的田野. `go places (infml 口) be increasingly successful, esp in one's career 不断进展(尤指在个人事业上): two young people who are really going places 两个事业顺利的年轻人. have one's heart in the right place => heart. in the `first, `second, etc place (used eg when making points in an argument 用於如列举理由时) firstly, secondly, etc 第一点、 第二点等. in high places => high1. in `my, `your, etc place in my, your, etc situation or circumstances 处於我的、 你的等情况、 处境: What would you do in my place? 你要是处於我的地位, 你怎样做? * In her place I'd sell the lot. 我要是她就全部卖掉. in `place (a) in the usual or proper position 在平常的或应在的地方: She likes everything to be in place before she starts work. 她喜欢东西都摆好再开始工作. (b) suitable or appropriate 合适的; 恰当的: A little gratitude would be in place. 应当略表谢意. in place of sb/sth; in sb's/sth's place instead of sb/sth 代替某人[某事物]: The chairman was ill so his deputy spoke in his place. 主席有病, 所以由副主席代为致词. lay/set a `place put cutlery, dishes, etc for one person in position on the table 在餐桌上摆上一份一人用的餐具: Set a place for him when you lay the table he may come after all. 铺桌子时给他摆上一份餐具--毕竟他有可能来. lightning never strikes in the same place twice => lightning. lose one's place => lose. out of `place (a) not in the usual or a correct or suitable place 不在平常的或应在的或适当的地方. (b) unsuitable; improper 不适合的; 不适当的: Her criticisms were quite out of place. 她的批评太不相宜了. * Modern furniture would be out of place in a Victorian house. 在维多利亚时代式的房子里摆设现代家具很不谐调. a place in the `sun situation of equal or shared privilege 平等的或均等的有利地位或处境: Nations that had been oppressed for centuries were now fighting for a place in the sun. 多少世纪以来受压迫的国家现在都在争取平等. pride of place => pride. put oneself in sb else's/sb's `place imagine oneself in sb else's situation or circumstances 设想自己处於他人的地位或处境. put sb in his (proper) `place humiliate sb who has been impertinent or boastful 对无礼的或自夸的人加以羞辱: He tried to kiss her but she quickly puthim in his place. 他想要吻她, 她顿时让他自讨没趣. take`place occur; happen 发生: When does the ceremony take place? 仪式什麽时候举行? * We have never discovered what took place (between them) that night. 我们从未发觉那天晚上(他们之间)发生了什麽事情. =>Usage at happen 用法见happen. take sb's/sth's place; take the place of sb/sth replace sb/sth 代替某人[某事物]: She couldn't attend the meeting so her assistant took her place. 她不能出席会议, 所以由助手替她. * Nothing could take the place of the family he had lost. 他失去了家庭, 这一损失是无法弥补的. there's ,no place like `home (saying 谚) one's home is the best place to be 哪里也不如自己的家.

  place-bet

  n (in horse-racing) bet that a horse will be one of the first three past the winning-post (赛马的)位置赌(赌某匹马可跑得第一、 第二或第三名).

  place-kick

  n (in Rugby football) kick made after the ball has been placed on the ground for that purpose (橄榄球的)定位踢(将球放在地上踢出者).

  place-mat

  n mat on a table on which a person's plates are laid (餐桌上用餐人的)餐具垫.

  place-name

  n name of a city, town, hill, etc (城、 镇、 山等的)地名: an expert on the origin of place-names 地名考源专家.

  place-setting

  n set of cutlery, dishes, etc for one person (供一人使用的)一套餐具.

  place

  / pleIs; ples/ v 1 [Tn.pr, Tn.p] (a) put (sth) in a particular place 将(某物)置於某处: He placed the money on the counter. 他把钱放在柜台上. * The notice is placed too high nobody can read it. 布告贴得太高--谁也没法看. (b) put (sth) in its proper place 将(某物)放在应放之处: Be sure to place them correctly. 务必把这些东西放对地方. * He placed the books in order on the shelf. 他把书按顺序摆在书架上. 2 [Tn.pr, Tn.p] put (sb) in the situation or circumstances specified (used esp as in the expressions shown) 使(某人)处於某处境或环境(尤用於以下示例): place sb in charge/command (of sth), ie make him the leader 让某人负责[指挥](某事物) * place sb under arrest, ie arrest him逮捕某人 * place sb in a dilemma/difficult position/quandary, ie make matters difficult for sb 使某人进退两难[处於困境/犹豫不决] * place one's faith/trust in sb/sth 信赖某人[相信某事物] * place confidence in sb, ie be confident that he will help, etc 对某人抱有信心 * Responsibility for the negotiations was placed in his hands, ie He was made responsible for them. 由他负责谈判事宜. 3 [Tn] identify (sb/sth) by using one's memory or past experience 凭记忆或经验辨认(某人[某事物]): I've seen his face before but I can't place him. 我以前见过他, 但我认不出他是谁. * She has a foreign accent that I can't quite place. 她有外国口音, 但我听不出是哪儿的口音. 4 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] make a judgement about (sb/sth) in comparison with others; class (sb/sth) 经比较评价(某人[某事物]); 将(某人[某事物])分类: I would place her among the world's greatest sopranos. 我认为她可以算是世界上第一流的女高音. 5 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (with sb/sth) give (an order or a bet) to a person or firm (向某人或某公司)发(定单)或打(赌): They have placed an order with us for three new aircraft. 他们向我们订购了三架新飞机. * Place your bets now the race begins in half an hour! 现在可以下赌注--赛事於半小时後开始! 6 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (in sth); ~ sb (with sb/sth) find a home, job, etc for sb 为某人找到、 安排或安置(家、 工作等): The agency places about 2000 secretaries per annum. 该代理机构每年可为约2000名秘书安排工作. * They placed the orphans with foster-parents. 他们为这些孤儿找到了养父养母. 7 [Tn, Tn.pr] invest (money), esp in order to earn interest 投(资): The stockbroker has placed the money in industrial stock. 证券经纪人已用那笔钱购入了工业股票. 8 [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Cn.a] state the finishing position of runners (in a race) or contestants (in athletics) (体育竞赛中)定出(选手的)名次: He was reponsible for placing the winners. 他负责评定选手名次. * She was placed third. 她被定为第三名. 9 (idm 习语) be placed (a) (Brit) (in horse-racing) finish first, second or third (赛马中)得第一、 第二或第三名. (b) (US) (in horse-racing) finish second (赛马中)得第二名.

  placement

  / 5pleIsmEnt; `plesmEnt/ n [U] action of placing or state of being placed 放置; 安置; 辨认; 评价; 预订; 下赌注; 定名次: [attrib 作定语] the placement of orphans 对孤儿的安置 * a placement agency for secretarial staff 秘书介绍所.

  placebo

  / plE5si:bEU; plE`sibo/ n (pl ~s) 1 (medical 医) harmless substance given as if it were medicine to calm a patient who mistakenly believes he is ill 安慰剂: [attrib 作定语] placebo effect, ie beneficial effect of taking a placebo 宽慰作用(服安慰剂後的). 2 thing done or said only to please or humour sb 使人宽慰的事物; 安慰话.

  placenta

  / plE5sentE; plE`sZntE/ n (pl -tae / -ti:; -ti/ or ~s) (anatomy 解) organ lining the womb during pregnancy by which the foetus is nourished through the umbilical cord, and which is expelled after birth 胎盘.

  placental

  / -tl; -tl/ adj: a placental mammal 有胎盘哺乳动物.

  placid

  / 5plAsId; `plAsId/ adj (a) calm and peaceful; undisturbed 安静的; 平静的; 宁静的: the placid watersof the lake 平静的湖水. (b) (of a person, his temperament,etc) not easily excited or irritated (指人、 性情等)温和的, 文静的: a placid smile 恬静的微笑.

  placidly

  adv: cows placidly chewing grass 静静地吃著青草的母牛.

  placidity

  / plE5sIdEtI; plE`sIdEtI/ n [U]: the placidity of his temperament 他温和的性情.

  placket

  / 5plAkIt; `plAkIt/ n opening in a woman's skirt to make it easier to put on and take off (裙子的)开口.

  plagiarize, plagiarise

  / 5pleIdVEraIz; `pledVE9raIz/ v [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (from sb/sth) take (sb else's ideas, words, etc) and use them as if they were one's own 剽窃, 抄袭(他人的意念、 言词等): Whole passages of the work are plagiarized. 那作品整段整段都是剽窃的. * He has plagiarized most of the book from earlier studies of the period. 他那本书大部分都是从研究那个时期的著作中剽窃的内容.

  plagiarism

  / -rIzEm; -rIzEm/ n (a) [U] action of plagiarizing 剽窃; 抄袭: be accused of plagiarism 被控剽窃. (b) [C] instance of this 剽窃; 抄袭.

  plagiarist

  / -rIst; -rIst/ n person who plagiarizes 剽窃者; 抄袭者.

  plagiarist

  / -rIst; -rIst/ n person who plagiarizes 剽窃者; 抄袭者.

  plague

  / pleIg; ple^/ n 1 (a) the plague [sing] =bubonic plague (bubonic). (b) [C] any deadly infectiousdisease that kills many people 瘟疫: [attrib 作定语] The incidence of cholera in the camps has reached plague proportions. 营中霍乱流行已酿成瘟疫之灾. 2 [C] ~ of sth large numbers of a pest that invade an area and cause annoyance or damage 侵扰一地造成破坏的大量有害动物: a plague of flies, locusts, rats, etc 蝇、 蝗、 鼠等灾害. 3 [C usu sing 通常作单数] (infml 口) cause of annoyance; nuisance 惹人烦恼的事物、 人或原因: What a plague that boy is! 那男孩太讨厌了! 4 (idm 习语) avoid sb/sth like the plague => avoid.

  plague

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (with sth) (a) annoy sb, esp by repeatedly asking questions or making demands 烦扰某人(尤指一再询问或要求): plague sb with questions, requests for money, etc 一再询问、 要钱等烦扰某人. (b) cause suffering or discomfort to sb 使某人受苦或难受: She was plagued with arthritis. 她患关节炎十分痛苦. 2 [Tn] cause trouble or difficulty to (sb/sth) 给(某人[某事物])造成麻烦或困难: a construction schedule plagued by bad weather 因天气恶劣受阻的工程进度.

  plague-ridden (also `plague-stricken)

  adj infected with a/the plague(1,2) 瘟疫流行的; 有害动物为患的.

  plaice

  / pleIs; ples/ n (pl unchanged 复数不变) type of flat-fish with reddish spots, eaten as food 鲽(有红斑的比目鱼, 可食).

  plaid

  / plAd; plAd/ n (a) [C] long piece of woollen cloth, worn over the shoulders by Scottish Highlanders (苏格兰高地人用的毛呢的)长披肩. (b) [U] cloth (usu with a tartan pattern) used for this, and for kilts, etc (用作长披肩、 男子短裙等的)毛呢, (通常为)格子呢: [attrib 作定语] a plaid kilt (苏格兰男子穿的)格子呢短裙. (c) [C] tartan pattern for cloth 布料的格子图案.

  plain

  / pleIn; plen/ adj (-er, -est) 1 easy to see, hear or understand; clear 清楚的; 明白的; 易懂的; 清晰的: The markings along the route are quite plain. 路线沿途的标志都十分清楚. * in plain English 用浅近的英语 * He made it plain (to us) that he did not wish to continue. 他向我们明白表示他不想继续下去. * She made her annoyance plain. 她已怒形於色. 2 (of people or their actions, thoughts, etc) not trying to deceive; frank and direct (指人、 其行为、 思想等)率直的, 坦率的, 直接的: in plain words, ie frankly 明言 * a plain answer 直截了当的回答 * the plain truth 明显的事实 * Let me be plain with you, ie speak openly and frankly: There will have to be some plain speaking. 让我开诚布公跟你说吧. 得公开而明白地谈一谈. 3 (a) not decorated or luxurious; ordinary and simple 不矫饰的; 朴素的; 普通的; 平凡的; 简单的: a plain but very elegant dress 朴素而极雅致的连衣裙 * plain food/cooking, ie not spicy or rich 清淡的食物[烹调风味] * plain cake, ie without fruit, etc 纯蛋糕(无水果等配料的) * plain chocolate, ie made without adding milk 纯巧克力. (b) without a pattern or marking on it 没有图案或花纹的: plain paper, ie without lines 无格纸 * plain fabric, ie without a pattern or design 素的织物 * under plain cover, ie in an envelope without any special marking 在普通信封中(无特殊标记). 4 not beautiful or good-looking 不漂亮的; 不好看的: a few rather plain bits of furniture 几件很不起眼的家具 * From a rather plain child she had grown into a beautiful woman. 她从一个相貌平平的女孩成长为一个漂亮的妇人. 5 (idm 习语) in plain `English bluntly or simply expressed 用直率的或简单明了的英语: If you wanted me to go why didn't you say so in plain English instead of making vague hints? 你想叫我走, 为什麽拐弯抹角而不直说? make oneself plain make one's meaning clear 表达清楚: There is no more money do I make myself plain? 再也没钱了--我的意思清楚吗? (as) plain as a pikestaff/the nose on one's face very obvious or clearly visible 一清二楚; 显然易见; 明摆著的事. (all) ,plain `sailing course of action that is simple and free from trouble 十分顺利; 一帆风顺: Once the design problems were solved, it was all/everything was plain sailing. 设计问题一经解决, 就容易办了.

  plain

  adv (esp US) (a) clearly 清楚地: speak plain 清楚地说. (b) absolutely; simply 绝对地; 简直: That is just plain stupid. 那简直是愚不可及.

  plainly

  adv (a) clearly 清楚地: The mountain tops are plainly visible from the village. 自该村望去, 群山之巅清晰可见. * Try to express yourself more plainly. 尽量表达得清楚些. (b) obviously 显然: That is plainly wrong. 那显然不对. * You are plainly unwilling to co-operate. 你显然不愿合作. * He was plainly unwelcome. 他显然不受欢迎.

  plainness

  n [U].

  plain clothes (esp of police officers)

  ordinary clothes, not uniform (尤指警察的)普通衣服, 便衣: The detectives were in plain clothes. 警探穿著便衣. `plain-clothes adj wearing plain clothes 穿便衣的: a plain-clothes detective 便衣侦探.

  plain dealing

  honesty; straightforwardness 诚实; 直率.

  plain flour

  flour that does not contain baking powder 不含发酵粉的普通白面. Cf 参看 self-raising flour.

  plain-spoken

  adj frank in speech, often to the point of rudeness; outspoken 说话坦率的(常近於粗俗的); 直言的.

  plain

  / pleIn; plen/ n large area of flat land; prairie 平原: a vast, grassy plain 大平原、 草原 * the great plains of the American Midwest 美国中西部的大平原.

  plainsman

  / -zmEn; -zmEn/ n (pl -men) person living in a region of plains, esp in the great plains of the US 平原居民(尤指在美国大平原上居住的人).

  plain

  / pleIn; plen/ n (in knitting) simple basic stitch (编织中的)平针. Cf 参看 purl.

  plainchant

  / 5pleIntFB:nt; ?@ 5pleIntFAnt; `plen9tFAnt/ (also `plainsong / -sCN; -9sRN/) n [U] medieval type of church music for a number of voices singing together, used in the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches 素歌(中世纪的宗教合唱曲, 为圣公会及天主教所采用).

  plaint

  / pleInt; plent/ n (law 律) charge made against sb in court; accusation 起诉; 诉状.

  plaintiff

  / 5pleIntIf; `plentIf/ (also complainant) n person who brings a legal action against sb 原告. Cf 参看 defendant.

  plaintive

  / 5pleIntIv; `plentIv/ adj sounding sad; sorrowful(听起来)哀伤的; 悲哀的: a plaintive cry, melody, voice, etc 悲伤的哭泣、 曲调、 声音等.

  plaintively

  adv.

  plaintiveness

  n [U].

  plait

  / plAt; plAt/ (US braid) v [Tn] (a) weave or twist (three or more lengths of hair, straw, etc) under and over one another to make one rope-like length 将(发、 草等)编成辫: plait one's hair 编辫子. (b) make (sth) by doing this 编(某物): plait a basket, cord, rope 编篮子、 绳、 索.

  plait

  n form made by plaiting 编成的东西; 辫子: wear one's hair in plaits/a plait 把头发编成辫子. =>illus 见插图.

  plan

  / plAn; plAn/ n 1 ~ (for sth/doing sth); ~ (to do sth) arrangement for doing or using sth, considered or worked out in advance 计画; 规画; 方案: make plans (for sth) (为某事)定计画 * a plan to produce energy from waste material 利用废物作能源的计画 * What are your plans for the holidays? 你假期打算做什麽? * a carefully worked-out plan 精心设计的方案 * a change of plan, ie deciding not to do what was planned 计画的变动 * a development plan, eg for an industry, a town or an area 发展规画(如工业、 城镇或地区的) * The best plan (ie The best thing to do) would be to ignore it completely. 上策是完全不予理睬. * a plan of attack/campaign, ie a way of doing sth, esp sth difficult 攻坚[攻关]方案. 2 (a) detailed, large-scale diagram of part of a town, district, group of buildings, etc (城市、 区、 建筑群等的)详图: a plan of the royal palace and its surroundings 皇宫及其环境详图 * a plan of the inner city 市中心详图. (b) (esp pl 尤作复数) outline drawing (of a building or structure) showing the position and size of the various parts in relation to each other (建筑或结构的)平面图, 设计图: draw up plans for an extension 绘制扩建图 * The architect submitted the plans for approval. 建筑师将设计图表交付审批. * The plans of the new development are on show at the Town Hall. 镇公所大厅展出了新开发平面图. (c) diagram (of the parts of a machine) (机器部件的)图解, 说明图: plans of early flying machines 早期飞行器的说明图. Cf 参看 chart, map. 3 way of arranging sth, esp when shown on a drawing; scheme 安排, 方式, 方法(尤指图示); 示意图: a seating plan, ie one showing where people are to sit at a table 座位示意图. 4 (idm 习语) go according to plan (of events, etc) take place successfully (指事情等)顺利进行, 按计画实现: If everything goes according to plan, I shall be back before dark. 假若一切顺利, 我天黑之前就回来.

  plan

  v (-nn-) 1 [Tn] make a plan of or for (sth) 为(某事物)定计画或绘设计图、 平面图等: plan a garden 设计花园 * a well-planned city 精心设计的城市 * a planned economy, ie controlled by the government 计画经济. 2 [I, Ipr] ~ (for/on/sb/sth) make preparations (为某事物)做准备: plan for the future, one's retirement, etc 为将来、 退休等做准备 * I had planned for 20 guests, but only 10 arrived. 我做好了招待20位客人的准备, 可是只来了10位. * We hadn't planned on twins! 我们没有生双胞胎的准备! =>Usage at arrange 用法见arrange. 3 [Tt] make plans (to do sth); intend 计画, 打算(做某事); 意欲: When do you plan to take your holiday? 你打算什麽时候休假? * We're planning to visit France this summer. 我们正计画今年夏天到法国旅行. 4 (phr v) plan sth out consider sth in detail and arrange it in advance 策画、 筹画或详细安排某事物: plan out one's annual expenditure 做出全年的开支预算 * plan out atraffic system for the town 为该镇筹画交通系统. plannern (a) person who makes plans 设计者; 策画者. (b) (also ,town `planner) person who works in or studies town planning 城市规画的工作者或研究者. planning n [U] (a) making plans (for sth) (做某事物的)计画: family planning, ie using birth control to limit the number of children a couple have 计画生育. (b) = town planning (town). planning permission (esp Brit) licence to build a new building or change an existing one, granted by a local authority (兴建或改建建筑物前当局授予的)建筑许可证.

  plane

  / pleIn; plen/ n 1 (a) (geometry 几) surfacesuch that a straight line joining any two points in it touches it at all points 几何平面. (b) any flat or level surface 平面. 2 (fig 比喻) level of thought, existence or development (思想、 存在或发展的)水平, 水准, 程度, 阶段: They seem to exist on a different spiritual plane. 他们似乎生活在不同的精神境界. * This species has reached a higher plane of development. 这一种属已达到更高的发展阶段.

  plane

  adj completely flat; level 平的; 平面的: a plane surface 平面.

  plane

  v [I, Ip] (of an aeroplane) move through the air,esp without an engine; glide (指飞机)航行, (尤指)滑行.

  plane geometry

  geometry of two-dimensional or plane figures 平面几何学.

  plane sailing

  method of calculating a ship's position as though the ship were on a plane surface instead of the curved surface of the earth 平面航法(将地球曲面视作平面测定船的位置).

  plane-table

  n instrument used by surveyors for drawing plans in fieldwork, consisting of a circular table with a pivoted sighting-device 平板仪.

  plane

  / pleIn; plen/ n tool, consisting of a blade set in a flat surface, which makes the surface of wood smooth by shaving very thin layers from it 刨子.

  plane

  v 1 (a) [Tn] use a plane on (sth) 用刨子刨(某物): plane the edge of the plank 刨木板的边缘. (b) [Cn.a] make (sth) smooth, etc by using a plane 用刨刨平(某物): plane sth smooth 将某物刨平滑. 2 (phr v) ~ sth away/down/off remove sth using a plane 用刨刨去某物: plane away the irregularities on a surface 把一物体表面上的突出物刨掉.

  plane

  / pleIn; plen/ (also `plane-tree) n any of several types of deciduous tree with spreading branches, broad leaves and thin bark that comes off in flakes 悬铃木.

  plane

  / pleIn; plen/ n = aeroplane: travel by plane 乘飞机 * The plane is about to land. 飞机即行著陆. * [attrib 作定语] a plane flight 飞机的飞行.

  planet

  / 5plAnIt; `plAnIt/ n any of the bodies in space that move around a star (such as the sun) and are illuminated by it 行星: The planets of our solar system are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. 我们太阳系的行星是水星、 金星、 地球、 火星、 木星、 土星、 天王星、 海王星、 冥王星.

  planetarium

  / 9plAnI5teErIEm; 9plAnE`tZrIEm/ n (pl ~s or -ia / -IE; -IE/) (building with a) device for representingthe positions and movements of the planets and stars by projecting spots of light on a dome which represents the sky 天象仪; 天象馆; 天文馆.

  planetary

  / 5plAnItrI; ?@ -terI; `plAnE9tZrI/ adj of orlike a planet or planets (似)行星的: planetary movements行星的运动.

  plangent

  / 5plAndVEnt; `plAndVEnt/ adj (fml 文) 1 (of sounds) throbbing loudly; reverberating (指声音)震荡的, 回响的. 2 (of sounds) expressing sadness; mournful (指声音)凄切的, 悲戚的.

  plangency

  / -dVEnsI;-dVEnsI/ n [U].

  plangently

  adv.

  plank

  / plANk; plANk/ n 1 long flat piece of sawn timber, 50-150mm thick and at least 200mm wide, used for making floors, etc 木板(厚50-150毫米, 宽至少200毫米, 用以铺地面等). 2 (esp politics 尤用於政治) any of the main principles of the policy or programme of a political party (政党的)政策或政纲的准则: the main planks of their disarmament platform 他们的裁军政纲准则. 3 (idm 习语) thick as two planks => thick. walk the plank => walk1.

  plank

  v (phr v) plank sth down (infml 口) (a) put (sth) down heavily 重重地放下(某物): plank down one's luggage 重重地放下行李. (b) pay (money) at once 立即付(钱). Cf 参看 plonk1 v.

  planking

  n [U] planks used esp to make a floor; structure made of planks 板材; (尤指)地板: Are you going to cover the planking with carpet? 你打算在地板上铺地毯吗?

  plankton

  / 5plANktEn; `plANktEn/ n [U] any of the (mainly microscopic) forms of plant and animal life that drift in or float on the water of seas, rivers, lakes, etc 浮游生物.

  plant

  / plB:nt; ?@ plAnt; plAnt/ n 1 [C] (a) living organism that is not an animal, which grows in the earth and usu has a stem, leaves and roots 植物: Plants need light and water. 植物需要光和水. * [attrib 作定语] `plant life 植物. (b) any of the smaller kinds of these as distinct from shrubs or trees 花草: garden plants * a `strawberry plant 一株草莓 * plants flowering in the window-box 窗口花坛中开著花的花草. 2 (a) [U] machinery, equipment, etc used in an industrial or a manufacturing process (用於工业生产中的)机器、 设备等: The firm has made a huge investment in new plant. 该公司投入巨资购置新设备. * [attrib 作定语] `plant hire, ie renting of machines or equipment 机器租赁. (b) [C] piece of machinery or equipment 机器; 设备: The farm has its own `power plant. 这家农场自己有发电设备. 3[C] (esp US) place where an industrial or a manufacturingprocess takes place; factory 工厂: a `chemical plant 化工厂 * a nuclear re`processing plant 核燃料後处理工厂. =>Usage at factory 用法见factory. 4 [C] (infml 口) (a) thing placed deliberately so that its discovery willmake an innocent person appear guilty; false or misleadingevidence 栽赃物; 伪证: He claimed that the stolen jewellery found in his house was a plant. 他声称在他家中发现的那些失窃的珠宝是有人给他栽赃. (b) person who joins a group of criminals, conspirators, etc in order to spy on them for others (在犯罪、 阴谋等集团中卧底的)眼线, 坐探: They discovered that he was a police plant. 他们发现他是警方的眼线.

  plant

  / plB:nt; ?@ plAnt; plAnt/ v 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr] put (plants, seeds, etc) in the ground to grow 种植; 栽种: plant flowers around the pool 在池子周围栽花 * We planted beans and peas in the garden. 我们在花园中种菜豆和豌豆. * Plant in rows two feet apart. 每隔两英尺种一行. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (with sth) put bushes, trees, flowers, etc in (a garden, flower-bed, etc) 在(花园、 花圃等)中栽种花草树木: plant a garden 在花园中种花 * plant the border with spring flowers 在边上种上春天开花的植物 * mountain slopes planted with conifers 栽有松柏的山坡. Cf 参看 sow2. 2 [Tn.pr] (a) place (sth) in position firmly or forcefully 牢固地或用力地安放(某物): He planted his feet firmly on the ground. 他在地上双脚站得很稳. * He stood with his feet planted wide apart. 他两脚叉开很大距离站著. (b) (infml 口) position (oneself) 使(自己)处於某一位置: plant oneself in a chair in front of the fire 坐到炉前的椅子上. 3 [Tn, Tn.pr] (infml 口) (a) ~ sth (on sb) hide sth where it will be found in order to deceive sb or make an innocent person seem guilty 给某人栽赃: plant stolen goods on sb 把赃物栽给某人 * He claimed that the weapons had been planted (on him). 他称那些武器是别人(给他)栽的赃. (b) ~ sb (in sth) cause sb to join a group secretly, esp to spy on its members 使某人秘密加入一集团; (尤指)安插眼线或坐探: The police had planted a spy in the gang. 警方在那团伙中安插了一名坐探. * The speaker's supporters were planted in the audience and applauded loudly. 听众中安插了演讲人的支持者; 他们使劲给他鼓掌. 4 [Tn.pr] ~ sth in sth fix or establish (an idea, etc) in sb's mind 给某人灌输(某思想等): Who planted that idea in your head? 是谁给你灌输的这种思想? * His strange remarks planted doubts in our minds about his sanity. 他那些怪话使我们心中生疑, 不知他精神是否正常. 5 [Tn.pr] deliver (a blow, etc) with deliberate aim 给以(一击等): plant a kiss on sb's cheek 在某人的面颊上吻一下 * plant a blow on the side of sb's head 向某人头侧一击 * plant a knife in sb's back 把刀插入某人的背上. 6 (phr v) plant (sth) out place (plants) in the ground so that they have enough room to grow 移栽, 移植(植物): plant out tomato seedlings 把西红柿移栽到地里.

  planter

  n 1 person who grows crops on or manages a plantation 农场的种植者或经管者: a `sugar-planter, `tea-planter, `rubber-planter, etc 糖料作物、 茶、 橡胶等的种植者. 2 machine for planting (plant2 1) 种植机. 3 (esp US) container in which plants are grown, esp in a house as an ornament 花盆(尤指室内的).

  plantain

  / 5plAntIn; `plAntIn/ n (a) [C, U] tropical fruit, similar to a banana but usu cooked before being eaten 大蕉(果实). (b) [C] tree-like plant that bears this 大蕉(植物).

  plantain

  / 5plAntIn; `plAntIn/ n common wild plant with broad flat leaves and small green flowers, that bears seeds which are used as food for cage-birds 车前草.

  plantation

  / plAn5teIFn, also, in British use, 英式英语亦读作 plB:n-; plAn`teFEn/ n 1 large piece of land, esp in a tropical country, where tea, cotton, sugar, tobacco, etc are grown (茶、 棉、 甘蔗、 烟草等的)大种植园, 大农场(尤指热带国家的): [attrib 作定语] a plantation manager种植园经管者. 2 (a) area of land planted with trees 造林地: plantations of fir and pine 枞树及松树林地. (b) group of trees or plants planted together 人工林; 人工植物带.

  plaque

  / plB:k; ?@ plAk; plAk/ n flat (usu round) piece of stone, metal or porcelain fixed on a wall as an ornament or a memorial (装於墙上作饰物或纪念物的石质、 金属或瓷制的)饰板(通常为圆形): A simple plaque marks the spot where the martyr died. 有一块朴素的饰板用以纪念该烈士的殉难处.

  plaque

  / plB:k; ?@ plAk; plAk/ n [U] (medical 医) soft substance that forms on teeth and encourages the growth of harmful bacteria 牙斑: It is necessary to remove plaque by brushing one's teeth. 需刷牙以去除牙斑. Cf 参看 tartar1 1.

  plasma

  / 5plAzmE; `plAzmE/ (also plasm / 5plzEm;`plAzEm/) n [U] (anatomy 解) 1 (a) clear yellowish liquid part of blood, in which the corpuscles float 血浆. (b) (medical 医) (also `blood plasma) this fluid taken from the blood and specially treated for use in bloodtransfusions (输血用的)血浆. 2 = protoplasm. 3 (physics物) type of gas containing positively and negatively charged particles in approximately equal numbers, and present in the sun and most stars 等离子体.

  plaster

  / 5plB:stE(r); ?@ 5plAs-; `plAstL/ n 1 [U] soft mixture of lime, sand, water, etc that becomes hard when dry and is used for making a smooth surface on walls and ceilings 灰泥(涂平墙壁和天花板用的): The plaster will have to dry out before you can paint the room. 待房间的灰泥乾後才可粉刷. 2 [U] (also ,plaster of `Paris) white paste made from gypsum that becomes very hard when dry, used for making moulds, holding broken bones in place, etc 烧石膏; 熟石膏: She broke her ankle weeks ago and it's still in plaster. 她的踝关节数周前骨折, 至今仍打著石膏. 3 [C, U] = sticking plaster (stick2).

  plaster

  v 1 (a) [Tn] cover (a wall, etc) with plaster(1) 用灰泥涂抹(墙壁等). (b) [Tn.pr] ~ A with B/~ B on(to) A cover sth with sth thickly, as one puts plaster on a wall 用黏稠物涂抹某物: hair plastered with oil 抹油的头发 * an artist who plasters the paint on the canvas 在画布上涂颜料的画家 * plaster the town with posters 把海报贴遍市镇. 2 [Tn] cover (a wound, etc) with a plaster(2) 给(受伤处等)打石膏. 3 (phr v) plaster sth down make sth lie flat by putting a wet or sticky substance on it (敷湿或黏之物)使某物平贴: plaster one's hair down 用发蜡把头发梳平.

  plastered

  adj (sl 俚) drunk 醉的: be/get plastered 醉了.

  plasterer

  / 5plAB:stErE(r); `plAstErL/ n person whose job is to put plaster on walls and ceilings 粉刷匠; 泥水匠.

  plasterboard

  n [U] board made of sheets of cardboard with plaster(1) between them, used for inside walls and ceilings 灰泥板(以灰泥夹心, 作内墙壁及天花板用的).

  plaster cast

  (a) mould made with gauze and plaster of Paris to hold a broken or dislocated bone in place 石膏绷带(作折断或脱位之骨复位固定用者). (b) mould (eg for a small statue) made of plaster of Paris 石膏模型(如做小塑像的).

  plastic

  / 5plAstIk; `plAstIk/ n 1 (a) [C usu pl 通常作复数] any of several chemically produced substances that can be formed into shapes when heated or made into thin threads and used in textiles 塑料: the use of plastics in industry 塑料在工业中的应用. (b) [U] substance made in this way 可塑性物质: Many items in daily use are made out of plastic. 有很多日常生活用品是塑料制的. * Plastic is sometimes used instead of leather. 塑料有时可以代替皮革. 2 plastics [sing v] science of making plastics (plastic 1a) 塑料学. 3 [U] (also plastic money) (infml 口) credit card(s) 信用卡: `Have you got any cash or shall we use plastic?' `Put it on the plastic.' `你有没有现金? 还是我们用信用卡呢?'`用信用卡吧.'

  plastic

  adj 1 (of goods) made of plastic(1b) (指物品)塑料的: a plastic cup, raincoat, spoon, toy, wrist-watch 塑料杯、 雨衣、 羹匙、 玩具、 手表 * fabric with a plastic coating 塑料涂层纤维织物 * a plastic bag, ie made from very thin soft plastic material 塑料袋. 2 (of materials or substances) easily shaped or moulded (指材料或物质)可塑的: Clay is a plastic substance. 黏土是可塑物质. * (fig 比喻) The mind of a young child is quite plastic. 儿童的思想很有可塑性. 3 of the art of modelling eg clay or wax 制造模型的艺术的(如用黏土或蜡等): the plastic arts, ie sculpture, ceramics, etc 制造模型的艺术.

  plasticity

  / pl5AstIsEtI; plAs`tIsEtI/ n [U] state or quality of being able to be moulded or shaped 可塑性.

  plastic bomb

  bomb that contains plastic explosive 塑料炸弹.

  plastic explosive

  explosive material that can easily be formed into different shapes or moulded around the object it is used to destroy 塑料炸药.

  plastic surgery

  repairing or replacing injured or damaged tissue on the surface of the body, eg after a person has been badly burned 整形外科.

  plasticine (also Plasticine)

  / 5plAstIsi:n; `plAstE9sin/ n [U] (propr 专利名 esp Brit) substance similar to clay but which does not harden like clay, used for modelling, esp by children 橡皮泥.

  plate

  / pleIt; plet/ n 1 [C] (a) (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) shallow (usu round) dish made usu of earthenware or china, from which food is served or eaten 盘子; 碟子: a `dinner, `meat, `soup, etc plate 餐盘、 肉盘、 汤盘 * paper/plastic `plates, eg at a picnic 纸[塑料]盘(如野餐用的). =>illus 见插图. (b) contents of this 一盘所盛之物: a plate of soup, stew, etc 一盘汤、 炖肉等. (c) similar dish, usu made of metal or wood, used to collect money from the congregation in church (教会的)捐款盘, 奉献盘: pass round the plate 传递捐献盘 * put £5 in the plate 把5英镑放入捐献盘中. 2 [U] (a) spoons, forks, dishes, bowls, etc made of gold or silver, esp for use at meals 金的或银的餐具: a fine piece of plate, ie one of these articles 一件精致的贵金属餐具. (b) dishes, bowls, chalices, etc made of gold or silver for use in church 教会的金的或银的圣餐具: The plate is kept in a locked cupboard. 圣餐具放在有锁的橱里. 3 [U] (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) metal other than silver or gold that has been covered with a thin coating of silver or gold 镀金或镀银的金属: electroplate, ie object(s) coated with a thin layer of metal 电镀物品 * gold/silver plate 镀金[镀银] * I thought the teapot was silver, but it's only plate. 我以为那把茶壶是银的, 原来只是电镀的. 4 [C] (a) thin flat sheet of metal, glass, etc (金属、 玻璃等的)薄板材: steel plates, eg used in shipbuilding 钢板(如造船用的). (b) (biology 生) thin flat piece of horn, bone, etc (骨质、 角质等的)盾片, 鳞片: The armadillo has a protective shell of bony plates. 犰狳有角质鳞片的护甲. 5 [C] (geology 地质) any of the large rigid sheets of rock that make up the earth's surface 板岩; 页岩: [attrib 作定语] plate tectonics, ie study of the structure and formation of the earth's surface through the movements of its plates 板块构造学. 6 [C] oblong piece of metal with sth stamped or engraved on it (印或刻有名号等的)金属牌: a brass `plate, eg on the door of a doctor, solicitor, etc with his name on it 黄铜牌(如医生、 律师等门上的名牌) * a `licence-/`number-plate, eg on a car 牌照[号码牌](如汽车上的). 7 [C] (a) sheet of metal, plastic, rubber, etc treated so that words or pictures can be printed from it (金属、 塑料、 橡胶等制的印刷用的)版, 印版. (b) (esp photographic) book illustration, esp one that is printed separately from the rest of the text 书籍插图(尤指照片版插页, 与正文分开印刷的): `colour plate 彩色插图. 8 [C, U] (in photography) sheet of (esp) glass coated with a film sensitive to light (照相用的)感光底片, (尤指)玻璃感光片: `whole-/`half-/`quarter-plate, ie the usual sizes 整张[半张/四分之一张]感光片. 9 (also `dental plate, denture) [C] thin piece of plastic material moulded to the shape of the gums or roof of the mouth for holding artificial teeth 托牙板. 10 [C] (a) silver or gold cup as a prize for a horse-race (作赛马奖品的)金杯, 银杯. (b) the race itself (以金杯或银杯作奖品的)赛马. 11 [C] (in baseball) home base of the batting side (棒球中的)本垒. 12 (idm 习语) hand/give sb sth on a `plate (infml 口) give sb sth or allow sb to obtain sth without any effort on his part 把某事物奉送某人; 让某人轻易获得某事物: You can't expect promotion to be handed to you on a plate. 晋升的事休想会给你送货上门. on one's `plate to occupy one's time or energy 花个人的时间或精力: have enough/a lot/too much on one's plate 有够多[很多/太多]的事要做 * I can't help you at the moment -- I've far too much on my plate already. 我现在无法帮助你--我自己的事已经太多了.

  plateful

  / -fUl; -9fJl/ n amount that a plate1(1a) holds 一盘的量: The child has eaten three platefuls of porridge! 这孩子已经喝了三盘粥了!

  plate glass

  very clear glass of fine quality made in thick sheets, used eg for doors, mirrors, shop windows, etc 厚玻璃板(如门、 镜子、 商店橱窗等用的): [attrib 作定语] a plate-glass window 厚玻璃板的窗户.

  plate-rack

  n rack in which food plates are stored or left to drain after being washed 餐具架(供储放或控乾餐具用的). =>illus at rack 见rack插图.

  plate

  / pleIt; plet/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ sth (with sth) cover (another metal) with a thin layer esp of gold or silver 镀(另一金属)(尤指镀金或镀银): a copper tray plated with silver 镀银的铜托盘 * gold-plated dishes 镀金餐碟 * silver-plated spoons 镀银羹匙. 2 [Tn] cover (esp a ship) with metal plates 给(尤指船)覆金属板.

  plateau

  / 5plAtEU; ?@ plA5tEU; plA`to/ n (pl ~s or -eaux / -tEUz; -`toz/) 1 large area of fairly level land high above sea-level 高原. Cf 参看 ridge 2. 2 state of little or no change following a period of rapid growth or development (迅速增长或发展後的)稳定状态: After a period of rapid inflation, prices have now reached a plateau. 经急剧通货膨胀之後物价现已趋於平稳.

  platelayer

  / 5pleItleIE(r); `plet9leL/ n (Brit) person whose job is to lay and repair railway tracks (铺设及维修钢轨的)路工.

  platelet

  / 5pleItlIt; `pletlIt/ n any of the numerous tiny discs in the blood that help it to clot 血小板.

  platform

  / 5plAtfR:m; `plAt9fRrm/ n 1 level surface raised above the surrounding ground or floor, esp one from which public speakers, performers, etc can be seen by their audience 台; 平台; (尤指)讲台, 舞台, 戏台: the concert platform, ie place where a pianist performs 钢琴演奏台 * Your questions will be answered from the platform. 你的问题将由台上的人作答. * appear on the same platform/share a platform with sb, ie make speeches, etc at the same public meeting 与某人在同一公众集会上发表演说. 2 (at a railway station) flat surface built next to and at a higher level than the track, where passengers get on and off trains (火车站的)站台, 月台: Which platform does the Brighton train leave from? 开往布赖顿市的火车在第几站台? * Your train is waiting at platform 5. 你要坐的那趟火车在第5站台. * He came running along the platform just as the train was leaving. 火车刚开就见他沿月台跑过来. 3 (Brit) floor area at the entrance to a bus where passengers get on and off (公共汽车供乘客上下车的)入口平台. 4 (politics 政) main policies and aims of a political party, esp as stated before an election; manifesto (政党的)纲领; (尤指选举前发表的)政纲; 宣言: fight the election/come to power on a platform of economic reform 以经济改革为政纲竞选[掌权].

  plating

  / 5pleItIN; `pletIN/ n [U] 1 thin covering of metal, esp silver or gold, on another metal 极薄的金属(尤指 金或银)的镀层或包层: The plating is beginning to wear off in places. 镀层有的地方已经磨掉了. 2 layer or covering esp of metal plates 层, 外层(尤指金属板): protected with steel plating 用钢板防护的.

  platinum

  / 5plAtInEm; `plAtnEm/ n [U] (chemistry 化) greyish-white metallic element that does not tarnish, used to make jewellery and, esp in alloys with other metals, in industry 铂; 白金: a sapphire in a platinum setting 白金托镶著的蓝宝石. =>App 10 见附录10.

  platinum blonde

  (infml 口) (woman) having hair that is very fair or silvery white (but not white with age) 有浅色或银白色头发的(女子)(非因年老所致).

  platitude

  / 5plAtItju:d; ?@ -tu:d; `plAtE9tud/ n [C] (fml derog 文, 贬) commonplace remark or statement, esp when it is said as if it were new or interesting 陈词滥调; (尤指当作新内容或津津乐道的)老调重弹: We shall have to listen to more platitudes about the dangers of overspending. 我们又得再听一通超支危害的陈词滥调了.

  platitudinous

  / 9plAtI5tju:dInEs; ?@ -5tu:dEnEs;9plAtE`tudnEs/ adj (fml derog 文, 贬) commonplace or banal 平凡的; 陈腐的; 乏味的: platitudinous remarks 老生常谈 * The whole speech was platitudinous nonsense. 整篇讲话都是陈谷子烂芝麻.

  platonic

  / plE5tCnIk; plE`tBnIk/ adj 1 Platonic of or concerning the Greek philosopher Plato or his teachings 柏拉图的; 柏拉图哲学的. 2 (of love or a friendship between two people) close and deep but not sexual (指两人的爱或友谊)亲密(但无性欲)的, 纯友谊的, 柏拉图式的: He said that his feelings for her were entirely platonic. 他说他对她的感情完全是友谊. * They'd had a close platonic relationship for more than thirty years. 他们之间的柏拉图式的亲密关系已有三十多年了.

  platoon

  / plE5tu:n; plE`tun/ n group of soldiers, a subdivision of a company, acting as a unit under the command of a lieutenant 排(军队中连的下一级).

  platter

  / 5plAtE(r); `plAtL/ n 1 (a) large shallow dish for serving food, esp meat or fish 大浅盘(尤指盛肉或鱼的). (b) (arch 古 Brit) flat dish usu made of wood (通常为木制的)盘, 碟. 2 (US infml 口) gramophone record 唱片.

  platypus

  / 5plAtIpEs; `plAtEpEs/ n (pl ~es) (also ,duck-billed `platypus) small Australian furred animalwith a duck-like beak, webbed feet and a flat tail, that lays eggs but gives milk to its young 鸭嘴兽(产於澳洲).

  plaudit

  / 5plR:dIt; `plRdIt/ n (usu pl 通常作复数) (fml 文) applause, praise or some other sign of approval 鼓掌; 喝采; 称赞: She won plaudits for the way she presented her case. 她妙语陈情博得众口交赞.

  plausible

  / 5plR:zEbl; `plRzEbl/ adj 1 (of a statement, an excuse, etc) seeming to be right or reasonable; believable (指陈述、 藉口等)似乎正确的, 似有道理的, 可信的: She could find no plausible explanation for its disappearance. 她无法解释清楚何以不翼而飞. * His story was/sounded perfectly plausible. 他的话[听起来]言之成理. 2 (derog 贬) (of a person) skilled in producing convincing arguments, esp in order to deceive (指人)能说会道的(尤指为行骗): a plausible trickster, rogue, liar, etc 花言巧语的骗子、 无赖、 说谎大王等 * She was so plausible she would have deceived anyone. 她鼓舌如簧--把谁都能骗倒. Cf 参看 implausible.

  plausibility

  / 9plR:zE5bIlEtI; 9plRzE`bIlEtI/ n [U] state of being plausible 似正确或有理; 可信; 能言善辩:the plausibility of her alibi 她申辩不在现场言之凿凿 * Beware of the plausibility of salesmen! 要警惕推销员的花言巧语!

  plausibly

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv: The case was presented very plausibly. 案情的申述似很可信. * He argued very plausibly for its acceptance. 他为使之认可辩解得头头是道.

  play

  / pleI; ple/ n 1 [U] activity done for amusement, esp by children; recreation 游戏, 玩耍(尤指儿童的); 娱乐: the happy sounds of children at play 儿童游戏时欢乐的声音 * the advantages of learning through play 寄学习於娱乐的优点 * His life is all work and no play. 他的生活是只知工作没有娱乐. 2 (sport 体) (a) [U] playing of a game 比赛; 竞赛; 运动: There was no play/Rain stopped play yesterday. 昨天没有[因雨停止]比赛. * The tennis players need total concentration during play. 网球运动员在比赛中需要全神贯注. (b) [U] manner of playing a game 比赛、 竞赛或运动的表现或作风: There was some excellent play in yesterday's match. 昨天的比赛有些出色的表现. * They were penalized for too much rough play. 他们因在比赛中过於粗野而受罚. (c) [C] (esp US) action or manoeuvre in a game 比赛中的动作或技巧: a good play 漂亮的动作 * a fine defensive/passing play 精彩的防守[传递]动作. 3 [C] work (written to be) performed by actors; drama 戏剧; 剧本: a radio play 电台广播剧 * a fine edition of Shakespeare's plays 莎士比亚戏剧集锦 * She has just written a new play. 她刚写完一部新剧. * act/take part in a play 在一剧中[参加一剧的]演出 * We are going to see the new play at the Playhouse. 我们要到大剧院看新剧. 4 [U] (scope for) free and easy movement 自由活动(的范围): Give the line more play, eg in fishing. 把线放松些(如钓鱼线). * a knot with too much play, ie one that is not tight enough 松的结(系得不紧的) * We need more play on the rope. 绳子要松些. 5 [U] activity; operation; interaction 活动; 作用; 相互的影响: the play of supernatural forces in human destiny 超自然的力量对人类命运的影响. 6 [U] light, quick, constantly shifting movement 轻的、 快的、 不断转换的动作: the play of sunlight on water 阳光在水面上的闪烁. 7 [U] taking part in card-games, or board games, roulette, etc when playing for money; gambling 赌博: lose 500 in one evening's play 一晚上赌博输掉500英镑. 8 [sing] turn or move in cards, chess, etc (纸牌、 下棋等游戏中)轮到的机会: It's your play, ie You are the next to make a move. 轮到你了. 9 (idm 习语) bring sth into `play cause sth to have an influence 使某事物发生作用或影响: This financial crisis has brought new factors into play. 这次金融危机引发新的因素起了作用. call sth into play => call2. child's play => child. come into `play (begin to) be active or have an influence (开始)积极活动或起作用: Personal feelings should not come into play when one has to make business decisions. 为公事作决策不应搀杂个人情感. fair play => fair1. give, etc free play/rein to sb/sth => free2. give sb/sth full play => full. in full play => full. in `play as a joke; not seriously 开玩笑地; 打趣地: The remark was only made in play. 那话只是说著玩的. in/out of `play (sport 体) (of the ball in football, cricket, etc) in/not in a position where the rules allow it to be played (指足球、 板球等的球)按规则处於可[不可]比赛状态中. make a play for sb/sth (esp US) perform actions that are designed to achieve a desired result 为得到意想的结果而采取行动: She was making a big play for the leadership of the party. 她千方百计要当党的领导. * He was making a play for the prettiest girl in the college. 他挖空心思想勾引那所学院中最漂亮的女生. a play on `words pun 双关语: The advertising slogan was a play on words. 那条广告口号是双关语. the state of play => state1.

  playlet

  / 5pleIlIt; `plelIt/ n short play1(3) 短剧.

  play-act

  v [I] make a show of feelings one does not really have; pretend 做作; 假装.

  play-acting

  n [U] (a) performing in a play1(3) 演戏. (b) pretence, esp of feelings 假装(尤指感情的).

  playbill

  n poster announcing the performance of a play1(3) 戏剧海报.

  playboy

  n rich (esp young) man who spends his time enjoying himself 寻欢作乐的男子(尤指年轻的); 花花公子.

  play-by-play

  n (US sport 体) detailed commentary on a game, broadcast as it happens (比赛的)实况详细述评.

  playfellow (also `playmate)

  n companion with whom (esp) a child plays 游戏伙伴(尤指儿童的).

  playgoer

  / -gEUE(r); -9^oL/ n person who (often) goes to the theatre (常)看戏的人.

  playground

  n (a) area of land where children play, eg as part of a school 游戏场, 运动场(如学校的操场). (b) (fig 比喻) area where people like to go on holiday 度假胜地: The island has become a playground for the rich businessmen of the city. 那个岛已成为城里富商的度假胜地.

  playgroup (also `playschool)

  n [CGp] group of children below school age who meet regularly and play together under the supervision of adults (学龄前的)幼儿学校. Cf 参看 nursery school (nursery).

  playhouse

  n 1 theatre 剧院. 2 (also `Wendy house) model of a house large enough for a child to play in 游戏房(儿童可进入的模型房子).

  play-pen

  n small portable enclosure with wooden bars or netting where a baby or small child can play 游戏围栏(供幼儿在其中玩耍的便携式围栏).

  play-room

  n room in a house for children to play in (家庭中的)儿童游戏室.

  plaything

  n (a) toy 玩具. (b) person treated as an unimportant object of amusement by sb else 被玩弄的人: She seemed content with her life as a rich man's plaything. 她似乎满足於做有钱男子的玩物.

  playtime

  n [C, U] (period of) time for recreation and relaxation, esp in school 游戏或娱乐的时间(尤指学校中的): The children have three playtimes during the day. 那些学生一天有三次游戏时间. * The children are outside during playtime. 在娱乐时间学生都在室外活动.

  playwright

  / 5pleIraIt; `ple9raIt/ n person who writes plays; dramatist 剧作家.

  play

  / pleI; ple/ v DOING THINGS FOR AMUSEMENT 玩耍 1 (a) [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (with sb/sth) do things for pleasure, as children do; enjoy oneself, rather than work 玩; 玩耍; 游戏: There's a time to work and a time to play. 有工作的时间, 也要有娱乐的时间. * play with a ball, toy, bicycle 玩球、 玩玩具、 骑自行车玩 * a little child playing with his friend 和小朋友一起玩耍的小男孩 * children playing for hours in the garden 在花园里玩了几小时的儿童. (b) [Ipr no passive 不用於被动语态, Tn no passive 不用於被动语态, Tg] ~ (at) sth/~ (at) doing sth (esp of children) pretend to be sth or do sth for amusement (尤指儿童)装扮, 假装: Let's play (at) (being) pirates. 咱们装海盗玩儿吧. * The children were playing at keeping shop. 孩子们假装开商店玩儿. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.n no passive 不用於被动语态] ~ sth (on sb) trick sb for amusement 开某人玩笑: play a joke/prank/trick (on sb) 开某人玩笑[对某人搞恶作剧/作弄某人] * They played me a rotten trick. 他们跟我开了一个很讨厌的玩笑. TAKING PART IN A GAME 参加比赛 3 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sth) (with/against sb); ~ sb (at sth) take part in a game; compete against sb in a game 参加比赛; 同某人比赛: play football, cricket, chess, cards, etc 踢足球、 打板球、 下国际象棋、 玩纸牌 * playing (darts) with one's friends 和朋友玩(掷镖游戏) * She plays (hockey) for England. 她在英格兰队打(曲棍球). * On Saturday France play(s) (Rugby) against Wales. 星期六法国(橄榄球)队和威尔士队比赛. * Have you played her (at tennis) yet? 你同她比赛过(网球)了吗? 4 [I, Tn] gamble at or on (sth) 赌(某事物); 在(某事物)中赌博: play at the roulette table 赌轮盘赌 * play the casinos 在娱乐场赌博 * play the stock-market, ie buy and sell shares, etc to make money 买卖股票. 5 (a) [Ipr, Tn] take (a particular position) in a team (在体育队中)担任(某角色): Who's playing in goal? 谁做守门员? * I've never played (as/at) centre-forward before. 我以前从未当过中锋. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.n/a] ~ sb (as sth) include sb in a team 让某人加入队中比赛: I think we should play Bill on the wing in the next match. 我认为下一场应当让比尔任边锋. * Who shall we play at/as centre-forward? 咱们派谁当中锋? 6 (a) [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] (in sport) (try to) strike, kick, throw, etc (the ball, etc), esp in the specified manner or direction (体育运动中)击, 踢, 掷, 投(球等)(尤指以某种方式或向某方向): She played (at the ball) and missed. 她击球未中. * In soccer, only the goal-keeper may play the ball with his hands. 在足球运动中只有守门员可以用手触球. * He played the ball onto his wicket, ie accidentally struck it so that it hit the wicket. 他把球打进了自己的三柱门. (b) [Tn] (in sport) make (a stroke, etc) (体育运动中)做出(某动作): play a fast backhand volley 作快速反手拦击. 7 [I] (of a sports pitch, etc) be in a certain condition for playing (指体育比赛场地等)处於某条件: a pitch that plays well, poorly, etc, ie allows the ball to move easily, slowly, etc 好用、 不好用等的场地. 8 [I, Tn] (a) move (a piece) in chess, etc 下, 移动(棋子等): She played her bishop. 她走了象. (b) put (a playing-card) face upwards on the table in a game of cards (纸牌游戏中)出牌: Have you played? 你出牌了吗? * Don't play out of turn! 别抢出牌! * play one's ace, a trump, etc 出A、 王牌等. PRODUCING MUSIC OR SOUND 演奏或放音 9 (a) [I, Ipr, Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ (sth) (on sth); ~ sth (to sb) perform on (a musical instrument); perform (music) 演奏(乐器或音乐): In the distance a band was playing. 远处一乐队在演奏. * play (the violin, flute, etc) (well) 演奏(小提琴、 笛子等)(演奏得优美) * play (a sonata) to an audience 给听众演奏(一奏鸣曲) * play a tune on a guitar 用吉他弹一曲调 * play sb a piece by Chopin 给某人演奏萧邦的一首乐曲. (b) [I] (of music) be performed (指音乐)演奏: I could hear music playing on the radio. 我听到收音机里演奏著音乐. 10 (a) [Tn, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (for sb) cause (a record, record-player, etc) to produce sound 用(唱片、 唱机等)播放: Can you play (me) her latest record? 给我放放她最新录制的唱片行吗? * Play that jazz tape for me, please. 请给我放那盘爵士乐录音带吧. (b) [I] (of a tape, record, etc) produce sound (指录音带、 唱片等)放音: There was a record playing in the next room. 隔壁房间里正在放唱片. ACTING 表演 11 (a) [Tn] act in (a drama, etc); act the role of (sb) 演(戏等); 扮演(某人)的角色: They're playing `Carmen' at the Coliseum. 他们在伦敦的大剧场上演《卡门》. * play (the part of) Ophelia 扮演奥菲莉娅(的角色). (b) [I, Ipr] ~ (to sb) (of a drama) beperformed (指戏剧)演出, 上演: a production of `Hamlet' playing to enthusiastic audiences 为热情的观众演出的《哈姆雷特》. 12 [La, Ln, Tn no passive 不用於被动语态] behave in a specified way; act as if one were (a particular type of person) 以某种方式表现; 装成(某种人): play dead, ie pretend to be dead in order to trick sb 装死(骗人) * play the politician, diplomat, etc 扮政治家、 外交家等 * play the fool, ie act foolishly 做蠢事 * play the sympathetic friend, the wronged wife, the busy tycoon, etc 装成有同情心的朋友、 受委屈的妻子、 忙碌的企业家等. OTHER MEANINGS 其他意义 13 (a) [Ipr] move quickly and lightly, esp often changing direction 快而轻地动(尤指常变换方向): sunlight playing on/over the surface of the lake 湖面上闪动的阳光 * (fig 比喻) A smile played on/about her lips. 她双唇露出一丝微笑. * His mind played on the idea of going away for a holiday. 他心里动著度假的念头. (b) [Tn.pr] direct (esp light or water) in a specified direction 将(尤指光或水)对准某处: play the torch beam over the walls 用电筒照墙的那一边 * The firemen played their hoses on the burning building. 消防队员用水龙喷射燃烧著的建筑物. * They played the searchlights along the road. 他们用探照灯照射那条路. (c) [I] (of fountains, etc) produce a steady stream of water (指喷泉等)持续喷水. 14 [Tn] allow (a fish) to exhaust itself by pulling against the line 让(鱼)拉钓线使之疲乏. 15 (idm 习语) what sb is playing at (usu expressing anger, irritation, etc 通常用以表示愤怒、 烦躁等) what sb is doing 某人在搞什麽名堂: I don't know `what he thinks he's `playing at. 我不知道他在搞什麽名堂. (For other idioms containing play, see entries for ns, adjs, etc 与play搭配的其他习语见有关名词、 形容词等的词条, 如 play fair => fair2; play the game => game1.) 16 (phr v) play a`bout/a`round (with sb/sth) act or handle sb/sth in a casual irresponsible way 玩弄某人; 摆弄或乱弄某物: Stop playing around and get on with the job. 别胡闹了, 接著做工作吧. * You shouldn't play around with (ie flirt with) another woman's husband. 你不应该和人家的丈夫厮混. * Don't play about with my expensive tools! 别乱摆弄我的昂贵的工具!

  play along (with sb/sth)

  pretend to co-operate 假装与某人合作; 假意参与某事: (infml 口) She was in charge, so I had to play along with her odd ideas. 她是负责人, 对她的怪念头我只好假意听从.

  play at sth/being sth

  do sth only casually, without true interest 应付事; 敷衍地做: He's only playing at his job in the city: he's much more interested in being a racing driver. 他对城里的工作只是敷衍而已, 一心想的是当赛 车手.

  play sth back (to sb)

  allow the material recorded on a tape, etc to be heard or seen 播放(已录制的录音带、 录像带等): I rewound the cassette and played her voice back to her. 我把录音带转回去, 把她的声音放给她听.

  play sth down

  try to make sth appear less important than it is 欲使某事物显得没有实际上那麽重要: The government are trying to play down their involvement in the affair. 政府极力淡化与该事的瓜葛.

  play sb in, out, etc

  play music as sb enters, leaves, etc (a place) 奏乐欢迎或欢送某人: The band played the performers onto the stage. 乐队奏乐欢迎演员登台. play oneself `in play slowly and cautiously at the beginning of a game (比赛开始时)缓慢而谨慎地进行.

  play (sth) off

  (of two teams, etc that have the same number of points, have drawn in an earlier match, etc) play the deciding match (两队得分相同或打成平局等时)作决赛: The match between the joint leaders will be played off tomorrow. 两优胜队明天决赛. play A off against B cause two people or groups to oppose each other, esp for one's own advantage 挑拨离间(尤指为渔利): She played her two rivals off against each other and got the job herself. 她挑拨两个对手相争, 自己却获得了那份工作.

  play on

  (sport 体) continue to play; start playing again 继续比赛; 恢复比赛: Some of the players claimed a penalty but the referee told them to play on. 有些队员认为应当判罚, 但裁判让他们继续比赛. play on sth rouse (sb's feelings, etc) for one's own purposes (为达到个人目的)激起(某人情感等): They played on his fears of losing his job to get him to do what they wanted. 他们利用他怕失掉工作的心理, 让他做他们想做的事. * Her speech played heavily on the angry mood of her audience. 她用演说激起听众的极大愤怒.

  play sth out

  perform or enact sth, esp in real life 演出或现出某事物(尤指在现实生活中): Their love affair was played out against the background of a country at war. 他们恋爱那时国家正进行著战争.

  play (sb) up

  (infml 口) cause (sb) problems, pain or difficulties 给(某人)带来麻烦、 痛苦或困难: My injured shoulder is playing (me) up today. 我受伤的肩膀今天很疼. * schoolchildren playing up their teacher, eg by being noisy 给老师惹麻烦的小学生(如很吵闹). play sth up ?btry to make sth appear more important than it is 欲使某事物显得比实际重要: She played up her past achievementsjust to impress us. 她夸耀过去的成绩就是为了让我们觉得她了不起. play up to sb (infml 口) flatter sb in order to win favour 讨好或奉承某人.

  play with oneself

  (euph 婉) masturbate 手淫.

  play with sb/sth

  = play about/around (with sb/sth). play with sth consider (an idea, etc) lightly; toy with sth 不认真地考虑(一主意等); 轻率对待某事物: She's playing with the idea of starting her own business. 她胡乱想著自己开业的事.

  play-back

  n [C, U] (device for) playing back recorded sound or pictures, eg on a video recorder 播放(录音或录像的装置)(如录像机的).

  played out

  adj (infml 口) exhausted; finished; no longer useful 衰竭; 结束; 失去作用: After a hard gallop, the horse was played out. 那马跑得精疲力竭. * Is this theory played out (ie no longer worth considering)? 这理论过时了吗?

  play-off

  n match between two players or teams that are level, to decide the winner (两队或队员打成平局後的)决胜比赛, 延长赛, 加赛.

  player

  / 5pleIE(r); `pleL/ n 1 person who plays a game 游戏者; 选手; 运动员: a game for four players 四人玩的游戏 * She's an excellent `tennis player. 她是优秀的网球选手. * Two players were injured during the match. 有两名运动员在比赛中受伤. 2 actor 演员. 3 person who plays a musical instrument 演奏者: a `trumpet player 吹奏小号的人. 4 = record-player (record1).

  player-piano

  n piano fitted with a mechanism that allows it to be played automatically 自动钢琴(有自动演奏装置的).

  playful

  / 5pleIfl; `plefEl/ adj 1 fond of playing; full of fun 爱玩的; 爱游戏的; 有趣的: as playful as a kitten 像小猫一样顽皮 * a playful mood 快活的心情. 2 done in fun; not serious 闹著玩的; 取乐的: a playful slap on the hand 闹著玩打一下手 * playful remarks 开玩笑的话.

  playfully

  / -fElI; -flI/ adv.

  playfulness

  n [U].

  playing-card

  / 5pleIIN kB:d; `pleIN9kBrd/ (also card) n any of a set of 52 oblong cards, used for various games (eg bridge, canasta, poker) 纸牌; 扑克牌: a pack of playing-cards 一副纸牌.

  playing-field

  / 5pleIIN fi:ld; `pleIN9fild/ n (sport 体) (a) field with special markings, used for cricket, football, hockey, etc (板球、 足球、 曲棍球等的)球场, 操场, 运动场. (b) = playground (play1).

  plaza

  / 5plB:zE; ?@ 5plAzE; `plAzE/ n 1 open square or market-place (esp in a Spanish town) 广场, 集市(尤指西班牙城镇中的). 2 (esp US) shopping centre 购物中心.

  PLC (also plc)

  / 9pi: el 5si:; 9pi Zl `si/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) Public Limited (ie limited liability) Company 股份公开有限公司: Lloyd's Bank PLC 劳埃德银行(亦译劳合银行). Cf 参看 Inc, Ltd.

  plea

  / pli:; pli/ n 1 (fml 文) ~ (for sth) earnest request; appeal 恳求; 请求: a plea for forgiveness, money, more time 恳求原谅、 给予金钱、 多给些时间 * He was deaf to (ie refused to listen to) her pleas. 他对她的请求充耳不闻. 2 (law 律) statement made by or for a person charged with an offence in court (法庭中被告一方的)抗辩, 答辩, 辩护: enter a plea of guilty/not guilty 承认有罪[不承认有罪]. 3 (idm 习语) on the plea of sth/that... (fml 文) giving sth as the reason or excuse for not doing sth or for having done sth wrong (为未做某事或做错某事而作的)辩解, 托词, 藉口: withdraw on the plea of ill health 藉口健康不佳而退出 * He refused to contribute, on the plea that he couldn't afford it. 他藉口无能为力拒不捐献.

  pleach

  / pli:tF; plitF/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] make or repair (a hedge) by weaving branches together 用枝条编筑或修理(篱笆): pleached hedges 用枝条编的篱笆.

  plead

  / pli:d; plid/ v (pt, pp pleaded; US pled / pled; plZd/) 1 [Ipr, It] ~ (with sb) (for sth) make repeated urgent requests (to sb) (for sth) 再三恳求或请求(某人)(做某事): plead for mercy 祈求发慈悲 * He pleaded with his parents for a more understanding attitude. 他求父母多加谅解. * She pleaded with him not to leave her alone. 她恳求他不要留下她一个人. * The boy pleaded to be allowed to ride on the tractor. 那男孩请求让他坐坐拖拉机. 2 [Tn] offer (sth) as an explanation or excuse, esp for failing to do sth or for doing sth wrong 提出(理由或藉口)(尤指因未做某事或做错某事): They asked him to pay for the damage but he pleaded poverty. 他们要他付损害赔偿金, 但他藉口贫穷而不偿还. * He apologized for not coming to the party, pleading pressure of work. 他为不能到会而道歉, 推说是工作太忙. * Pleading ignorance of the law won't help you if you are caught. 假若因犯法被抓住, 藉口不知是犯法亦无济於事. 3 [Ipr] ~ for/against sb (law 律) (of a lawyer) speak to a lawcourt (on behalf of the plaintiff/defendant)(指律师)(在法庭上为原告[被告])提出申诉、 答辩或辩护. 4 [Tn] (law 律) present (a case) to a court of law 向法庭陈述(案情): They employed the best lawyer they could get to plead their case. 他们聘请了能请到的最好的律师为他们陈述案情. 5 [Tn] (law 律) put (sth) forward as the basis of a case in a court of law (on behalf of sb) (代表某人)向法庭提出(某事)(作为案件的基础): Counsel for the accused said that he intended to plead insanity, ie that his client was insane and therefore not responsible for his actions. 被告的律师说他想提出 案发时被告精神失常这一理由, 为被告不需负法律责任进行辩护. * plead guilty/not guilty, ie declare that one is guilty/not guilty of the crime one has been accused of 承认有罪[不承认有罪]. 6 [Ipr, Tn] ~ (for) sth argue in support of sth; support (a cause) by argument 极力主张; 以辩论支持(某事业): plead the cause of politicalprisoners 声援政治犯的事业 * plead for the modernizationof the city's public transport 力主城市公共交通现代化.

  pleadingly

  adv in a begging or an imploring manner 恳求地; 乞求地.

  pleadings

  n [pl] (law 律) formal (usu written) statements, replies to accusations, etc made by each side in a legal action (原告的)诉状; (被告的)答辩状.

  pleasant

  / 5pleznt; `plZznt/ adj (-er, -est) (a) ~ (to sth) giving pleasure to the mind, feelings or senses; enjoyable 使人愉快的; 合意的; 可喜的: a pleasant surprise, smell, wine 惊喜、 令人舒服的气味、 可口的葡萄酒 * a pleasant breeze, temperature, climate 宜人的微风、 温度、 气候 * pleasant to the taste 可口的. (b) ~ (to sb) polite and friendly 礼貌而友好的: a pleasant smile, voice, manner 友好的微笑、 声音、 举止 * make oneself pleasant to visitors 亲切和蔼地待客 * What a pleasant girl! 多麽讨人喜欢的姑娘啊! * Do try to be more pleasant! 尽量亲切友好一些!

  pleasantly

  adv: smile pleasantly 亲切地微笑 * We were pleasantly surprised at the profit we made. 我们获得了利润而惊喜交加.

  pleasantness

  n [U].

  pleasantry

  / 5plezntrI; `plZzntrI/ n (fml 文) (a) humorous remark; joke 幽默的话; 笑话: The children smiled politely at the visitor's pleasantries. 孩子听了客人说的幽默话, 都斯文地笑了. (b) polite remarks 有礼貌的话; 客气话: After an exchange of pleasantries, the leaders started their negotiations. 领导人互相寒暄一番, 然後开始谈判.

  please

  / pli:z; pliz/ v 1 [Tn] be agreeable to (sb); make (sb) happy 使(某人)满意或愉快: It's difficult to please everybody. 很难做到人人满意. * Our main aim is to please the customers. 我们的目的是让顾客满意. * He's a very hard/difficult man to please. 他是个很难让人讨好的人. * I shall have nothing to do on holiday but please myself, ie do as I like. 我在假日只图快乐, 别的什麽事都不做. 2 [I] (in subordinate clauses beginning with as or what 用於以as或what开头的从句中) (fml 文) (a) think desirable or appropriate; choose 认为满意或合适; 愿意: You may stay as long as you please. 你爱呆多久就呆多久. * Take as many as you please. 你要拿多少就拿多少. (b) want; like 想要; 喜欢: That child behaves just as he pleases. 那孩子想干什麽就干什麽. * I shall do as I please. 我喜欢怎麽做就怎麽做. * Do what you please. 你想做什麽都行. 3 (idm 习语) ,if you `please (a) (fml 文) (used when making a polite request 用於客气的请求): Come this way, if you please. 请您这边走. (b) (used to express annoyance or outrage when reporting sth 用於转述某事时表示恼怒或愤恨): And now, if you please, I've been told I'm to get nothing for my work! 嘿, 真岂有此理, 听说我是白干工作毫无报酬! * He says the food isn't hot enough, if you please! 他竟然说吃的东西不够热, 你听听这话! ,please `God may God let it happen; if it is pleasing to God 但愿上帝让它实现; 若天意如愿: Please God, things will start to improve soon. 但愿事情很快开始好转. * She'll get better one day, please God. 她总有一天会好起来的, 愿上帝开恩. ,please your`self (ironic 反语) do as you like; I don't care what you do 请便; 我才不在乎你做什麽呢: `I don't want to come with you today. ' `Oh, please yourself then!' `我今天不想和你一起去.'`哦, 请便吧!'

  please

  interj 1 (a) (used as a polite way of making a request or giving an order 用於客气的请求或吩咐): Please come in. 请进. * Come in, please. 请进. * Two cups of tea, please. 请来两杯茶. * Tickets, please! 请把票拿出来! * Would you go now, please! 请您现在走吧! (b) (used to add emphasis or urgency to a request or statement 用以加强请求或陈述的语气或迫切性): Please don't leave me here alone! 请别把我一个人留在这里! * Please, please, don't be late! 可千万别迟到! * Please, I don't understand what I have to do! 真是的, 我不明白该做什麽好! 2 (infml 口) (used when accepting an offer emphatically 在接受别人好意时用以加强语气) yes, please 那太好了: `Shall I help you carry that load?' `Please!' `我帮你拿那个重东西好吗?'`那太好了!' 3 (idm 习语) yes, please (used as a polite way of accepting the offer of sth 用作接受好意时的客气话) I accept and am grateful 我接受并且感谢: `Would you like some coffee?' `Yes, please. ' `你要点咖啡吗?'`好的, 谢谢.' * `Would you like a lift into town?' `Yes, please. ' `你愿意顺便坐我的汽车去伦敦吗?'`好哇, 谢谢你.

  pleased

  adj 1 ~ (with sb/sth) feeling or showing satisfaction or pleasure (with sb/sth) (对某人[某事物])欣喜的, 满意的, 高兴的, 愉快的: Your mother will be very pleased with you. 你母亲将对你十分满意. * They were all very pleased with the news. 他们听到那消息都很高兴. * Are you pleased with the new flat? 你对这套新公寓满意吗? * He looks rather pleased with himself, ie pleased with what he has done. 他看起来对自己做的事颇为得意. 2 ~ to do sth happy to do sth 乐意做某事: I was very pleased to be able to help. 我能够帮上忙感到很高兴. * We were pleased to hear the news. 我们听到那消息非常高兴. * (fml 文) The Governor is pleased to accept the invitation. 总督欣然接受邀请. 3 (idm 习语) (as) ,pleased as `Punch very pleased 非常快乐.

  pleasing

  adj ~ (to sb/sth) giving pleasure (to sb/sth); pleasant 使人愉快的; 合意的; 可爱的: a pleasing colour scheme, singing voice 协调的颜色、 悦耳的歌喉 * The news was very pleasing to us. 那消息使我们非常愉快. * sounds that are pleasing to the ear 悦耳的声音. pleasingly adv: everything pleasingly arranged for the guests 为客人安排得称心如意的一切.

  pleasure

  / 5pleVE(r); `plZVL/ n 1 (a) [U] state or feeling of being happy or satisfied 愉快; 快乐; 高兴; 满足: a work of art that has given pleasure to millions of people 给上百万人带来乐趣的艺术品 * It gives me great pleasure to welcome our speaker. 我很高兴去迎接我们的演讲人. * Has she gone to Paris on business or for pleasure (ie for work or for fun)? 她到巴黎是办公事还是游玩去了? (b) [C] thing that gives happiness or satisfaction 乐事; 快事: the pleasures of living in the country 乡居的乐趣 * She has few pleasures left in life. 她生活中已没有什麽乐趣了. * It's been a pleasure meeting you. 认识你是十分高兴的事. * `Thank you for doing that!' `It's a pleasure. ' `多谢你做了那件事!'`不客气.' * Remembering the past was his only pleasure. 他唯一的乐趣是回忆往事. 2 [U] sensual enjoyment 感官的享受; 声色之乐; 肉体之乐(常指肉欲): His life is spent in the pursuit of pleasure. 他一生都在寻欢作乐. 3 [U] (fml 文) what a person wants; desire 意愿; 愿望: We await your pleasure. 我们听您的意思. * You are free to come and go at your pleasure, ie as you wish. 来去自由, 悉听尊便. * Is it your pleasure that I cancel the arrangements? 您的意思是否要我取消这些安排? 4 (idm 习语) have the pleasure of sth/doing sth (used to make polite requests, issue invitations, etc 用於客气的请求、 邀请等): May I have the pleasure of this dance? 我可以邀请您跳这个舞吗? * (fml or joc 文或谑) Are we to have the pleasure of seeing you again? 我们是不是有福气再见到你? take (no/great) pleasure in sth/doing sth enjoy/not enjoy (doing) sth 以[不以](做)某事为乐; 喜欢[不喜欢](做)某事: She seemed to take pleasure in our suffering. 她似乎对我们的痛苦幸灾乐祸. * They take great pleasure in reminding us of our poverty. 他们特别喜欢向我们提到我们穷. * She took no pleasure in her work. 她觉得自己的工作毫无乐趣.with `pleasure one is pleased to accept, agree, etc 愉快地接受、 同意等: `Will you join us?' `Thank you, with pleasure.' `你愿意和我们在一起吗?'`谢谢, 非常愿意.' * `May I borrow your car?' `Yes, with pleasure. ' `我可以借用你的汽车吗?'`可以, 很愿意借给你.'

  pleasurable

  / 5pleVErEbl; `plZVErEbl/ adj givingpleasure; enjoyable 令人愉快的; 使人快乐的: a pleasurablesensation 快感 * pleasurable companionship 令人愉快的友谊.

  pleasurably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv.

  pleasure-boat

  n boat used for pleasure only 游艇.

  pleasure-craft

  n (pl unchanged 复数不变) boat used for pleasure only 游艇: Fishing boats and pleasure-craft followed the great liner into the harbour. 渔船和游艇跟随著大型班轮进入了港口.

  pleasure-ground

  n area used for public amusement or recreation 游乐场; 娱乐场.

  pleasure-seeking

  adj devoted to pleasure(2) 寻欢作乐的.

  pleat

  / pli:t; plit/ n pressed or stitched fold made in a piece of cloth (布料上压的或缝的)褶: a shirt with pleats in the front 前面有褶的衬衫.

  pleat

  v [Tn] make pleats in (sth) 在(某物)上打褶: pleat a skirt 在裙子上打褶 * pleated curtains 有褶的帘.

  pleb

  / pleb; plZb/ n (infml derog 口, 贬) 1 [C] = plebeian. 2 the plebs [pl] the masses 群众; 百姓.

  plebeian

  / plI5bi:En; plI`biEn/ adj 1 (fml or derog 文或贬) of the lower social classes 下层社会的; 平民的: of plebeian origins 平民出身的. 2 (derog 贬) lacking refinement; vulgar 平庸的; 粗俗的: plebeian tastes 庸俗的趣味.

  plebeian (also pleb)

  n (derog 贬) person belonging to the lower social classes (esp in ancient Rome) 下层人; (尤指古罗马时的)平民, 庶民. Cf 参看 patrician.

  plebiscite

  / 5plebIsIt; ?@ -saIt; `plZbE9saIt/ n (politics 政) (decision made by a) direct vote by all qualified citizens on an important political matter 公民投票(的表决): A plebiscite was held to decide the fate of the country. 举行了公民投票以决定国家的命运. * The question of which state the minority group should belong to was decided by (a) plebiscite. 该少数民族应归属哪一州的问题已由公民投票表决. Cf 参看 referendum.

  plectrum

  / 5plektrEm; `plZktrEm/ n (pl -tra / -trE; -trE/) (music 音) small piece of metal, wood, plastic or bone that is attached to the finger and used for plucking the strings of certain musical instruments, eg the guitar, mandolin, etc (戴在手指上弹奏弦乐器用的)拨子, 琴拨.

  pled

  pt, pp of plead.

  pledge

  / pledV; plZdV/ n 1 solemn promise; vow 誓言; 誓约; 保证: give a pledge never to reveal the secret 保证决不泄密. 2 (a) thing left with a person to be kept until the giver has done sth promised, eg paid a debt 保证物(如为还债的). (b) article left with a pawnbroker in exchange for sth, esp money 典当物. 3 thing given to sb as a sign of friendship, love, etc (表示友情、 爱情等的)信物, 象徵物: gifts exchanged as a pledge of friendship 交换的象徵友谊的礼物. 4 (idm 习语) in/out of pledge left with sb until the giver has paid a debt, etc/no longer left on these conditions 在抵押中[已不在抵押中]: put/hold sth in pledge 以[收下]某物作抵押 * take sth out of pledge 赎回抵押的某物. sign/take the `pledge (esp joc 尤作戏谑语) make a solemn promise never to drink alcohol 发誓戒酒. under pledge of sth in the state of having agreed to or promised sth 在誓约或承诺某事的约束下: You are under pledge of secrecy. 你已发过誓要保密.

  pledge

  v 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.n, Dn.t] ~ sth (to sb/sth) (fml 文) promise solemnly to give (support,etc); give (one's word, honour, etc) as a pledge 保证给予(支持等); 以(誓言、 名誉等)作担保: pledge allegiance(ie loyalty) to the king 发誓效忠国王 * pledge a donation (to a charity) 承诺(向慈善机构)捐献 * be pledged to secrecy/to keeping a secret 誓守秘密. (b)[Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.t] ~ sb/oneself (to sth/to do sth) promise solemnly that sb/one will do sth or support a cause, etc保证某人[自己]做某事或支持某事业等: The Government has pledged itself to send aid to the famine victims. 政府已承诺赈济饥民. 2 [Tn] leave (sth) with sb as a pledge (2b) 典当(某物): He's pledged (ie pawned) his mother's wedding ring. 他把母亲的结婚戒指典当了. 3 [Tn] (fml 文) drink to the health of (sb); toast (sb) 为(某人)的健康祝酒; 向(某人)祝酒: pledge the bride and bridegroom 向新娘和新郎祝酒.

  Pleistocene

  / 5plaIstEsi:n; `plaIstE9sin/ adj (geology 地质) of the epoch in the earth's history that started about a million years ago and lasted for about 800000 years, when glaciers covered most of the northern hemisphere 更新世的.

  the Pleistocene

  n the Pleistocene epoch 更新世.

  plenary

  / 5pli:nErI; `plinErI/ adj 1 (of meetings, etc) attended by all who have the right to attend (指会议等)全体出席的: a plenary session of the assembly 大会的全体会议. 2 (of powers, authority, etc) without limits; absolute (指权力、 权威等)无限的, 绝对的, 全权的: assume plenary authority 掌握绝对权威.

  plenipotentiary

  / 9plenIpE5tenFErI; 9plZnEpE`tZnFErI/ n person (esp an ambassador) with full powers to act on behalf of his government (esp in a foreign country) (代表政府的)全权代表(尤指在外国); (尤指)全权大使.

  plenipotentiary

  adj of or like a plenipotentiary (似)全权代表的, 全权大使的: The minister was given plenipotentiary powers in the trade negotiations. 该部长获有全权进行贸易谈判.

  plenteous

  / 5plentIEs; `plZntIEs/ adj (fml 文) plentiful 大量的; 丰富的.

  plenteously

  adv.

  plentiful

  / 5plentIfl; `plZntIfEl/ adj in large quantities ornumbers; abundant 大量的; 丰富的: find plentiful supplies of fresh fruit and vegetables 得到大量新鲜水果和蔬菜的供应 * Eggs are plentiful at the moment. 现在鸡蛋很多. Cf 参看 scarce.

  plentifully

  / -fElI; -flI/ adv: The visitors were plentifully supplied with food and drink. 给来宾准备了丰富的食物和饮料.

  plenty

  / 5plentI; `plZntI/ pron 1 number or amount that is sufficient for sb or more than sb needs 充裕; 大量: plenty of eggs, money, time 很多的鸡蛋、 金钱、 时间 * `Do you need more milk?' `No thanks, there's plenty in the fridge. ' `你还要牛奶吗?'`不要, 谢谢. 冰箱里还有很多呢.' * `Have we got enough plates?' `Yes, there are plenty in the cupboard. ' `咱们的盘子够用吗?'`够, 碗橱里有很多.' * They always gave us plenty to eat. 他们总是给我们很多东西吃. 2 (idm 习语) days, years, etc of `plenty (fml or rhet 文或修辞) time when very many necessities, esp food and money, are available 富裕(尤指食物和钱)的日子、 年月: looking back on the years of plenty 回顾富足的年月. in `plenty (fml 文) in a large quantity; in abundance 大量; 丰富; 充裕: food and drink in plenty 大量的食物和饮料. > plenty adv 1 (used with more to indicate an excess 与more连用表示超过的量): We've got plenty more (of it/them) in the shop. 我们店里还有很多(那种货物). * There's plenty more paper if you need it. 你需要纸的话, 有的是. 2 (infml 口) (used with big, long, tall, etc followed by enough 与big long tall等连用, 後接enough): The rope was plenty long enough to reach the ground. 绳子长可及地.

  pleonasm

  / 5plIEnzEm; `pliE9nAzEm/ n (a) [U] use of more words than are necessary to express the meaning 冗笔, 赘述(的运用). (b) [C] instance of this 冗笔; 赘述: `Hear with one's ears' and `divide into four quarters' are pleonasms. `用耳朵听'和`分成四个四分之一'是赘述. Cf 参看 tautology.

  pleonastic

  / 9plIE5nstIk;9pliE`nAstIk/ adj.

  plethora

  / 5pleWErE; `plZWErE/ n [sing] (fml 文) quantity greater than what is needed; over-abundance 过量; 过剩: The report contained a plethora of detail. 报告中细节过多.

  pleurisy

  / 5plUErEsI; `plJrEsI/ n [U] (medical 医) serious illness, with inflammation of the delicate membrane of the thorax and the lungs, causing severe pain in the chest or sides 胸膜炎.

  plexus

  / 5pleksEs; `plZksEs/ n (pl unchanged or ~es 复数或不变或作 plexuses) (anatomy 解) network of fibres or vessels in the body (纤维或血管的)丛: the solar plexus, ie the network of nerves in the abdomen 太阳神经丛(腹腔丛).

  pliable

  / 5plaIEbl; `plaIEbl/ adj 1 easily bent, shaped or twisted; flexible 易弯的; 可塑的; 可扭曲的; 柔韧的: Cane is pliable when wet. 藤条潮湿时易弯曲. 2 (of a person or a person's mind) easily influenced (指人或思想)易受影响的: the pliable minds of children 儿童容易受影响的头脑.

  pliability

  / 9plaIE5bIlEtI; 9plaIE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  pliant

  / 5plaIEnt; `plaIEnt/ adj 1 bending easily; supple 易弯的; 柔韧的: the pliant branches of young trees 小树柔软的枝条. 2 adapting easily; yielding 易适应的; 顺从的.

  pliancy

  / 5plaIEnsI; `plaIEnsI/ n [U].

  pliantly

  adv.

  pliers

  / 5plaIEz; `plaILz/ n [pl] tool with long jaws which have flat surfaces that can be brought together for holding, bending, twisting or cutting wire, etc 钳子; 老虎钳: a pair of pliers 一把钳子.

  plight

  / plaIt; plaIt/ n [sing] serious and difficult situation or condition 严重和困难的境况; 困境; 苦境: the plight of the homeless 无家可归的人的苦境 * The crew were in a sorry plight by the time they reached shore. 船员们抵达岸边时境况已十分悲惨. * I was in a dreadful plight I had lost my money and missed the last train home. 我身陷困境--钱丢了, 又没赶上回家的末班火车.

  plight

  / plaIt; plaIt/ v (idm 习语) plight one's `troth (arch 古) make a promise to marry sb 订婚.

  plimsoll

  / 5plImsEl; `plImsl/ (also pump) n (Brit) (US sneaker) rubber-soled canvas sports shoe; gym-shoe 橡皮底帆布鞋: a pair of plimsolls 一双体操鞋.

  Plimsoll line

  / 5plImsEl laIn; `plImsEl 9laIn/ (also `Plimsoll mark / mB:k; 9mBrk/) line marked on a ship's side to show how far it may legally go down in the water when loaded (船的)载货吃水线.

  plinth

  / plInW; plInW/ n square block or slab on which a column or statue stands (柱或雕像的)底座, 基底. =>illus at column 见column插图.

  Pliocene

  / 5plaIEUsi:n; `plaIo9sin/ adj (geology 地质) of the last epoch of the Tertiary period in the earth's history (when many modern mammals appeared) 上新世的.

  the Pliocene

  n the Pliocene epoch 上新世.

  plod

  / plCd; plBd/ v (-dd-) 1 [I, Ipr, Ip] ~ (along/on) walk with heavy steps or with difficulty; trudge 迈著沉重的脚步行走; 艰难地行走: Labourers plodded home through the muddy fields. 工人们穿过泥泞的田地吃力地走回家去. * (fig 比喻) We plodded on through the rain for several hours. 我们在雨中跋涉了几小时. =>Usage at stump 用法见stump. 2 (phr v) plod along move slowly (at some task) 缓慢地进行(某工作): `How's the book?' `Oh, I'm plodding along. ' `那本书怎麽样?'`哦, 我正在磨蹭呢.' plod away (at sth) work steadily but slowly (and with difficulty) 持续而缓慢地(并艰难地)工作: He plodded away all night at the accounts but didn't finish them in time. 他彻夜不眠地清理帐目, 却未能按时完成.

  plodder

  n (usu derog 通常作贬义) person who works slowly and with determination, but without inspiration 不动脑筋慢慢苦干的人.

  plodding

  adj.

  ploddingly

  adv.

  plonk

  / plCNk; plBNk/ (also plunk / plQNk; plQNk/) n (usu sing 通常作单数) (infml 口) sound (as) of sth dropping heavily (似)物体沉重坠落的声音; 砰的一声: to hear a plonk 听到砰的一声.

  plonk

  adv (infml 口) with a plonk 砰的一声: The lamp fell plonk on the table. 台灯砰的一声倒在桌上了.

  plonk

  v (phr v) plonk sth down; plonk sth (down) on sth (infml 口) drop sth or put sth down heavily or with a plonking sound 扔下某物; 重重放下某物(并发出砰的声音): He plonked the groceries on the kitchen floor. 他把买的食物杂货砰的一声扔到厨房的地板上了. * (fig 比喻) We plonked ourselves (down) by the fire. 我们猛地一下子坐在了炉火旁.

  plonk

  / plCNk; plBNk/ n [U] (infml 口 esp Brit) cheap wine of poor quality (劣质的)便宜的酒.

  plop

  / plCp; plBp/ n (usu sing 通常作单数) sound (as) of a smooth object dropping into water without making a splash (光滑物体落入水中而不溅泼的)落水声, 扑通声: He dropped a pebble from the bridge and waited for the plop. 他从桥上扔下一颗卵石, 然後等著听那扑通的一声.

  plop

  adv with a plop 扑通一声: The stone fell plop into the water. 那石头扑通一声落入水中.

  plop

  v (-pp-) 1 [I] make a plop 发出落水声; 发出扑通声: Did you hear it plop? 你听到它落入水中的声音了吗? 2 [Ipr, Ip] fall with a plop 扑通一声落下: The jelly plopped into the dish. 果冻噗的一声落到碟里. * The fish plopped back into the river. 那鱼扑通一声跃回河中.

  plosive

  / 5plEUsIv; `plosIv/ n, adj (phonetics 语音) (consonant sound) made by closing the air passage and then audibly releasing the air, eg /t/ and /p/ in top 爆破音(的)(如 top 中的 /t/ 和 /p/).

  plot

  / plCt; plBt/ n small marked or measured piece of land, esp for a special purpose (有标记的或测量出的)小块土地(尤指有某用途的): a building plot 一块建筑用地 * a vegetable plot 一块菜地 * a small plot of land 一小块地皮.

  plot

  v (-tt-) 1 [Tn] (a) make a plan or map of (sth) 绘制(某事物)的图: plot an escape route 画出逃跑路线. (b) mark (sth) on a chart or diagram (在图表上)标绘(某物): plot the ship's course 标绘该船的航线. (c) make(a curve, etc) by connecting points on a graph (在图上连接标定的点)绘制(曲线等): plot a temperature curve 绘制温度曲线图. 2 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (out) divide sth into plots 将(某大片土地)分成小块.

  plot

  / plCt; plBt/ n 1 (plan or outline of the) events in the story of a play or novel (戏剧或小说的)故事情节(的构思或布局): a neatly worked-out plot 丝丝入扣的故事情节 * The plot was too complicated for me I couldn't follow it. 我觉得情节太复杂--我看不明白. 2 secret plan made by several people to do sth; conspiracy (几人的)密谋, 阴谋: a plot to overthrow the government 推翻政府的阴谋 * The plot was discovered in time. 那阴谋已被及时揭露. 3 (idm 习语) hatch a plot => hatch. the plot `thickens (catchphrase 警语) a situation in real life, or the plot of a work of fiction, is suddenly more complicated or intriguing 现实生活中的情况或小说中的情节, 突然复杂起来或更引人注意了.

  plot

  v (-tt-) (a) [I, Ipr, Ip, It] ~ (with sb) (against sb); ~ (together) make a secret plan (to do sth); take part in a plot 密谋(做某事); 参与阴谋: plot with others against the State 伙同他人阴谋反对政府 * plot (together) to do sth (一起)密谋做某事. (b) [Tn] plan (sth) with others 与他人谋画(某事): They were plotting the overthrow of the government. 他们正在策画推翻政府. plotter n person who plots; conspirator 密谋策画者; 搞阴谋的人.

  plough (US plow)

  / plaU; plaJ/ n 1 (a) [C] implement with a curved blade, used for digging furrows in the soil, esp before seeds are planted, pulled by animals or by a tractor  . (b) (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) implement resembling this 似 的工具: a `snow-plough, ie one for clearing snow from roads and railways 雪 (清除路面或铁道积雪的). 2 the Plough [sing] (also Charles's Wain) (Brit) (US also the Big Dipper) (astronomy 天) group of the seven brightest stars in the constellation of the Great Bear, visible only from the Northern hemisphere 北斗七星. 3 [U] land that has been ploughed  过的地; 耕地: 100 acres of plough 100英亩耕地. 4 (idm 习语) under the `plough (of land) used for growing grain and not for pasture (指土地)用於种庄稼的(非牧用的).

  plough (US plow)

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) break up the surface of (land) with a plough 犁(地); 耕(地): plough a field 耕田 * The meadow's been ploughed up. 那片草地已用 翻过. 2 [I, Tn] (dated Brit sl 旧, 俚) (cause sb to) fail (an examination) (使某人)考(试)不及格: I ploughed my finals. 我期末考试不及格. * The examiners ploughed half the candidates. 主考人员刷掉了一半应试者. 3 (idm 习语) plough a lonely `furrow work without help or support 孤独无援地工作. 4 (phr v) plough sth back (a) put (a crop or grass) back in the soil by ploughing in order to enrich the soil 将(作物或草)犁入土中作肥料. (b) (fig 比喻) re-invest (profits) in the business that produced them 将(利润)作为资本再投资於原企业中. plough into sth/sb crash violently into sth/sb 猛力撞某物[某人]: The car went out of control and ploughed into the side of a bus. 那汽车失控拦腰撞上了一辆公共汽车. plough (one's way) through sth (a) force a way through sth 费力穿过某处: plough one's way through the mud 在泥泞中艰难跋涉 * The ship ploughed through the waves. 那轮船破浪前进. (b) make progress slowly or with difficulty through sth 缓慢或费力地在某方面取得进展: plough through legal text books, a pile of documents, mountains of work, etc 吃力地钻研法律教科书、 缓慢地阅读一堆文件、 费力地处理堆积如山的工作.

  ploughman (US plowman)

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (-men /-mEn; -mEn/) man who guides a plough(1a), esp one pulled by animals 把犁人(尤指用力畜拉的犁). ,ploughman's `lunch (Brit) meal of bread, cheese and pickles, often served with beer in a pub 农夫午餐(有面包、 乾酪、 泡菜, 常有啤酒, 多在小酒店中供应).

  ploughshare (US plowshare) (also share)

  n broad blade of a plough(1a) 犁铧; 铧. =>illus 见插图.

  plover

  / 5plQvE(r); `plQvL/ n any of various types of long-legged short-tailed land bird that live on marshy ground near the sea 行鸟(腿长、 尾短, 栖於近海的沼泽地). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page v.

  ploy

  / plRI; plRI/ n words or actions, eg in a game, intended to win an advantage over one's opponent (克敌制胜的)策略, 手法(如在比赛中的): It was all a ploy to distract attention from his real aims. 那纯粹是障眼法, 用以分散人们对他真正意图的注意力.

  pluck

  / plQk; plQk/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ sth (off/out) gather or remove sth by pulling; pick sth 拔除或摘除某物; 采某物: pluck a rose from the garden 从花园里摘一朵玫瑰花 * pluck one's eyebrows, ie use tweezers to remove unwanted hairs 拔眉毛 * pluck off the dead flowers 掐掉凋谢的花 * pluck out a grey hair 拔下一根灰白的头发. 2 [Tn] pull the feathers off (a goose, chicken, etc) in order to prepare it for cooking 拔去(鹅、 鸡等)的毛(以备烹调): Have the turkeys been plucked? 火鸡的毛都拔了吗? 3 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (at sth) take hold of (sth) and pull it; snatch at (sth) 拉住或抓住(某物): The child was plucking at her mother's skirt. 那孩子揪住母亲的裙子. * A stranger plucked at my sleeve as I was leaving. 我刚要离去, 一个陌生人拽我的袖子. 4 (US pick) [Tn] sound (the strings of a musical instrument) by pulling and releasing them 弹或拨(乐器的弦): pluck the strings of a guitar 弹吉他的弦. 5 (idm 习语) pluck up `courage (to do sth) make an effort to be brave 鼓起勇气: I shall have to pluck up courage and speak to her about it. 我得鼓起勇气跟她谈这件事. * He can't pluck up the courage to leave home. 他鼓不起离开家的勇气.

  pluck

  n 1 [U] (infml 口) courage, esp in the face of a stronger opponent or of hardship; bravery 勇气, 胆量(尤指面对强敌或困难的): She showed a lot of pluck in dealing with the intruders. 她对付那些闯入的歹徒表现得十分勇敢. 2 [C usu sing 通常作单数] short sharp pull 快而猛的拉: feel a pluck at one's sleeve 觉得袖子被人猛拉了一下. 3 [U] heart, liver and lungs of an animal, as food (动物的)心, 肝, 肺(作食物者).

  plucky

  adj (-ier, -iest) having or showing pluck; brave 勇敢的; 有胆量的.

  pluckily

  adv.

  plug

  / plQg; plQ^/ n 1 (a) piece of metal, rubber or plastic that fits tightly into a hole (eg in a barrel, wash-basin, bath, etc) 塞子(如用以塞大桶、 洗脸池、 浴缸等的): Pull (out) the plug and let the water drain away. 拔掉塞子, 把水放掉. * He put plugs in his ears because the noise was too loud. 因为太吵闹了, 他用耳塞堵住了耳朵. (b) (US) = stopper. 2 (a) device with metal pins that fit into holes in a socket to make an electrical connection 插头; 插塞: a three-/two-pin plug 三线[双线]插头 * Put the plug in the socket. 把插头插入插座里. * I'll have to change the plug on the hair drier. 我得更换吹风机的插头了. =>illus at socket 见socket插图.(b) (infml 口) electric socket 插座. 3 = sparking plug (spark). 4 (infml 口) piece of favourable publicity in the media for a commercial product, eg a record or book (在传播媒介中插入宣传商品的)推销广告(如宣传唱片或书的). 5 (a) cake or stick of pressed or twisted tobacco 板烟. (b) piece of this cut off for chewing 口嚼烟(切成小块的板烟). 6 (idm 习语) pull the plug on sb/sth => pull2.

  plug

  v (-gg-) 1 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) fill (a hole) or stop up sth with a plug 用塞子堵(洞): plug a leak in the barrel 用塞子堵住大桶的漏洞. 2 [Tn] (infml 口) mention (sth) favourably in the media, esp repeatedly (在传播媒介中)宣传(某事物)(尤指反覆地): They've been plugging his new show on the radio. 他们一直在电台上宣传他的新节目. 3 [Tn] (infml 口 esp US) shoot or hit (sb) 射击或打(某人). 4 (phr v) plug away (at sth) work hard and steadily (at sth) (对某事物)努力不懈地干: She's been plugging away at her French lessons for months. 她已刻苦攻读法语数月. plug sth in connect (sth) to the electricity supply with a plug(2a) 用插头将(某物)与电源接通: Plug in the radio, please. 请把收音机的插头插上. * The recorder wasn't plugged in. 录音机的插头没插上.

  plug-hole

  n (Brit) (US drain) hole into which a plug(1) fits, esp in a basin, sink or wash-basin 排水孔(尤指洗脸池、 洗物池等的).

  plum

  / plQm; plQm/ n 1 (a) [C] soft round smooth-skinned fruit with sweet flesh and a flattish pointed stone 李子; 梅子. =>illus at fruit 见fruit插图. (b) [C] (also `plum tree) tree on which this grows 李树; 梅树. 2 [U] dark reddish-purple colour 紫红色. 3 (infml 口) thing considered good or worth having, esp a well-paid job 好的事物; (尤指)报酬高的工作: She's got a plum of a job. 她得到一份高薪的工作. * [attrib 作定语] a plum job 报酬高的工作.

  plum pudding

  rich boiled suet pudding with dried fruits and spices, traditionally eaten at Christmas 乾果布丁(圣诞节传统食物).

  plumage

  / 5plu:mIdV; `plumIdV/ n [U] feathers covering a bird's body 羽衣(鸟体的全部羽毛): the brightly coloured plumage of tropical birds 热带鸟类色彩斑斓的羽毛.

  plumb

  / plQm; plQm/ n 1 piece of lead that is tied to a cord and used to find the depth of water or test whether a wall, etc is vertical 测深锤, 铅锤(悬挂於绳上的铅块, 用以测水深或墙等是否垂直). 2 (idm 习语) out of `plumb not vertical 不垂直的.

  plumb

  adv 1 exactly 恰恰; 正: plumb in the centre 在正中. 2 (US infml 口) quite; absolutely 十分; 完全; 绝对: He's plumb crazy. 他真是疯了.

  plumb

  v 1 [Tn] (a) test (sth) by using a plumb-line 用铅垂线测(某物). (b) (fig 比喻) (try to) understand(sth) thoroughly 探索, 探究(某事物): plumb the mysteries of the universe 探索宇宙的奥秘. 2 (idm 习语) plumb the depths of sth reach the lowest point of sth 到达某事物的最低点: plumb the depths of despair 绝望已极 * a film that really plumbs the depths of bad taste 趣味低级得真正到了极点的一部影片. 3 (phr v) plumb sth in attach (eg a washing-machine) to water-pipes 将(如洗衣机)与水管接通: We've plumbed in the dishwasher. 我们已给洗碟机接上水管了.

  plumb-line

  n line with a plumb(1) attached to one end 铅垂线.

  plumber

  / 5plQmE(r); `plQmL/ n person whose job is to fit and repair water-pipes, water-tanks, cisterns, etc in buildings 铅管工; 管子工; 水暖工.

  plumbing

  / 5plQmIN; `plQmIN/ n [U] 1 system of water-pipes, water-tanks, cisterns, etc in a building (建筑物的)管道装置: There is something wrong with the plumbing.水管设备出毛病了. 2 work of a plumber 铅管工的工作: We employed a local man to do the plumbing. 我们雇了一个当地人做管道装修工作.

  nom de plume

  / 9nCm dE 5plu:m; `nBmdE9plum/ n (pl noms de plume / 9nCm dE 5plu:m; nBmdE9plum/) (French 法) = pseudonym.

  plume

  / plu:m; plum/ n (a) feather, esp a large one used as a decoration 羽毛; (尤指作装饰用的)翎子. (b) ornament of feathers or similar material, worn in the hair or on a hat or helmet 羽毛或类似羽毛材料的饰物(装饰在头发上或帽上): a plume of ostrich feathers 鸵鸟羽毛的装饰. (c) thing that rises into the air in the shape of a feather 貌似羽毛升空之物: a plume of smoke/steam 一缕烟[蒸汽].

  plume

  v 1 [Tn] (of a bird) smooth (sth) with its beak; preen (指鸟)用喙整理(某物): a bird pluming itself/its feathers/its wing 用喙整理自己[羽毛/翅膀]的鸟. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ oneself (on sth) congratulate or pride oneself (on sth) (为某事)自喜, 自豪. plumed adj having or decorated with a plume or plumes 有羽毛或翎子的; 用羽毛或翎子装饰的: a plumed hat 有羽毛装饰的帽子.

  plummet

  / 5plQmIt; `plQmIt/ n 1 (weight attached to a) plumb-line 测深锤; 铅锤; 铅垂线. 2 weight attached to a fishing-line to keep the float upright (钓丝上的)铅坠, 坠子(用以使鱼漂竖起).

  plummet

  v [I, Ipr, Ip] fall steeply or rapidly 大坡度或快速落下: House prices have plummeted in this area. 此地房价大跌. * Pieces of rock plummeted down the mountainside to the ground below. 岩石一块块顺著山的陡坡滚落到地面.

  plummy

  / 5plQmI; `plQmI/ adj (-mier, -miest) 1 (infml 口) desirable; good 合意的; 很好的: a plummy job 顺心的工作. 2 (esp derog 尤作贬义) (of a voice) affectedly upper-class; sounding as if one is speaking with sth (eg a plum) in one's mouth (指嗓音)拿腔拿调的, 像嘴里含著东西似的: a plummy accent/voice 拿腔捏调的口音[嗓音].

  plump

  / plQmp; plQmp/ adj (a) (esp of an animal, a person, parts of the body) having a full rounded shape; fleshy (尤指动物、 人、 身体的局部)肥胖的, 丰满的: a plump baby, chicken, face 胖乎乎的婴儿、 肥肥的小鸡、 圆圆的脸蛋 * a baby with plump cheeks 双颊胖乎乎的婴儿. (b) (euph 婉) overweight; fat 过胖的: You're getting a bit plump you need to diet! 你有点发胖了--得节食了! =>Usage at fat1 用法见fat1.

  plump

  v (phr v) plump (sth) out/up (cause sth to) become rounded (使某物)变圆, 变丰满: His cheeks are beginning to plump out/up. 他的脸颊胖起来了. * She plumped up the pillows. 她把枕头弄得鼓鼓的.

  plumpness

  n [U].

  plump

  / plQmp; plQmp/ v (phr v) plump (oneself/sb/sth) down (cause sb/sth to) fall or drop suddenly and heavily (使某人[某物])突然而重重地落下: plump down the heavy bags 把重袋子一下子放下 * plump (oneself) down in a chair 一屁股坐到椅子上. plump for sb/sth choose or vote for sb/sth with confidence 有信心地选择或选举某人[某事物]: The committee plumped for the most experienced candidate. 委员会很有把握地选择了那个最有经验的候选人. * The children plumped for a holiday by the sea. 孩子们特别想去海边度假.

  plump

  n (usu sing 通常作单数) (sound made by a) sudden heavy fall 突然沉重的坠落(的声音): The book landed with a plump on the floor. 那书砰的一声掉在地板上.

  plump

  adv with a plump 砰的一声: fall plump into the hole 砰的一声掉进洞里.

  plunder

  / 5plQndE(r); `plQndL/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sth) (from sth) steal (goods) from a place, esp during a time of war or civil disorder; pillage 掠夺或抢劫某地的(货物)(尤指战时或内乱时): The conquerors advanced, killing and plundering as they went. 征服者一路上杀人越货无所不为. * The invaders plundered food and valuables from coastal towns and villages. 侵略者在沿海城乡抢劫食物和贵重物品. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (of sth) steal goods from (a place), esp during a time of war, etc 掠夺或抢劫(某地)的货物(尤指战时等): plunder a palace of its treasures 劫掠宫殿财宝 * Tourists have plundered all the archaeological sites. 游客简直是洗劫了考古场地. Cf 参看 loot, pillage.

  plunder

  n [U] 1 (action of) plundering 掠夺; 抢劫: be guilty of plunder 犯抢劫罪 * goods obtained by plunder 掠夺的财物. 2 goods that have been plundered 抢夺物; 赃物: They loaded the carts with plunder. 他们把掠夺来的东西装进大车里.

  plunderer

  / 5plQndErE(r); `plQndErL/ n person who plunders 掠夺者; 抢劫者.

  plunge

  / plQndV; plQndV/ v 1 [Ipr, Ip, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ (sth) into sth; ~ (sth) in (a) (cause sth to) fall into sth suddenly and with force (使某物)突然而猛力投入、 穿入、 进入等: plunge (one's hand) into cold water (把手)一下子伸进冷水中 * They plunged in, ie dived intothe water. 他们跳进了水中. * plunge a rod into a blockeddrain to clear it 用棍通下水道使之畅通. (b) (cause sth to) enter a specified state or condition (使某事物)进入或陷入某状态: The country (was) plunged into civil war after the death of the President. 总统死後全国陷入了内战. * The news plunged us into despair. 我们听到那消息後就陷入了绝望. * events which plunged the world into war 把世界推入战争的事件 * Their extravagant life-style plunged them into debt. 他们生活方式奢侈, 背上了很多债. 2 (a) [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn.pr, Tn.p] (cause sb/sth to) move suddenly forwards and/or downwards (使某人[某物])突然前移或跌落: The horse plunged and she fell off. 马一个前失, 把她摔了下来. * Share prices plunged as a result of the gloomy economic forecast. 该项预测展望经济前景暗淡, 因而股票价格大跌. * The car plunged over the cliff. 汽车冲下了悬崖. * The sudden jolt plunged her forward. 突然颠了一下, 她向前打了个趔趄. (b) [I] (of a ship) move with the bows going violently up and down in the water (指船)剧烈颠簸.

  plunge

  n 1 (a) [C esp sing 尤作单数] plunging movement, esp a steep fall (向前或向下的)冲, 投, 落; (尤指)骤降, 猛跌: a plunge into debt, chaos 背债、 陷入混乱. (b) [C] act of diving or bathing in water 跳水; 游泳: a plunge into the sea from the rocks 从岩石上跳入海中 * a refreshing plunge in the lake 在湖中游泳焕发精神. 2 (idm 习语) take the `plunge take a bold decisive step, esp after thinking about it for some time 采取大胆果断措施(尤指曾经一番考虑): They have finally decided to take the plunge and get married. 他们最後毅然决定结婚.

  plunger

  n 1 part of a mechanism that moves up and down 柱塞; 活塞. 2 (in plumbing) rubber cup fixed on a handle, used for clearing a blocked pipe by means of suction (疏通管道的)搋子.

  plunk

  = plonk1.

  pluperfect

  / 9plu:5p\:fIkt; 9plu`p[fIkt/ adj (also past perfect) (grammar) (of the form of the verb phrase) expressing an action completed before a particular pointin the past (指动词词组形式)过去完成式的: a pluperfect(form of a) verb phrase 过去完成式动词词组.

  pluperfect

  n (also past perfect) such a form (in English had and a past participle, as in `As he had not received my letter, he did not come') 过去完成式(在英语中had加过去分词, 如此处例句中的had加received).

  plural

  / 5plUErEl; `plJrEl/ n (grammar) form of a noun or verb which refers to more than one person or thing(名词的或动词的)复数, 复数形式: The plural of `child' is `children'. child的复数形式是children. * The verb should be in the plural, eg `have' in `they have'. 这个动词应用复数形式(如they have中的have). Cf 参看 singular 1.

  plural

  adj (grammar) 1 of or having this form 复数的; 有复数形式的: Most plural nouns in English end in `s'. 英语的复数名词多以s结尾. 2 of more than one 不止一个的: a plural society, ie one with more than one ethnic group 多元社会(由不止一个种族组成的).

  pluralism

  / 5plUErElIzEm; `plJrElIzm/ n [U] 1 (a) existence in one society of a number of groups that belong to different races or have different political or religious beliefs 多元性(一社会中有不同民族或有不同政治或宗教信仰的群体共同生活的状态). (b) principle that these different groups can live together peacefully in one society 多元主义(一社会中多民族或有不同政治、 宗教信仰的人和平共处的原则). 2 (usu derog 通常作贬义) holding of more than one office at one time, esp in the Church 兼任, 兼职(尤指神职).

  pluralist

  / 5plUErElIst; `plJrElIst/ n supporter of pluralism (1b) 多元主义者.

  pluralist (also pluralistic)

  / 9plUErE5lIstIk; 9plJrE`lIstIk/ adj: a pluralist society 多元主义社会.

  plurality

  / plUE5rAlEtI; plJ`rAlEtI/ n 1 [U] (grammar) state of being plural 复数; 复数形式. 2 [C] large number 大量; 多数: a plurality of influences, interests 极大的影响、 利益. 3 [C] (US politics 政) majority of less than 50%; relative majority (未超过半数的)多数; 相对多数. Cf 参看 majority 2. 4 (a) [U] = pluralism 2. (b) [C] office held jointly with another 兼任的职务.

  plus

  / plQs; plQs/ prep (a) with the addition of 加; 加上: Two plus five is seven. 二加五等於七. * The bill was 10, plus 1 for postage. 帐款是10英镑, 再加上1英镑邮费. (b) (infml 口) as well as 和: We've got to fit five people plus all their luggage in the car. 我们得在汽车里挤下五个人和全部行李. Cf 参看 minus.

  plus

  adj 1 more than the amount or number indicated 比所示数量多的: The work will cost 10000plus. 那作品可值10000英镑以上. 2 above zero; positive零上的; 正的: 5 is a plus quantity. 5是正数. * The temperature is plus four degrees. 温度零上四度.

  plus

  n 1 the sign + 加号, 正号(+): He seems to have mistaken a plus for a minus. 他似乎把正号误作负号了.=>App 4 见附录4. 2 (infml 口) positive quality; advantage正面因素; 好处: Her knowledge of French is a plus in her job. 她会法语, 这对她工作很有好处. Cf 参看 minus.

  plus-fours

  n [pl] wide loose knickerbockers, worn esp by golfers : a pair of plus-fours 一条灯笼裤.

  plush

  / plQF; plQF/ n [U] type of silk or cotton cloth with a surface like velvet (丝或棉的)长毛绒.

  plush

  adj 1 (also plushy) (infml 口) luxuriously smart 豪华的; 漂亮的: a plush hotel, restaurant, etc 豪华的旅馆、 餐厅等. 2 made of plush 长毛绒的: plush curtains 长毛绒的帘子.

  plushy

  / 5plQFI; `plQFI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (infml 口) = plush 1.

  plushiness

  n [U].

  Pluto

  / 5plu:tEU; `pluto/ n (astronomy 天) the planet ninth in order and furthest from the sun 冥王星.

  plutocracy

  / plu:5tCkrEsI; plu`tBkrEsI/ n 1 (a) [U] government by a rich and powerful class 富豪统治; 财阀统治. (b) [C] state governed in this way 富豪或财阀统治的国家. 2 [CGp] group or class of rich and powerful people; wealthy elite 富豪阶级; 财阀阶级.

  plutocrat

  / 5plu:tEkrAt; `plutE9krAt/ n (often derog 常作贬义) person who is powerful because of his wealth 有钱有势的人.

  plutocratic

  / 9plu:tE5krAtIk; 9plutE`krAtIk/ adj (a) of plutocracy 富豪或财阀统治的国家或阶级的. (b) of or like a plutocrat (似)有钱有势的人的: plutocratic control of a media empire 财阀势力对传播媒介的控制.

  plutonium

  / plu:5tEUnIEm; plu`tonIEm/ n [U] (chemistry 化) artificially produced radioactive metallic element, derived from uranium and used in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons 金不. =>App 10 见附录10.

  ply

  / plaI; plaI/ n [U] (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) 1 layer of wood or thickness of cloth (木的)层; (布的)厚度: three-ply wood 三层胶合板. 2 strand of rope or yarn (绳或纱的)股: three-/four-ply knitting wool 三[四]股毛线.

  plywood

  / 5plaIwUd; `plaI9wJd/ n [U] board(s) made by gluing thin layers of wood on top of each other 胶合板: sheets of plywood 一张一张的胶合板 * [attrib 作定语] plywood furniture 胶合板家具.

  ply

  / plaI; plaI/ v (pt, pp plied / plaId; plaId/) 1 [Tn] (fml 文) use or wield (a tool or weapon) 使用(工具或武器): ply one's needle, ie work busily at one's sewing 忙於缝纫 * ply the oars, ie row a boat 划桨. 2 [I, Ipr, Tn] (of ships, buses, etc) go regularly to and fro along (a course) (指船、 公共汽车等)沿(某路线)定时运行: ply the routes between the islands 定期在两岛间航行 * ferries that ply between England and France 往返英法间的渡轮 * ships that ply (across) the South China Sea (经)南中国海的定期班轮. 3 (idm 习语) ply one's `trade work at a (skilled) job 从事某(熟练)工作. ply for `hire (of taxi drivers, boatmen, etc) wait in a place or move about, looking for passengers (计程车司机、 船夫等)候客, 揽客, 等生意: taxis licensed to ply for hire at the railway station 许可在火车站候客的计程车. 4 (phr v) ply sb with sth (a) (repeatedly) give or offer sb (food and drink) (反覆)给或让某人(食物或饮料):She plied us with cakes. 她再三让我们吃蛋糕. (b) repeatedly ask sb (questions) 反覆问某人(问题).

  PM

  / 9pi: 5em; 9pi `Zm/ abbr 缩写 = (infml 口 esp Brit) Prime Minister: an interview with the PM 与首相会晤.

  pm

  / 9pi: 5em; 9pi `Zm/ abbr 缩写 = (US PM) after noon (Latin post meridiem) 下午, 午後(源自拉丁文post meridiem): at 3 pm, ie in the afternoon 下午3时. Cf 参看 amabbr 缩写.

  PMT

  / 9pi: em 5ti:; 9pi Zm `ti/ abbr 缩写 = (infml 口) premenstrual tension.

  pneumatic

  / nju:5mAtIk; ?@ nu:-; nu`mAtIk/ adj (a) filled with air 充气的: a pneumatic tyre 充气轮胎. (b) worked by compressed air 由压缩空气操作或推动的; 风动的: a pneumatic drill 风钻.

  pneumatically

  /-klI; -klI/ adv.

  pneumonia

  / nju:5mEUnIE; ?@ nu:-; nu`monjE/ n [U] serious illness with inflammation of one or both lungs, causing difficulty in breathing 肺炎.

  PO

  / 9pi: 5EU; 9pi `o/ abbr 缩写 = 1 Petty Officer. 2 (also po) postal order. 3 Post Office: PO Box 920, eg in an address 邮政信箱920号.

  po-faced

  / 5pEU feIst; `po9fest/ adj (Brit infml derog 口, 贬) with a too solemn or disapproving expression 一本正经的; 不以为然的.

  poach

  / pEUtF; potF/ v [Tn, Tn.pr] (a) cook (fish, fruit, etc) by simmering it gently in a small amount of liquid (用少量水)炖, 煨(鱼、 水果等): apricots poached in syrup 糖水煨杏. (b) cook (an egg without its shell) by putting it in (or in a container over) simmering water 煮(荷包蛋).

  poacher

  n pan with one or more cup-shaped containers in which eggs may be poached 荷包蛋锅(锅中有杯形煮蛋容器).

  poach

  / pEUtF; potF/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Tn] ~ (for sth) catch (game birds, animals or fish) without permission on sb else's property (进入他人地界)偷猎, 偷捕(鸟、 兽或鱼): go out poaching on a farmer's land 到农场主土地上偷猎 * Fred was caught poaching hares. 弗雷德因偷猎野兔被捉. 2 (a) [Ipr] ~ on sth be active in an area that properly belongs to sb else 在他人范围内活动: Rival salesmen were poaching on his territory. 这些推销员是竞争对手, 却跑到他的地盘来兜生意. * By interfering in this matter you are poaching on my preserve, ie dealing with sth that is my responsibility. 你干预此事就是在我的责任范围内越俎代庖. (b) [Tn] take (staff or ideas) from sb/sth, esp in an underhand way 从某人[某处]挖走(人员)或窃取(思想): A rival firm poached our best computer programmers. 我公司的竞争对手把我们最好的计算机程序编制员挖走了. * A new political party usually poaches ideas from its rivals. 新政党往往把敌对政党的思想攫为己有.

  poacher

  n person who poaches 偷捕动物的人; 在他人范围内活动的人; 挖走人员或窃取思想的人. Cf 参看 poach1.

  POB

  / 9pi: EU 5bi:; 9pi o `bi/ abbr 缩写 = Post Office Box (number) 邮政信箱(号码): POB 63 邮政信箱63号.

  pock

  / pCk; pBk/ n (a) any of the swellings on the skin caused by certain diseases, esp smallpox 痘疮; (尤指天花的)疮疹, 脓疮. (b) (also `pock-mark) hollow mark left on the skin by this 麻子(天花的疤痕).

  pocked

  adj ~ (with sth) having holes or depressions in the surface 有洞的; 有坑的: The moon's surface is pocked with small craters. 月球表面有许多月坑.

  pock-marked

  adj having marks left after (esp) smallpox 有麻子的: The man's face was badly pock-marked. 那个男的脸上有许多麻子.

  pocket

  / 5pCkIt; `pBkIt/ n 1 (a) small bag sewn into or onto a garment and forming part of it, for carrying things in (衣服上的)口袋, 袋子, 兜儿; 衣袋: a coat, jacket, trouser, etc pocket 大衣、 外衣、 裤子等的口袋 * stand with one's hands in one's pockets 双手插在口袋里站著 * [attrib 作定语] a pocket dictionary, edition, guide, etc ie small enough to fit in one's pocket 袖珍词典、 版本、 指南等. (b) container resembling this, eg on the inside of a car-door, suitcase, cardboard folder, etc; flap1(1) (汽车门、 衣箱、 文件夹等内侧的)口袋: You will find information about safety procedures in the pocket in front of you, eg on an aircraft. 在您座位前方的袋子里有安全措施须知(如在飞机上). 2 (usu sing 通常作单数) money that one has available for spending; financial means (现成的)钱; 财力: luxury far beyond my pocket 远非我财力可及的奢侈品 * easy/hard on the pocket, ie easy/difficult to afford 手头充裕[拮据] * The resort provides accommodation to suit every pocket. 这个度假地提供的食宿丰俭随意. * The expedition was a drain on her pocket. 这次探险耗尽了她的钱财. 3 small isolated group or area 孤立的小的群体或范围: Pockets of opposition/resistance to the new regime still remained. 反对[抵制]新政权的某些势力仍然存在. * pockets of unemployment in an otherwise prosperous region 繁荣地区中个别的失业现象. 4 small cavity in the ground or in rock, containing gold or ore 矿穴; 矿囊; 矿袋: pockets of coal 煤矿穴. 5 = air pocket (air1). 6 (sport 体) any of the six string pouches round a billiard-table into which balls are hit (台球的)球袋. =>illus at snooker 见snooker插图. 7 (idm 习语) be, etc in sb's `pocket be very close to or intimate with sb 与某人很亲密: They live in each other's pockets. 他们两人十分密切. have sb in one's `pocket have influence or power over sb 可以影响或支配某人. ,in/,out of `pocket having gained/lost money as a result of sth 因某事赚[赔]钱: Even after paying all the expenses, we'll still be 100 in pocket. 即使扣除所有费用, 我们仍能赚100英镑. * His mistake left us all out of pocket. 他这一错, 我们大家都跟著赔了钱. * [attrib 作定语] ,out-of-pocket ex`penses, ie money that one has spent (and which will be reimbursed, eg by one's employer) 已支付的开销(可报销的, 如由雇主发 还). line one's/sb's pocket => line3. money burns a hole in sb's pocket => money. pick sb's pocket => pick3. put one's hand in one's pocket => hand1. put one's pride in one's pocket => pride.

  pocket

  v [Tn] 1 put (sth) into one's pocket 将(某物)放入衣袋: He pocketed the tickets. 他把票放进衣袋里了. * She quickly pocketed the note without reading it. 她很快把通知放进口袋里, 连看都没看. 2 keep or take (sth) for oneself (esp dishonestly) 将(某物)据为己有: She pays 2 for them, sells them for 4 and pockets the difference. 那些东西她2英镑买入、 4英镑卖出, 把赚头塞进了腰包. * He was given 20 for expenses, but pocketed most of it. 他得到20英镑的公款, 但大部分都进了自己的口袋了. 3 (eg in billiards) hit (a ball) into a pocket (6) (如在台球戏中)将(球)击入球袋. 4 (idm 习语) pocket one's `pride hide or suppress one's feelings of anger or shame 隐藏或压抑愤怒或羞耻感.

  pocketful

  / -fUl; -9fJl/ n amount a pocket holds 一衣袋的量: a pocketful of coins 一衣袋硬币.

  pocket-book

  n 1 small notebook 小笔记本; 袖珍记事本. 2(a) (= wallet). (b) (US) purse or small handbag 钱包; (尤指女用)小手提包.

  pocket-knife

  n (pl -knives) = penknife (pen1). =>illus at knife 见knife插图.

  pocket-money

  n [U] (Brit) (a) small amount of money given to a child, esp weekly (给孩子的)零花钱(尤指每周给的). (b) money for small expenses 零用钱: We've paid for our travel and accommodation, so we only need to take some pocket-money with us. 我们已付了旅费与食宿费, 所以只需带些零用钱.

  pod

  / pCd; pBd/ n 1 long seed-case of various plants, esp peas and beans 荚; (尤指)豆荚. 2 (idm 习语) like as peas in a pod => like1.

  pod

  v (-dd-) [Tn] take (peas, beans, etc) from their pods 剥掉(豌豆等)的荚.

  podgy

  / 5pCdVI; `pBdVI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (infml usu derog 口, 通常作贬义) (of people or parts of the body) short and fat (指人或身体的部分)矮胖的, 短粗的: podgy fingers 短粗的手指. =>Usage at fat1 用法见fat1.

  podginess

  n [U].

  podiatry

  / pE5daIEtrI; pE`daIEtrI/ n [U] (US) = chiropody (chiropodist).

  podiatrist

  / -trIst; -trIst/ n (US) = chiropodist.

  podium

  / 5pEUdIEm; `podIEm/ n small platform for the conductor of an orchestra, a lecturer, etc to stand on (乐队的)指挥台; 讲台.

  poem

  / 5pEUIm; `poIm/ n piece of creative writing inverse, esp one expressing deep feelings or noble thoughts in beautiful language, written with the intention of communicating an experience 诗; 韵文; 诗体文: write/compose poems 写[作]诗.

  poet

  / 5pEUIt; `poIt/ n writer of poems 诗人.

  poetess

  / -es; -Zs/ n woman poet 女诗人.

  Poet Laureate (also Laureate)

  poet officially appointed to the Royal Household in Britain, to write poems for state occasions. 桂冠诗人(正式任命为英国王室成员, 为国家大典作诗者).

  poetic

  / pEU5etIk; po`ZtIk/ adj 1 (approv 褒) like or suggesting poetry, esp in being graceful and aesthetically leasing 像诗的, 有诗意的(尤指优美的): a poetic rendering of the piano sonata 富有诗意的钢琴奏鸣曲演奏. 2 [attrib 作定语] = poetical 1: his entire poetic output 他的全部诗作.

  poetical

  / -kl; -kl/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] of or being poetry 诗的; 韵文的; 诗体文的: the poetical works of Keats 济慈的诗作. 2 [attrib 作定语] = poetic 1.

  poetically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  poetic justice

  well-deserved punishment or reward 应得的赏罚.

  poetic licence

  freedom to change the normal rules of language when writing verse (eg by reversing word order, changing meaning, etc) 诗的破格(如词序倒装、 词义变更等): (ironic 反语) his garden shed which, with a certain amount of poetic licence, he calls his summer-house 他那美其名曰夏季别墅的花园棚.

  poetry

  / 5pEUItrI; `poItrI/ n [U] 1 poems collectively or in general 诗(总称): epic, lyric, dramatic, pastoral, symbolist, etc poetry 史诗、 抒情诗、 戏剧诗、 田园诗、 象徵派的诗 * Dryden's poetry 德莱顿的诗 * [attrib 作定语] a poetry book 诗集 * a poetry reading 诗歌朗诵会. Cf 参看 prose, verse. 2 (approv 褒) aesthetically pleasing quality 诗意; 美感: a ballet dancer with poetry in every movement 动作皆富诗意的芭蕾舞演员 * the poetry of motion, eg in ballet or some forms of athletics 动作的优美(如芭蕾舞或某些体育动作).

  pogo

  / 5pEUgEU; `po^o/ n (pl ~s) (also `pogo stick) pole, with bars for standing on and a spring at the bottom end, used as a toy for jumping about on 弹簧单高跷(一种跳跃游戏器具).

  pogrom

  / 5pCgrEm; ?@ pE5grCm; po`^rBm/ n organized persecution or killing of a particular group or class of people, esp because of their race or religion (有组织的)集体迫害或杀戮(尤指因种族或宗教矛盾所致的).

  poignant

  / 5pRInjEnt; `pRInjEnt/ adj affecting one's feelings deeply, making one sad, full of pity, etc 痛切的; 伤心的; 心酸的: poignant sorrow, regret, memories 深沉的悲哀、 痛悔、 辛酸的回忆 * a poignant moment 伤心的时候.

  poignancy

  / -jEnsI; -jEnsI/ n [U] state or quality of being poignant 痛切; 伤心; 心酸.

  poignantly

  / -jEntlI; -jEntlI/ adv.

  poinsettia

  / pRIn5setIE; pRIn`sZtIE/ n tropical plant with large red leaves that form flower-like clusters, often grown indoors in pots 一品红; 猩猩木.

  point

  / pRInt; pRInt/ n 1 [C] (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) sharp or tapered end of sth; tip (物体的)尖端; 尖儿: the point of a pin, knife, pencil, etc 大头针、 刀子、 铅笔等的尖儿 * a pin-point, knife-point, pencil point, etc 针尖儿、 刀尖儿、 铅笔尖儿 * The stake had been sharpened to a vicious-looking point. 木桩削得尖得吓人. * the point of the jaw, eg as the target for a punch in boxing 颌端(如拳击的攻击目标). 2 [C] (often with a capital as part of a name 常用於名称中, 首字母大写) narrow piece of land sticking out into the sea; headland or promontory 岬角; 海角: The ship rounded the point. 船绕过了岬角. * Pagoda Point 宝塔角. 3 [C] (geometry 几) thing that has position but no size, eg the place where two lines cross 点: AB and CD intersect at (the point) P. AB线和CD线在P点相交. 4 [C] (a) any dot used in writing or printing, eg as a full-stop, as a marker of decimals, etc (书写或印刷用的)点(如句号、 小数点等): Two point six (2.6) means the same as 2---. 二点六(2.6)即为2---. * The first twofigures after the decimal point indicate tenths and hundredthsrespectively. 小数点後的头两位数分别表示十分位和百分位. =>App 4 见附录4. (b) tiny dot or mark of light or colour (光亮的或有颜色的)小点: stars seen as points of light in a dark sky 在黑暗的天空中点点发光的星星. 5 [C] (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) particular place or locality 地点; 位置: Guards had been posted at several points around the perimeter. 在环形防线上已布置了几处岗哨. * an assembly, rallying, meeting, etc point 集会、 集合、 会面等的地点 * a steamer service calling at Port Said, Aden and all points east, ie all other ports further east 到塞得港、 亚丁以及东部各港口的航运业务. 6 [C] particular time or instant 某一时刻或瞬间: At one point I thought she was going to refuse, but in the end she agreed. 当时我以为她要拒绝, 但最後她却同意了. * The film started to get very violent, at which point I left. 那部电影看著看著出现了极残暴的场面, 我立刻就走了. * at the point of death, ie about to die at any moment 在临死时. 7 [C] (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) stage or degree of progress, increase, temperature, etc (进展、 增进等的)阶段, 程度; (温度等的)度: reach danger point, ie reach a dangerous level 达到危险的地步 * boiling/freezing/melting point 沸[冰/熔]点. 8 [C] any of the 32 marks on the circumference of a compass 罗经点(罗盘上的32个刻度): the cardinal points, ie the four main points: N, E, S and W 基本方位(北、 东、 南、 西等四个主要方位) * (fig 比喻) Search-parties had been sent out to all points of the compass, ie in every direction. 已向四面八方派出了搜索队. 9 [C] unit of measurement, value, scoring, etc (作测量、 数值、 记分等单位的)点、 分等: a point on a scale 刻度上的一点 * The pound fell several points on the Stock Market today. 今天证券市场上英镑下跌了好几点. * We need one more point to win the game. 我们再得一分就能胜这一 局. * [attrib 作定语] a points system 点数制. =>App 4 见附录4. 10 [C] individual idea of sth said, done or planned; single item or detail (说法、 做法或想法的)点; 项; 条: the main points of a story, a discussion, an argument, etc 故事、 议论、 争论等的要点 * points of difference, similarity, agreement, disagreement, etc 差异、 相似、 一致、 分歧等之处 * One point in favour of her plan is its cheapness. 她的计画可取之处是花费少. * explain a theory point by point, ie explain each individual idea in it, in order 逐点阐释一理论. 11 [C] (a) thing said as part of a discussion 论点; 见解; 观点: Various committee members made interesting points. 许多委员提出了使人关注的意见. (b) effective argument 有力的论据: `But she might not agree. ' `You've got a point there/That's a point (ie I had not thought of that.) '. `可是她有可能不同意呀.'`你说得对[有道理](我没想到这一点).' 12 [C] distinctive feature or characteristic 特点; 特徵: sb's good, strong, bad, weak, etc points 某人的优点、 长处、 缺点、 弱点 * I'm afraid tidiness is not his strong point, ie he is untidy. 我看他这个人不大讲究整洁. 13 the point [sing] the matter under discussion; the essential thing 谈论的事; 要点; 核心问题: Let's stop discussing trivial details and come/get to the point. 咱们别再谈琐碎细节了, 说正事吧. * The speaker kept wandering off/away from the point. 讲演的那个人总是走题. * The point (at issue) is this.... 问题的要点是这样的.... 14 [U, sing] essential meaning, main feature (of a story, joke, remark, etc); reason; purpose; value (故事、 笑话、 意见等的)中心意思, 重点; 理由; 目的; 价值: get, see, miss, understand the point of sth 明白、 了解、 不明白、 理解某事的中心意思 * a story, remark, etc with a/some/no/little point (to it) 有[有些/没有/没什麽]重点的故事、 意见等 * There's not much point in complaining; they never take any notice. 埋怨也没什麽用, 人家根本不理睬. 15 [U] (fml 文) effectiveness; urgency 效力; 鼓动力: speech, words, remarks, etc that have/lack point 有[没有]分量的讲话、 词语、 话等. 16 [C] (often in compounds 常用以构成复合词) electrical socket, into which a plug is put 插座: a lighting, power, cooker point 照明、 电源、 电炊具插座 * a 13-amp point 13安培的插座. 17 points [pl] (in ballet) the tips of the toes (芭蕾舞用语)足尖, 脚尖: dancing on points 用足尖跳舞. 18 points [pl] (Brit) (US switch) set of movable rails at a place where a railway line divides into two tracks, which can be altered to allow a train to use either track (铁路上的)转辙器, 道岔: change/switch the points 转换道岔 * [attrib 作定语] a points lever, mechanism, etc 转辙器扳手、 装置等. 19 [sing, U] (in cricket) fielder near the batsman on the off side; his position (板球中的)(击球员右侧的)防守球员, 防守位置. 20 [U] (as a compound after a number 用於数词後构成复合词) unit of measurement of type-size in printing (作活字大小单位的)点: 6-point is small and 18-point is large6点的活字小, 18点的活字大. 21 (idm 习语) at the ,point of a `sword, `gun, etc by threatening sb with death or wounding by a sword, gun, etc 以死威胁某人; 用剑、 枪等加害某人: captured at the point of a sword 在武力威胁下被捕. beside the `point irrelevant 离题的; 不相干的. carry/gain one's `point persuade people to accept one's argument 说服别人接受自己的论点. a case in point => case1. the finer points => fine2. give sb points (at sth) offer sb advantages and still win 比赛中向某人让分而仍获胜: He can give me points at golf, ie He plays better than I do. 打高尔夫球他让我几分还能赢. have one's `points have certain good qualities 有某些优点: I suppose wine has its points, but I prefer beer. 葡萄酒固然有它的好处, 但我还是喜欢啤酒. if/when it ,comes to the `point if or when the moment for action or decision comes 到必须采取行动时; 到做决定时: If it came to the point, would you sacrifice your job for your principles? 必要时你肯为坚持原则而牺牲工作吗? in ,point of `fact in reality; actually 事实上; 实际上: He said he would pay, but in point of fact he has no money. 他说他付钱, 可实际上他并没有钱. labour the point => labour2. make one's `point explain fully what one is proposing 充分解释自己提出的事: All right, you've made your point; now keep quiet and let the others say what they think. 好啦, 你已经把话说清楚了; 那就别说了, 让别人谈谈看法. make a point of doing sth do sth because one considers it important or necessary 认为做某事重要或有必要: I always make a point of checking that all the windows are shut before I go out. 我出门前总是要检查所有的窗户, 看是否都关好了. a moot point/question => moot. not to put too fine a point on it => fine2. on the point of doing sth just about to do sth 正要做某事时: I was on the point of going to bed when you rang. 你来电话时我正要睡觉. on `points (of a win in boxing) by the number of points scored without knocking out one'sopponent (指拳击取胜)靠点数. a ,point of de`parture(a) place or time at which a journey begins 启程的地点或时间. (b) (fig 比喻) starting point for a discussion or enterprise (讨论或事业的)起点: Let's take `Das Kapital' as a point of departure for our survey of Marxism. 咱们以《资本论》为出发点来研究一下马克思主义. a ,point of `honour/`conscience thing of great importance to one's honour or conscience 关系到荣誉或良心的事: I always pay my debts punctually; it's a point of honour with me. 我还债总是很准时, 这是我的名誉问题. the ,point of `no `return (a) point (on a long voyage, flight, etc) at which fuel supplies, etc will not be sufficient for a return to the starting point, so that one must continue the journey in order to survive 航线临界点(长途航行中之某处, 燃料等不敷返回原地之用只得继续前进). (b) (fig 比喻) point at which one becomes committed to an action or a decision that cannot be reversed (行动或决定)已到欲罢不能的境地. a ,point of `order (in formal discussions, eg debates) matter of correct procedure according to the rules (正式讨论中, 如辩论时)(符合规定的)程序问题: On a point of order, Mr Chairman, can associate members vote on this matter? 主席先生, 按规定准会员对这件事可以投票吗? a/one's ,point of `view attitude; opinion 态度; 观点; 看法: This is unacceptable from my point of view. 依我看, 这事不能同意. * What's your point of view on nuclear power? 你对核动力有什麽看法? possession is nine points of the law => possession. prove one's/the case/point => prove. score a point/points => score2. a sore point => sore. stretch a point => stretch. one's/sb's strong point/suit => strong. take sb's `point understand and accept sb's argument 理解并接受某人的论点. to the `point (in a way that is) relevant and appropriate 中肯; 恰当: remarks that were very much to the point 切中要害的评论 * His speech was short and to the point. 他的讲话简明中肯. to the point of sth to a degree that can be described as sth 达到某程度: His manner was abrupt to the point of rudeness. 他举止唐突, 近乎粗鲁. up to a (certain) `point to some extent; in some degree 在某程度上: I agree with you up to a (certain) point. 我在某种程度上同意你的看法.

  point-duty

  n [U] (Brit) traffic control by a policeman standing typically in the middle of the road (警察在马路中间指挥交通的)岗位值勤.

  pointsman

  n (pl -men) (Brit) (US `switchman) person in charge of railway points (铁路的)转辙工, 扳道工.

  point-to-point

  n (Brit) race on horses across country from one point to another 定点越野赛马.

  point

  / pRInt; pRInt/ v 1 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (at/to sb/sth) direct people's attention at sb/sth by extending one's finger towards him/it, or by using any similar sign or indicator; show the position or direction of sb/sth 指出某人[某事物]或其位置或方向: It's rude to point. 指手划脚是不礼貌的. * `That's the man who did it,' she said, pointing at me. `那事就是他干的,'她指著我说. * He pointed to a tower on the distant horizon. 他指向远处地平线上的一座塔. * A compass needle points (to the) north. 罗盘的指针永远指向北方. * The clock hands pointed to twelve, ie it was noon or midnight. 那座钟的时针、 分针都对著十二(正午或午夜). (b) [Ipr] ~ to sth (fig 比喻) suggest (the likelihood of) sth; indicate sth 暗示某事物(的可能性); 指示某事物: I can't point to any one particular reason for it. 那件事我找不出具体原因来. * All the evidence points to his guilt. 所有证据都表明他有罪. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (at/towards sb/sth) aim or direct sth 以某物瞄准或对著: point one's finger (at sb/sth) 用手指著(某人[某物]) * point a gun at sb 用枪瞄准某人 * point a telescope at/towards the moon 用望远镜对准月亮. 3 [Ipr, Ip] face or be turned in a particular direction 面对或转至某方向: A hedgehog's spines point backwards. 刺 的刺毛是向後长的. 4 [Tn] give force to (sth); make more noticeable 强调, 著重(某事物); 使更显著: a story that points a moral 突出某寓意的故事. 5 [Tn] fill in the spaces between the bricks of (sth) with mortar or cement 用灰泥或水泥勾(某物)的砖缝: point a wall, chimney, etc 勾墙、 烟囱等的缝. 6 [I] (of a hunting dog) take up a position with the body steady and the head indicating the direction of a hunted bird, etc (指猎狗)站定并用头指示猎物方向. 7 (idm 习语) point the `finger (at sb) (infml 口) accuse sb openly 公开指责某人. point the `way (to/towards sth) show the possibility of future development 指出发展的可能性: Large electronics companies developed television, but Baird pointed the way with his experiments. 大型电子工业公司研制出了电视, 但这有赖於贝尔德的实验为此指出了方向. * tax reforms which point the way to a more prosperous future 预示前景更为繁荣的税制改革. 8 (phr v) point sth out (to sb) direct attention to sth 使注意某事物: point out a mistake 指出错误 * point out to sb the stupidity of his/her behaviour向某人指出其行为愚蠢 * I must point out that further delay would be unwise. 我必须指明再延误就要吃大亏了. point sth up give special emphasis to one particular aspect of sth; show sth very clearly 强调某事物的某方面; 明确显示某事物: The recent disagreement points up the differences between the two sides. 最近的争执清楚显示双方有分歧.

  pointed

  adj 1 having a sharp tip, end, etc 有尖的; 尖的: a (sharp-)pointed instrument, tool, etc 尖(锐)的器具、 工具等 * a pointed hat 尖帽子. 2 (fig 比喻) directed clearly against a particular person or his behaviour 针对某人或其行为的; 直截了当的: a pointed remark, rebuke, etc 直言不讳的评论、 指责等 * She made some pointed references to his careless work. 她明确指出他工作粗心大意. 3 (fig 比喻) (of wit) incisive (指头脑)敏锐的. pointedly adv in a way that indicates criticism of a particular person or that suggests one's meaning clearly 有针对性地; 尖锐地; 有用意地; 直截了当地: She stared pointedly at me. 她严厉地瞪著我. * He looked pointedly at the door, eg indicating that I should open it, close it, leave, etc. 他有用意地看著门(如示意我应开开、 关上、 离去等).

  pointing

  n [U] cement, mortar, etc put in the spaces between the bricks of a wall, etc (勾墙等砖缝用的)水泥、 灰泥等填充物.

  point-blank

  / 9pRInt 5blANk; `pRInt`blANk/ adj [attrib 作定语] 1 (of a shot) aimed or fired at very close range (指射程)近距离内瞄准的或射击的: He shot her at point-blank range. 他在近距离射程内射中了她. 2 (fig 比喻) (of sth said) direct, complete and immediate, and often rather rude (指说的话)直接的, 断然的, 直率的(常为粗鲁的): a ,point-blank re`fusal 断然的拒绝.

  point-blank

  adv in a point-blank manner; directly (指瞄准或射击)在近距离内; (指言语)直截了当地: fire point-blank at sb 在近距离内向某人射击 * I asked him point-blank what he was doing there. 我直截了当地问他在那里做什麽呢. * refuse point-blank to do sth 断然拒绝做某事.

  pointer

  / 5pRIntE(r); `pRIntL/ n 1 long thin piece of metal, plastic, etc which moves to indicate figures, positions, etc on a dial, scale, etc (仪表盘、 刻度等上的)指针. 2 rod or stick used to point to things on a map, blackboard, etc (作指示用的)棍、 教鞭等. 3 ~ (on sth) (infml 口) piece of advice 意见; 主意: Could you give me a few pointers on how to tackle the job? 这工作怎麽做, 你能不能给我出点主意? 4 ~ (to sth) thing that shows likely future developments (预示事物发展的)暗示, 线索: journalists studying the minister's speechfor pointers to the contents of next month's policy statement研究部长讲话以揣摩下月施政报告中的动向的新闻工作者. 5 large short-haired hunting dog trained to stand still with its nose pointing in the direction of hunted birds, etc which it smells (经训练可示意猎物方向的)短毛大猎犬.

  pointillism

  / 5pRIntIlIzEm, also 5pwAnti:IzEm; `pRIntl9IzEm,`pwAnti9IzEm/ n [U] technique of painting developed in France in the late 19th century in which the picture is built up from tiny dots of different colours which the eye sees as a blend of colour 点彩画法(19世纪末从法国发展起来的绘画方法).

  pointillist

  / -lIst; -lIst/ n person who paints in this way 点彩派画家.

  pointless

  / 5pRIntlIs; `pRIntlIs/ adj with little or no sense, aim or purpose 无意义的; 无目标的: make a pointless remark 说不相干的话 * It is pointless to have a car if you cannot drive it! 假若不会开汽车, 有辆汽车又有什麽用呢?

  pointlessly

  adv.

  pointlessness

  n [U]: the pointlessness of his existence 他生活毫无目标.

  poise

  / pRIz; pRIz/ v [Ipr, Ip, Tn.pr, Tn.p] be or keep (sth) balanced or suspended 处於平衡或悬起状态; 使(某物)平衡或悬起: The eagle poised in mid-air ready to swoop on its prey. 那鹰在半空中盘旋准备扑向猎物. * He poised the javelin in his hand before throwing it. 他把手中标枪握稳後掷了出去.

  poise

  n [U] 1 graceful and balanced (control of) bodily position or movement (身体的优美而平衡的)姿势, 动作(的控制): poise of the body, head, etc 身体、 头部等优美的姿势 * moving with the assured poise of a ballet dancer 带有芭蕾舞演员那种稳健姿势的动作. 2 quiet dignified self-confidence and self-control (安然的)自信, 自制: a woman of great poise 极稳重的女子.

  poised

  adj 1 [pred 作表语] ~ (in, on, above, etc sth) in a state of balance, stillness 平衡; 平稳: poised on tiptoe, in mid-air, etc 用足尖、 在半空中...保持平衡 * sth poised on the edge of a table, ie likely to fall off if lightly touched 在桌子边上稍触即掉的东西. 2 [pred 作表语] ~ (in/on/above/for sth); ~ (to do sth) (of people, animals, etc) in a state of physical tension, ready for action (指人、 动物等)身体处於紧张状态, 准备行动: poised on the edge of the swimming-pool, ie ready to jump in 在游泳池边作出跳水的姿势 * (fig 比喻) The Allies were poised (ie ready) for their invasion of Europe. 同盟国准备随时入侵欧洲. * Combined Breweries arepoised to (ie about to) take over the British Beer Company.联合酿酒公司准备接管不列颠啤酒公司. 3 (fig 比喻) calmly self-controlled; full of poise (2) 泰然自若的; 自信的; 自制的: a poised young lady 文静自若的年轻女子 * a poised manner 沉著的态度.

  poison

  / 5pRIzn; `pRIzn/ n [C, U] 1 substance causing death or harm if absorbed by a living thing (animal or plant) 毒药; 毒物: rat poison 老鼠药 * poison for killing weeds 除草剂 * commit suicide by taking poison 服毒自杀 * [attrib 作定语] poison gas, ie esp as used to kill people in war 毒气(尤指战争中用的). 2 (infml derog 口, 贬) extremely unpleasant food 极糟的食物: I'm not eating that poison! 我可不吃那种猪食!

  poison

  v [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (with sth) 1 (a) give poison to (a living thing); kill or harm sb/sth with poison 施毒於(某生物); 用毒药毒死或毒害某人[某物]: His wife poisoned him with arsenic. 他妻子用砒霜把他毒死了. * Are our children being poisoned by lead in the atmosphere? 我们的儿童是否受著空气中铅的毒害? (b) put poison in sth 在某物中放毒: The chemical companies are poisoning our rivers with effluent. 这些化学公司排出废水污染著我们的河流. 2 (a) injure sth morally; corrupt sth (在道德上)败坏某事物; 腐化某事物: poison sb's mind with propaganda 通过宣传毒害某人的思想. (b) fill sth with suffering, bitterness, etc; spoil or ruin sth 使某事物受苦、 受难、 受罪等; 破坏或毁坏某事物: a quarrel which poisoned our friendship 有损我们友谊的争吵 * an experience that poisons sb's life 使某人一生受害的经历. 3 (idm 习语) poison A's mind against B (derog ) make A dislike B by telling A bad and usu untrue things about B 对A说B的坏话(通常指不实之词). poisoned adj 1 inflamed because of an infected cut, scratch, etc (因伤口感染等)发炎的: a poisoned hand 发炎的手. 2 having poison applied to it 有毒的; 施过毒药的: a poisoned arrow 毒箭. poisoner/ 5pRIzEnE(r); `pRIzEnL/ n person who murders by means of poison 施毒者. poisoning / 5pRIzEnIN; `pRIzEnIN/ n [C, U] (act or result of) giving or taking poison 施毒; 中毒: blood poisoning?i, ie poisoning of the blood 血中毒 * lead poisoning, ie poisoning by lead 铅中毒.

  poisonous

  / 5pRIzEnEs; `pRIznEs/ adj 1 (a) using poison as a means of attacking enemies or prey 用毒物杀敌或猎物的: poisonous snakes, insects, etc 毒蛇、 有毒 的昆虫. (b) causing death or illness if taken into the body 引起中毒的: poisonous plants, chemicals 有毒的植物、 化学物质. 2 (fig derog 比喻, 贬) (a) morally harmful 败坏道德的: the poisonous doctrine of racialsuperiority 毒害良知的种族优越论. (b) spiteful; malicious恶意的; 恶毒的: sb with a poisonous tongue, ie who spreads malicious rumours about people 言语恶毒的人.

  poisonously

  adv.

  poison-pen letter

  malicious letter sent deliberatelyto upset or offend the receiver 诽谤信.

  poke

  / pEUk; pok/ v 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth (with sth) push sb/sth sharply (with a stick, one's finger, etc); jab sb/sth (用棍棒、 手指等)捅、 拨或戳某人[某物]: poke sb in the ribs, ie nudge him in a friendly way 轻触某人肋部(促其注意) * poke the fire (with a poker), ie to make it burn more strongly 用通条捅火(使之更旺). (b) [Tn.pr] ~ sth in sth make (a hole) in sth by pushing one's finger, a sharp instrument, etc through it (用手指、 尖物等)在某物上扎(洞): Poke two holes in the sack so you can see through it. 在袋子上戳两个洞就能透过它看了. (c) [Ipr] ~ at sth make repeated small pushing movements at sth 反覆轻推某物: She poked at her meal unenthusiastically. 她无精打采地拨弄著盘中的饭菜. 2 [Tn.pr, Tn.p] put or move sth in a specified direction, with a sharp push; thrust 猛推某物; 插; 刺: She poked her finger into the hole. 她把手指插入那孔中. * poke food through the bars of a cage 把食物从笼子的栏杆间塞进去 * poke one's head out of a window 把头伸出窗外 * Mind you don't poke her eye out with that stick! 小心别让那杆子扎著她的眼睛! * He poked his head round the door to see if she was in the room. 他在门口探一下头, 看她是否在屋里. =>Usage at nudge 用法见nudge. 3 (idm 习语) poke `fun at sb/sth (usu derog 通常作贬义) make fun of sb/sth; mock or ridicule sb/sth 开某人[某事物]的玩笑; 嘲弄或嘲笑某人[某事物]: He enjoys poking fun at others. 他好开别人的玩笑. poke/stick one's nose into sth => nose1. 4 (phr v) poke about/around (infml 口) search inquisitively 好奇地寻找或打听: Why are you poking about among my papers? 你为什麽乱翻我的文件? poke out of/through sth; poke out/through/up be visible coming through (a hole, slit, etc); protrude (从洞、 缝等中)呈现, 显露; 伸出: a pen poking out (of sb's pocket) (从某人口袋中)露出的钢笔 * I see a finger poking through (a hole in your glove). 我看见你的手指(从你手套的窟窿里)露出来了. * A few daffodils were already poking up, ie starting to grow. 有几棵水仙花已经开始抽芽.

  poke

  n act of poking; nudge 捅; 拨; 戳; 刺; 轻触: give the fire a poke 拨一拨火 * give sb a poke in the ribs 捅某人肋部一下.

  poke

  / pEUk; pok/ n (idm 习语) buy a pig in a poke => buy.

  poker

  / 5pEUkE(r); `pokL/ n strong metal rod or bar for moving or breaking up coal in a fire 拨火棒; 通条.

  poker-work

  n [U] (a) art of making designs, pictures, etc on wood, leather, etc by burning the surface with a very hot tool 烙画术, 烫画术(用烙铁在木、 皮革等上烙出图案等). (b) such designs 烙画; 烫画.

  poker

  / 5pEUkE(r); `pokL/ n [U] card-game for two or more people in which the players bet on the values of the cards they hold 扑克牌戏.

  poker-face

  n (infml 口) face that shows no sign of what the person is thinking or feeling 无表情的面孔.

  poker-faced

  adj.

  poky

  / 5pEUkI; `pokI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (infml derog 口, 贬) (of a place, house, flat, etc) small; limited in space (指地方、 房子、 公寓等)小的, 狭小的: a poky little room 狭窄的小屋.

  pokiness

  n [U].

  polar

  / 5pEUlE(r); `polL/ adj [attrib 作定语] 1 of or near the North or South Pole (南、 北)极的; 地极的; 近地极的: polar ice 地极的冰 * the polar regions 极区. 2 of (one of) the poles of a magnet 磁极的: polar attraction 极向引力. 3 (fml 文) (of opposites) complete; extreme (指相对的事物)完全相反的, 极端对立的.

  polarity

  / pE5lrEtI; pE`lArEtI/ n 1 [U, C] (in a magnet) possession or location of negative and positive poles (磁体的)极性: the polarity of a magnet 磁体的极性 * reversed polarity/polarities 反转极性. 2 [U] ~(between A and B) (fig 比喻) difference or separation(between people or things) in condition, views, etc (人或物之间条件、 看法等的)分歧, 对立: the growing polarity between the left and right wings of the party 党内左右翼间日益增大的分歧.

  polar bear

  white bear living in the north polar regions 北极熊; 白熊. =>illus at bear 见bear插图.

  polarize, polarise

  / 5pEUlEraIz; `polE9raIz/ v 1 [Tn] (physics 物) cause (light-waves, etc) to vibrate in a single direction or plane 使(光波等)偏振. 2 [Tn] give magnetic polarity to (a body) 使(物体)极化; 使有极性. 3 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr] ~ (sth/sb) (into sth) (cause people, views, etc to) form into two groups which conflict with or are completely opposite to each other (使人、 观点等)两极分化, 相冲突, 截然相反: Public opinion has polarized on this issue. 在这个问题上公众的意见已两极分化. * an issue which has polarized public opinion 使舆论两极分化的问题.

  polarization, polarisation

  / 9pEUlEraI5zeIFn; ?@ -rI5z-;9polErE`zeFEn/ n [C, U] act of polarizing; state of being polarized 偏振(现象); 极化(作用); 两极分化.

  Polaroid

  / 5pEUlErRId; `polE9rRId/ n (propr 专利名) 1[U] thin transparent film put on sun-glasses, car windows, etc to lessen the brightness of sunlight (太阳眼镜、 汽车窗户等上的)偏光薄膜. 2 Polaroids [pl] sun-glasses treated with Polaroid 有偏光薄膜的太阳眼镜.

  Polaroid camera

  camera that can produce photographs within seconds after the picture has been taken 拍立得(亦译宝丽莱)照相机(一次成像的).

  Pole

  / pEUl; pol/ n native or inhabitant of Poland 波兰人.

  pole

  / pEUl; pol/ n 1 either of the two points at the exact top and bottom of the Earth, which are the opposite ends of the axis on which it turns 地极: the North/South Pole 北[南]极. =>illus at globe 见globe插图. 2 (physics 物) either of the two ends of a magnet or the terminal points of an electric battery 磁极; 电极: the negative/positive pole 负[正]极. 3 (fig 比喻) either of two opposite, conflicting or contrasting extremes 相反的、 冲突的或对立的两极之一: Our points of view are at opposite poles. 我们的观点截然相反. 4 (idm 习语) be `poles apart be widely separated; have nothing in common 截然相反; 南辕北辙: The employers and the trade union leaders are still poles apart, ie are far from reaching an agreement or a compromise. 雇主和工会领袖的意见仍相距甚远.

  pole-star

  n the North Star, which is almost exactly overhead in the northern half of the world 北极星.

  pole

  / pEUl; pol/ n 1 long thin rounded piece of wood or metal, used esp as a support for sth or for pushing boats, etc along 杆; 竿; 棒; 杖; 篙: a tent, flag, telegraph, etc pole 帐篷支柱、 旗杆、 电线杆 * a punt, barge, ski, etc pole 撑船的篙、 滑雪杖. 2 = perch1 3. 3 (idm 习语) up the `pole (infml 口 esp Brit) (a) in difficulty 处於困境. (b) wrong; mistaken 错误的; 弄错的. (c) crazy; eccentric 发疯的; 古怪的.

  pole

  v [Tn.pr, Tn.p] push (a boat, etc) along by using a pole 用杆、 篙、 杖等撑(船等): pole a punt up the river 用篙撑方头平底船逆流而上.

  pole-vault

  n (sport 体) jump over a raised bar, using a long pole which is held in the hands 撑竿跳高. =>illus at vault 见vault插图. v [I] perform such a jump 作撑竿跳高.

  pole-vaulter

  n.

  pole-vaulting

  n [U].

  pole-axe

  / 5pEUl Aks; `pol9Aks/ n 1 (formerly) axe for use in war, with a long handle (旧时)长柄战斧. 2 long-handled axe-like tool used, esp formerly, by butchers for killing cattle by hitting them on the head 长柄屠斧(尤指旧时屠宰牲畜用的).

  pole-axe

  v [Tn] 1 strike (sb/sth) down with a pole-axe 用长柄斧砍或劈(某人[某物]): (fig 比喻) The punch caught him on the jaw, and he sank down pole-axed, ie completely knocked out. 他颌部挨了一记重拳立即瘫倒在地上. 2 (usu passive 通常用於被动语态) (fig 比喻) overwhelm (sb) with surprise and distress 使(某人)因惊愕、 悲痛而手足无措: We were all absolutely pole-axed by the terrible news. 那可怕的消息传来, 我们都吓得不知所措.

  polecat

  / 5pEUlkAt; `pol9kAt/ n 1 small European animal of the weasel family which has dark brown fur and gives off an unpleasant smell 艾鼬. 2 (US) = skunk.

  polemic

  / pE5lemIk; pE`lZmIk/ n (fml 文) 1 (a) [C] ~ (against/in favour of sth/sb) speech, piece of writing, etc containing very forceful arguments (against or for sth/sb) (反对或赞成某事物[某人]的)慷慨陈词, 辩论文章: He launched into a fierce polemic against the government's policies. 他猛烈地抨击政府的政策. (b) [U] such speeches, pieces of writing, etc 慷慨陈词; 辩论文章: engage in polemic 进行辩论. 2 polemics [pl] art or practice of arguing a case formally and usu forcefully 辩论法; 争辩术.

  polemical

  / -Ikl; -Ikl/ (also polemic) adj (fml 文) 1 [attrib 作定语] of polemics 辩论法的; 争辩术的: polemic(al) skills 辩论的技巧. 2 arguing a case veryforcefully, often with the intention of being controversialor provocative 好辩的; 挑起争论的: a polemic(al) article, speech, etc 挑起争论的文章、 讲话等.

  polemically

  /-klI; -klI/ adv.

  polemicist

  / pE5lemIsIst; pE`lZmIsIst/ n person skilled in polemics 善於辩论的人.

  police

  / pE5li:s; pE`lis/ n (the) police [pl v] (members of an) official organization whose job is to keep public order, prevent and solve crime, etc 警方; 警察部门; 警察: the local, state, national, etc police 地方、 州、 国家等的警察部门 * There were over 100 police on duty at the demonstration. 游行期间有100多名警察值勤. * The police have not made any arrests. 警方未逮捕任何人. * [attrib 作定语] a police car, enquiry, raid, report 警车、 警方的询问、 警方的突击搜查、 警方的报告.

  police

  v [Tn] keep order in (a place) with or as if with police; control 维持(某地)的治安; 监督: The teachers on duty are policing the school buildings during the lunch hour. 在午饭时间, 值班教师负责维持校内秩序. * (fig 比喻) a committee to police the new regulations, ie make sure they are obeyed 监督实施新规章的委员会.

  police constable (abbr 缩写 PC)

  (also constable)(in Britain and some other countries) policeman or policewoman of the lowest rank (英国及某些国家中的)普通警员.

  police dog

  dog trained to track or attack suspected criminals 警犬.

  police force

  body of police officers of a country, district or town (国家、 地区、 城镇全体的)警察.

  policeman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ n (pl -men / -mEn; -mEn/) male member of the police force (男)警察.

  police-officer (also officer)

  n policeman or policewoman(男或女)警察.

  police state

  (derog 贬) country controlled by political police, usu a totalitarian state 警察国家(通常为极权主义国家).

  police station

  office of a local police force 警察局; 警察分局; 派出所: The suspect was taken to the police station for questioning. 那个嫌疑犯被带到警察局问话.

  policewoman

  n (pl -women) (abbr 缩写 PW) female member of the police force (女)警察.

  policy

  / 5pClEsI; `pBlEsI/ n [U, C] ~ (on sth) plan of action, statement of ideals, etc proposed or adopted by a government, political party, business, etc (政府、 政党、 公司等的)方针, 政策: according to our present policy 据我们的现行政策 * adopt fresh policies 采取新政策 * British foreign policy 英国的外交政策 * What is the Labour Party's policy on immigration? 工党在移民问题上的政策是怎样的? * (fig 比喻) Is honesty the best policy (ie the best principle for people to live by)? 诚实是不是处世的最佳原则? * [attrib 作定语] a policy maker 制定政策的人.

  policy

  / 5pClEsI; `pBlEsI/ n (written statement of the) terms of a contract of insurance 保险单: a `fire-insurance policy 火灾保险单 * [attrib 作定语] a `policy document 保险单据 * a `policy holder 投保人.

  polio

  / 5pEUlIEU; `polIo/ (also fml 正规作 poliomyelitis / 9pEUlIEU9maIE5laItIs; 9polIo9maIE`laItIs/) n [U] infectious disease caused by a virus in which the spinal cord becomes inflamed, often resulting in paralysis 脊髓灰质炎; 小儿麻痹症: [attrib 作定语] polio vaccine 脊髓灰质炎疫苗 * ,anti-`polio injections 预防小儿麻痹症的注射.

  Polish

  / 5pEUlIF; `polIF/ adj of Poland or the Poles 波兰的; 波兰人的.

  Polish

  n [U] language of the Poles 波兰语: written in Polish 用波兰文写的.

  polish

  / 5pClIF; `pBlIF/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] ~ (sth) (up) (with sth) (cause sth to) become smooth and shiny by rubbing 磨光, 擦亮(某物): This table-top polishes up nicely. 这个桌面能擦得很亮. * polish (up) wood, furniture, shoes etc with a cloth 用布把木器、 家具、 鞋等擦亮. 2 [Tn] (fig 比喻) improve (sth) by correcting, making small changes or adding new material 修正, 修改, 修饰(某物): polish a speech, an article, etc 给讲稿、 文章等润色. 3 (phr v) polish sth off (infml 口) finish sth quickly 迅速做完某事: polish off a big plateful of stew 很快吃完一大盘炖菜 * polish off the arrears of correspondence 匆匆写完待覆的信件.

  polish

  n 1 (a) [sing] shiny surface, etc obtained by polishing (磨或擦而成的)光亮的面: a table-top with a good polish 打磨得很亮的桌面. (b) [sing] action of polishing 磨光; 擦亮; 修饰: give the floor a thorough polish 把地板彻底弄光亮. (c) [U, C] substance used for polishing 擦光剂; 上光剂: `furniture, `floor, `shoe polish 家具上光蜡、 地板蜡、 鞋油 * a tin of metal polish 一罐金属擦光剂 * apply polish to sth 给某物上光. 2 [U] (fig比喻) additional quality of fineness or elegance; refinement文雅; 高雅; 优雅; 优美: an unsophisticated country fellowwho completely lacked polish 全无文雅气质不懂世故的乡下人 * a crude performance of the symphony, quite without polish 那首交响乐拙劣的演奏, 毫无美感. 3 (idm 习语) spit and polish => spit1.

  polished

  adj 1 shiny from polishing 磨光的; 擦亮的: polished wood 磨光的木头. 2 refined; elegant 文雅的; 优美的: polished manners 优雅的风度 * a polished style, performance 优美的风格、 表演.

  polisher

  n machine for polishing 磨光机: a floor polisher 地板磨光机.

  politburo

  / 5pClItbjUErEU; `pBlItbjJro/ n (pl ~s) chiefparty decision-making committee in Communist countries(共产党国家中)党的政治局.

  polite

  / pE5laIt; pE`laIt/ adj 1 having or showing that one has good manners and consideration for other people 有礼貌的; 客气的: a polite child 有礼貌的孩子 * It wasn't very polite of you to serve yourself without asking. 你也不问一声就自己吃起来是不太礼貌的. * making a few polite remarks to keep the conversation going 说几句客气话以免谈话冷场. 2 [attrib 作定语] (fml 文) (typical) of a superior class in society; refined (典型的)上流社会的; 高雅的; 有教养的: a rude word not mentioned in polite society 在上流社会中不说的粗话.

  politely

  adv.

  politeness

  n (a) [U] quality of being polite 有礼貌; 客气: He was noted for his politeness. 大家都知道他很有礼貌. (b) [C] polite act 有礼貌的表现: I recall his many politenesses over the years. 我还记得他多年来很多有礼貌的事情.

  politic

  / 5pClEtIk; `pBlE9tIk/ adj (fml 文) (of actions) well judged; prudent (指行为)得当的, 审慎的: When the fight began, he thought it politic to leave. 刚一打起来他就想到还是走为上策.

  political

  / pE5lItIkl; pE`lItIkl/ adj 1 of the State; of government; of public affairs in general 政治的; 国家的; 政府的; 政权的; 行政的: political rights, liberties, etc 政治的权利、 自由等 * a political system 政治制度. 2 of the conflict or rivalry between two or more parties 政党的; 党派的; 党派斗争的: a political party, debate, crisis 政党、 政治论战、 政治危机 * political skill, know-how, opinions 为政之术、 为政之道、 政见 * a party political broadcast, eg to explain government policy 党的施政广播(如阐述政府的政策) 3 (of actions) considered to be harmful to the State or government (指行为)被认为有害於国家或政府的: a political offence, crime, etc 政治上的违法行为、 政治罪 * imprisoned on political grounds 由於政治原因而被监禁. 4 (of people) interested in or active in politics (指人)关心政治的, 政治上活跃的: sb who is very political (in outlook) 颇有政治头脑的人 * I'm not a political animal, ie person. 我不是搞政治的. 5 (euph derog 婉, 贬) concerned with power, status, etc within an organization rather than with the true merits of a case 互相倾轧的; 实际上与权位等利益有关的: One suspects he was dismissed for political reasons. 有人 怀疑他是由於人事上的原因而被解职的. * It must have been a political decision. 这一决定准是和互相倾轧有关.

  politically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv with regard to politics 政治上: a politically active, astute, nave, etc person 政治上很活跃、 很精明、 很幼稚...的人 * politically useful, sound, disastrous, etc ideas 政治上有好处、 没问题、 祸害无穷等的意见 * a politically sensitive decision 政治上很敏感的决定.

  political asylum

  protection given by a state to sb who has left his own country because he opposes its government (某国给予他国之流亡人士的)政治庇护: seek/ask for/be granted political asylum 寻求[申请/获得]政治庇护.

  political geography

  geography dealing with boundaries,communications, etc between countries 政治地理学(研究国与国之间的边界、 地域交往等).

  political prisoner

  person who is imprisoned because he or she opposes the (system of) government 政治犯(因反对政府或其政治制度而遭关押者).

  political science (also politics)

  academic study of government and political institutions 政治学.

  politician

  / 9pClI5tIFn; 9pBlE`tIFEn/ n 1 person actively (and usu professionally) concerned with politics 积极从事政治活动的人; (通常指职业的)政治家. 2 (often derog 常作贬义) person who is skilled at handling people or situations, or at getting people to do what he wants 政客; 玩弄权术者: You need to be a bit of a politician to succeed in this company. 要想在这家公司步步登高, 就需要耍点手腕.

  politicize, politicise

  / pE5lItIsaIz; pE`lItE9saIz/ v [I, Tn](cause sb/sth to) become politically conscious or organized(使某人[某事物])具有政治性或政党化: The strike has now been politicized. 这次罢工现已带有政治色彩.

  politicking

  / 5pClEtIkIN; `pBlE9tIkIN/ n [U, C] (often derog 常作贬义) political activity, esp to win votes or support 政治活动(尤指拉选票或拉拢支持者): A lot of politicking preceded the choice of the new director. 在选新领导人之前进行了大量的拉拢活动.

  politic

  / 5pClEtIk; `pBlE9tIk/ adj (fml 文) (of actions) well judged; prudent (指行为)得当的, 审慎的: When the fight began, he thought it politic to leave. 刚一打起来他就想到还是走为上策.

  politics

  / 5pClEtIks; `pBlE9tIks/ n 1 (a) [sing or pl v] political affairs or life 政治事务; 政治生活; 政治活动: party politics 政党政治 * local politics 地方上的政治活动 * He's thinking of going into politics, eg trying to become a Member of Parliament. 他正打算参政(如争取当下院议员). (b) [pl] political views, beliefs 政治观点; 政治信仰: What are your politics? 你的政见如何? (c) [sing v] (derog 贬) rivalry between political parties 政党之间的斗争: They're not concerned with welfare: it's all politics! 他们并非关心福利问题, 完全是党同伐异. 2 [sing v] = political science (political): She's reading politics at university. 她在大学里攻读政治学. 3 [sing v] (derog 贬) manoeuvring for power or advantage within a group or organization 权术; 勾心斗角: office politics 公务上的争权夺利 * church politics 教会的明争暗斗.

  polity

  / 5pClEtI; `pBlEtI/ n (fml 文) 1 [U] form or process of government 政权形式; 政体. 2 [C] society as an organized state 国家组织; 政府.

  polka

  / 5pClkE; ?@ 5pEUlkE; `polkE/ n (piece of music for a) lively dance of E European origin 波尔卡舞(源自东欧的一种轻快舞蹈); 波尔卡舞曲.

  polka dots

  regular pattern of large dots on cloth (布料上的)圆点图案: [attrib 作定语] a polka-dot scarf 有圆点图案的围巾. =>illus at pattern 见pattern插图.

  Gallup poll

  / 5gAlEp pEUl; `^AlEp`pol/ assessment of public opinion by questioning a representative sample of people, esp in order to forecast voting at an election 盖洛普民意测验(尤指为预测大选的结果).

  poll

  / pEUl; pol/ n 1 (a) [C usu sing 通常作单数] voting at an election; counting of votes 选举投票; 计票: be successful at the poll 选举投票中获胜 * The result of the poll has now been declared. 选举结果已经公布. (b) [sing] number of votes cast (投的)票数: head the poll, ie have the largest number of votes 得票最多 * a light/heavy poll, ie voting by a small or large proportion of those entitled to vote 低[高]投票率. (c) the polls [pl] place where people vote 投票处: The country is going to the polls (ie is voting in an election) tomorrow. 明天将在全国进行选举投票. 2 [C] survey of public opinion by putting questions to a representative selection of people 民意测验: a public opinion poll 民意测验 * the Gallup poll 盖洛普民意测验 * We're conducting a poll among school leavers. 我们正在对中学毕业生进行民意调查.

  poll-tax

  n tax levied at the same rate on every (or every adult) person in the community 人头税.

  poll

  / pEUl; pol/ v [Tn] 1 (of a candidate at an election) receive (a certain number of votes) (指候选人)获得(一定数量的选票): Mr Hill polled over 3000 votes. 希尔先生获得了3000多张选票. 2 ask (sb) his or her opinion as part of a public-opinion poll (在民意测验中)调查(某人); 对(某人)作民意调查: Of those polled, seven out of ten said they preferred brown bread. 那些被调查者十人中有七人说他们比较爱吃黑面包. 3 (a) cut off the top of the horns of (cattle) 截去(牛)的角的顶端. (b) = pollard v.

  polling

  n [U] (a) voting 投票: heavy polling, ie inlarge numbers 高的投票率. (b) conducting of public-opinionpolls 进行民意测验. `polling-booth, `polling-station ns place where people go to vote in an election 投票站. `polling-day n day appointed for an election 投票日.

  pollard

  / 5pClEd; `pBlLd/ (also poll) v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] cut off the top of (a tree) so that many new thin branches will grow, forming a dense head of leaves 截去(树)的梢(以便长出繁茂的枝叶形成树冠): The willows need to be pollarded. 这些柳树需截去树梢.

  pollard

  n pollarded tree 截去了梢的树.

  pollen

  / 5pClEn; `pBlEn/ n [U] fine (usu yellow) powder formed in flowers, which fertilizes other flowers when carried to them by the wind, insects, etc 花粉.

  pollen count

  number indicating the amount of pollen in the atmosphere, used as a guide to possible attacks of hay fever, etc 花粉计数(指示空气中的花粉数量, 供预测枯草热等病症之参考).

  pollinate

  / 5pClEneIt; `pBlE9net/ v [Tn] make (sth) fertile with pollen 给(某物)传授花粉.

  pollination

  / 9pClE5neIFn; 9pBlE`neFEn/ n [U].

  hoi polloi

  / 9hRI pE5lRI; `hRIpE`lRI/ [pl] the hoi polloi (derog 贬) the common people; the masses 民众; 老百姓; 乌合之众.

  pollster

  / 5pEUlstE(r); `polstL/ n (infml 口) person who conducts public-opinion polls 民意测验者; 民意调查者.

  pollute

  / pE5lu:t; pE`lut/ v [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (with sth) 1 make sth dirty or impure, esp by adding harmful or unpleasant substances 污染或弄脏某物或使某物含有杂质(尤指因搀入有害的或不好的物质): rivers polluted with chemical waste from factories 受到工厂排放的化学废料污染的河流 * polluted water, ie unfit to drink 污染的水(不宜饮用). 2 (fig 比喻) destroy the purity or sanctity of sth; corrupt 玷污或亵渎某事物; 败坏: pollute the minds of the young with foul propaganda 宣传不良事物腐蚀青年人的思想.

  pollutant

  / -Ent; -Ent/ n substance that pollutes, eg exhaust fumes from motor vehicles 污染物质(如机动车辆排出的废气): releasing pollutants into the atmosphere 将污染物质排放到空气里.

  pollution

  / pE5lu:Fn; pE`luFEn/ n [U] (a) polluting or being polluted 污染; 弄脏; 玷污; 亵渎; 败坏: the pollution of our beaches with oil 石油对我们海滩的污染. (b) substance that pollutes 污染物质.

  polo

  / 5pEUlEU; `polo/ n [U] game in which players onhorseback try to hit the ball into a goal using long-handledhammers 马球(体育运动, 骑马用长柄槌将球击入球门).

  polo neck

  (style of) high round turned-over collar 圆高翻领; 圆高翻领式样: [attrib 作定语] a ,polo-neck `sweater 套头高翻领毛衣. =>illus at neck 见neck插图.

  polonaise

  / 9pClE5neIz; 9pBlE`nez/ n (piece of music for a) slow dance of Polish origin 波洛内兹舞(源出波兰的慢步舞); 波洛内兹舞曲.

  poltergeist

  / 5pCltEgaIst; `poltL9^aIst/ n type of ghost that makes loud noises, throws objects about, etc (弄出噪声、 乱扔东西等的)鬼.

  poly

  / 5pClI; `pBlI/ n (pl ~s) (infml 口) = polytechnic.

  poly-

  comb form 构词成分 many 多: polygamy * polyphony* polysyllable * polygamous * polyphonic * polysyllabic.

  polyandry

  / 5pClIAndrI; `pBlI9AndrI/ n [U] custom of having more than one husband at the same time 一妻多夫(制).

  polyandrous

  / 9pClI5AndrEs; 9pBlI`AndrEs/ adj 1 of or practising polyandry 一妻多夫的; 实行一妻多夫制的. 2 (botany 植) (of plants) having many stamens (指植物)多雄蕊的.

  polyanthus

  / 9pClI5AnWEs; 9pBlI`AnWEs/ n [U, C] garden plant of the primrose family, with several (usu multi-coloured) flowers on one stalk 西洋樱草; 多花水仙.

  polyester

  / 9pClI5estE(r); ?@ 5pCli:estEr; 9pBli`ZstL/ n [U, C] artificial fabric used for making clothes, etc 聚酯纤维: [attrib 作定语] a polyester shirt 聚酯纤维衬衫.

  polyethylene

  / 9pClI5eWEli:n; 9pBlI`ZWE9lin/ n [U] (US) = polythene.

  polygamy

  / pE5lIgEmI; pE`lI^EmI/ n [U] custom of having more than one wife at the same time 一夫多妻(制). Cf 参看 monogamy.

  polygamist

  / -gEmIst; -^EmIst/ man who practices this 多配偶的男子.

  polygamous

  / pE5lIgEmEs; pE`lI^EmEs/ adj of or practising polygamy 一夫多妻的; 实行一夫多妻制的.

  polyglot

  / 5pClIglCt; `pBlI9^lBt/ adj (fml 文) knowing, using or written in many languages 通晓或使用多种语言的; 以多种语言写成的: a polyglot edition 多语种对照的版本.

  polyglot

  n person who speaks many languages 操多种语言的人.

  polygon

  / 5pClIgEn; ?@ -gCn; `pBlI9^Bn/ n (geometry 几) figure with many (usu five or more) straight sides 多边形, 多角形(通常指至少有五个直边).

  polygonal

  / pE5lIgEnl; pE`lI^Enl/ adj.

  polyhedron

  / 9pClI5hi:drEn; 9pBlI`hidrEn/ n (pl ~s or -hedra / -5hi:drE; -`hidrE/) solid figure with many (usu seven or more) faces 多面体(通常指至少有七面).

  polymath

  / 5pClImAW; `pBlE9mAW/ n (fml approv 文, 褒) person who knows a great deal about many different subjects 博学之士.

  polymer

  / 5pClImE(r); `pBlEmL/ n (chemistry 化) natural or artificial compound made up of large molecules which are themselves made from combinations of small simple molecules 聚合物; 聚合体.

  polymorphous

  / 9pClI5mR:fEs; 9pBlI`mRrfEs/, polymorphic /-fIk; -fIk/ adjs (fml 文) having or passing through many stages (of development, growth, etc) (在发展或成长中)有多种形式或形态的.

  polyp

  / 5pClIp; `pBlIp/ n 1 (biology 生) very simple form of animal (eg a sea anemone) found in water 水螅体(如海葵): Coral is formed by certain types of polyp. 珊瑚是由某些水螅体构成的. 2 (medical 医) any of several kinds of tumour (eg in the nose) 息肉(如鼻腔中的).

  polypous

  / -pEs; -pEs/ adj.

  polyphony

  / pE5lIfEnI; pE`lIfEnI/ n [U] combination of several different melodic patterns to form a single pieceof music; counterpoint 复音音乐; 对位法.

  polyphonic

  / 9pClI5fCnIk; 9pBlI`fBnIk/ adj.

  polystyrene

  / 9pClI5staIri:n; 9pBlI`staIrin/ n [U] type of light firm plastic with good insulating properties, used esp for making containers 聚苯乙烯: [attrib 作定语] a polystyrene box 聚苯乙烯塑料盒.

  polysyllable

  / 5pClIsIlEbl; `pBlE9sIlEbl/ n word of several (usu more than three) syllables 多音节词(通常指多於三个音节者).

  polysyllabic

  / 9pClIsI5lbIk;9pBlEsI`lAbIk/ adj.

  polytechnic

  / 9pClI5teknIk; 9pBlE`tZknIk/ (also infml 口语作 poly) n (esp in Britain) college for advanced full-time and part-time education, esp in scientific and technical subjects (尤指英国的)理工学院: [attrib 作定语] polytechnic courses, students 理工学院的课程、 学生.

  polytheism

  / 5pClIWi:IzEm; `pBlEWi9IzEm/ n [U] belief in or worship of more than one god 多神信仰; 多神论; 多神崇拜. Cf 参看 monotheism.

  polytheistic

  / 9pClIWi:5IstIk; 9pBlEWi`IstIk/ adj.

  polythene

  / 5pClIWi:n; `pBlEWin/ n [U] type of plastic widely used in the form of flexible, often transparent, sheets for waterproof packaging, insulation, etc 聚乙烯: [attrib 作定语] a polythene bag, cover 聚乙烯塑料袋、 套.

  polyunsaturated

  / 9pClIQn5sAtFEreItId; 9pBlIQn`sAtFE9retId/ adj (of many vegetable and some animal fats) having a chemical structure which does not help the harmful formation of cholesterol in the blood (指许多植物脂肪和一些动物脂肪)含有多重不饱和化合物的: Polyunsaturated margarine is very popular now. 含有多重不饱和化合物的人造黄油现已很受欢迎. Cf 参看 saturated 2.

  polyurethane

  / 9pClI5jUErIWeIn; 9pBlI`jJrE9Wen/ n [U] type of plastic used in making paints 聚氨酯(用以制造油漆): [attrib 作定语] polyurethane gloss, ie paint that dries with a hard shiny surface 聚氨酯亮光漆.

  pom

  / pCm; pBm/ n (infml 口) 1 = pommy. 2 = pomeranian.

  pom-pom

  / 5pCmpCm; `pBmpBm/ n small woollen ball used for decoration, eg on a hat, on the border of a piece of fabric, etc (装饰性的)绒球(如帽子上、 织物边缘等处的).

  pomander

  / pE5mAndE(r); po`mAndL/ n (round container for a) ball of mixed sweet-smelling substances(eg flowers, leaves, spices, etc) used to perfume cupboards,rooms, etc 香丸(混有香味物质, 如花、 叶、 香料等, 用以使橱柜、 房间等生香); 盛香丸的圆形容器; 香盒.

  pomegranate

  / 5pCmIgrAnIt; `pBm9^rAnIt/ n (tree with a) thick-skinned round fruit which, when ripe, has a reddish centre full of large juicy seeds 石榴(树): [attrib 作定语] pomegranate juice, seeds 石榴汁、 子.

  Pomeranian

  / 9pCmE5reInIEn; 9pBmE`renIEn/ (also infml 口语作 pom) n type of small long-haired dog 波美拉尼亚狗(一种长毛小狗).

  pommel

  / 5pCml; `pBml/ n 1 rounded part of a saddle which sticks up at the front (马鞍的)前桥(鞍前向上突起的圆形部分); 鞍头. 2 rounded knob on the handle of a sword (剑柄上的)圆球.

  pommel

  / 5pQml; `pQml/ v (-ll-; US -l-) [Tn] = pummel.

  pommy

  / 5pCmI; `pBmI/ n (Austral or NZ infml usu derog 澳或新西兰, 口, 通常作贬义) (also pom) British person 英国人.

  pomp

  / pCmp; pBmp/ n [U] 1 (a) splendid display or magnificence, esp at a public event 宏伟壮观的景象(尤指群众场面); 盛况: the pomp and ceremony of the State Opening of Parliament 国会揭幕的盛况. (b) (derog 贬) such display seen as trivial and meaningless 不必要和无意义的铺张和排场; 虚荣; 浮华: forsaking worldly pomp for the life of a monk 摒弃世间的浮华而出家. 2 (idm 习语) pomp and circumstance magnificent and/or ceremonious display and procedure 盛大的和[或]隆重的场面和仪式.

  pompous

  / 5pCmpEs; `pBmpEs/ adj (derog 贬) feeling, or showing that one feels, that one is much more important than other people 自大的; 自负的; 浮夸的: a pompous official 自命不凡的官员 * pompous language, ie full of high-sounding words 浮夸的语言.

  pomposity

  / pCm5pCsEtI; pBm`pBsEtI/ n (a) [U] being pompous 自大; 自负; 浮夸. (b) [C] instance of this 自大; 自负; 浮夸.

  pompously

  adv.

  ponce

  / pCns; pBns/ n (Brit) 1 man who lives with a prostitute and lives on her earnings 与妓女同居并靠其养活的男子. 2 (infml derog 口, 贬) man who acts in a showy, esp effeminate, way 爱炫耀的男子; (尤指)女人气的男子.

  ponce

  v (phr v) ponce about/around (Brit infml derog 口, 贬) (a) act in a showy, esp effeminate, way炫耀; (尤指)表现女子气. (b) act or behave in an ineffective or time-wasting way 游手好闲: Stop poncing about and get that job finished. 别闲逛了, 把那活儿干完了吧.

  poncho

  / 5pCntFEU; `pBntFo/ n (pl ~s) type of cloak made from a large piece of cloth with a slit in the middle for the head (大块布料正中开领口的)斗篷.

  pond

  / pCnd; pBnd/ n small area of still water, esp one used or made as a drinking place for cattle or as an ornamental garden pool 池塘(尤指供牲畜饮水或作为花园之装饰者): a fish pond 养鱼池 * [attrib 作定语] pond life, ie animals living in a pond 在池塘中生活的动物.

  ponder

  / 5pCndE(r); `pBndL/ v [I, Ipr, Tn, Tw] ~ (on/over sth) think about (sth) carefully and for a long time, esp in trying to reach a decision; consider (长时间地仔细)考虑(某事物)(尤指以便作出决定); 深思: You have pondered long enough; it is time to decide. 你考虑的时间够长的了, 该作决定了. * I pondered (over) the incident, asking myself again and again how it could have happened. 我反覆思考那件事, 一再自问究竟是怎麽回事. * pondering on the meaning of life 深深地思索人生的意义 * I am pondering how to respond. 我在琢磨该怎样回答.

  ponderous

  / 5pCndErEs; `pBndErEs/ adj 1 slow and awkward because of great weight 笨重的: a fat man's ponderous movements 胖男人的笨拙动作. 2 (derog 贬) (of speech, written style, etc) without vigour or inspiration; dull; laboured (指讲话、 文章风格等)沉闷的, 乏味的, 艰涩的.

  ponderously

  adv.

  ponderousness

  n [U].

  pone

  / pEUn; pon/ n [U] = corn pone (corn1).

  pong

  / pCN; pRN/ n (Brit infml often joc 口, 常作戏谑语) strong, usu unpleasant, smell 强烈的(通常为难闻的)气味: What a horrible pong! 臭死了!

  pong

  v [I] smell strongly and usu unpleasantly 发生强烈的、 通常为难闻的气味.

  pongy

  / 5pCNI; `pRNI/ adj (-ier, -iest): Your feet are rather pongy! 你的脚真臭!

  pontiff

  / 5pCntIf; `pBntIf/ n 1 (arch 古) bishop; chief priest; high priest 主教; 大祭司. 2 the (Supreme) Pontiff the Pope 教皇; 教宗.

  pontifical

  / pCn5tIfIkl; pBn`tIfIkl/ adj 1 (a) of the Pope 教皇的; 教宗的. (b) [usu attrib 通常作定语] celebrated by a bishop, cardinal, etc 由主教、 红衣主教等主持的: pontifical high mass 由主教、 红衣主教等主持的大弥撒. 2 (derog 贬) tending to pontificate; opinionated 独断专行的; 固执武断的.

  pontificate

  / pCn5tIfIkEt; pBn`tIfIkEt/ n office of a pontiff, esp of the Pope; period of this 主教或大祭司的职位或任期; (尤指)教皇的职位或任期.

  pontificate

  / -keIt; -ket/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (about/on sth) (derog 贬) speak as if one were the only person who knew the facts or had the right opinions about sth 武断地或自封为权威地谈论某事物: He sat there pontificating about the legal system although it was clear that he knew very little about it. 他坐在那儿发表他对法制的高论, 虽然他对此一窍不通.

  pontoon

  / pCn5tu:n; pBn`tun/ n any of a number of flat-bottomed boats or hollow metal structures joined together to support a temporary roadway over a river, an estuary, etc (作浮桥用的)平底船或金属空筒; 趸船: [attrib 作定语] a pontoon bridge 浮桥.

  pontoon

  / pCn5tu:n; pBn`tun/ n (also twenty-one, vingt-et-un) (Brit) (US `blackjack) (a) card-game in which players try to acquire cards with a face value totalling 21 二十一点牌戏. (b) (in this game) score of 21 from two cards (二十一点牌戏中)两张牌的点数之和为21点.

  pony

  / 5pEUnI; `ponI/ n 1 small type of horse 一种矮马; 小型马. 2 (dated Brit sl 旧, 俚) 25 25英镑. 3 (idm 习语) on Shanks's pony/mare => shank.

  pony-tail

  n woman's or girl's long hair drawn back and tied at the back of the head so that it hangs like a horse's tail (女子的)马尾发型. =>illus at plait 见plait插图.

  pony-trekking

  n [U] making a journey for pleasure by riding on ponies 骑小型马出游.

  poodle

  / 5pu:dl; `pudl/ n type of small dog with thick curling hair which is often cut into an elaborate pattern 鬈毛小狗(其毛常经修剪). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page iii.

  poof

  / pUf; pJf/ (pl ~s or pooves / pu:vz; puvz/) n (also poofter / 5pUftE(r); `pJftL/) (Brit sl derog 俚, 贬)(a) effeminate man 女人气的男子. (b) male homosexual男同性恋者.

  pooh

  / pu:; pu/ interj (a) (used to express impatience orcontempt 用以表示不耐烦或轻蔑): Pooh! What nonsense! 呸! 胡说! (b) (used to express disgust at a bad smell 用以对难闻的气味表示厌恶): Pooh! This meat is rotten. 嗳呀! 这肉臭啦.

  pooh-pooh

  / 9pu:5pu:; `pu`pu/ v [Tn] (infml 口) treat(an idea, a suggestion, etc) with contempt; dismiss scornfully 蔑视(主意、 建议等); 藐视: They pooh-poohed our scheme for raising money. 他们对我们的筹款方案嗤之以鼻.

  pool

  / pu:l; pul/ n 1 small area of still water, esp one that has formed naturally 水池, 水塘, 水坑(尤指自然形成者): After the rainstorm, there were pools on the roads. 暴雨过後路上有许多水洼儿. 2 shallow patch of water or other liquid lying on a surface 一滩水或其他液体: The body was lying in a pool of blood. 尸体躺在血泊中. 3 place in a river where the water is deep and there isnot much current 河中水深甚少流动之处. 4 = swimming-pool (swim).

  pool

  / pu:l; pul/ n 1 [C] common fund of money, esp the stakes of all the players in a gambling game (集中在一起的)款额; 共同储金; (尤指)各赌博者的合计赌金. 2 [C] (a) common supply of funds, goods or services which are available to a group of people to be used when needed 集中使用的资金、 物资、 服务等: a pool of cars used by the firm's salesmen 公司推销人员共用的一些汽车 * [attrib 作定语] a pool car 公用汽车. (b) group of people available for work when required 可招之即来的一些人: a pool of doctors available for emergency work 为应付紧急情况而待命的一些医生 * a `typing pool,ie a pool of typists 提供联合服务的打字人员. 3 [C] arrangement by a number of business firms to agree on prices and share profits, in order to avoid competition 联营(公司之间为避免竞争而在价格和利润上订立协议的措施). 4 [U] (esp US) game played with (usu) 16 coloured balls on a billiard-table, similar to snooker 普尔弹子戏(类似落袋台球的游戏, 通常用16个彩色球). 5 the pools [pl] = football pools (football): do the pools every week 每星期都赌足球普尔 * have a win on the pools 赢得足球普尔彩金. 6 (idm 习语) shoot pool => shoot1.

  pool

  v [Tn] put (money, resources, etc) into a common fund 向共同基金提供(金钱、 资源等): They pooled their savings and bought a house in the country. 他们用积蓄的钱合资在乡间买了一所房子. * (fig 比喻) If we pool our ideas, we may find a solution. 我们集思广益就能找到解决办法.

  poolroom

  n (US) place where pool2(4) is played 普尔弹子球室.

  poop

  / pu:p; pup/ n (a) stern of a ship 船尾. (b) (also `poop deck) raised deck at the stern of a ship 船尾楼甲板.

  pooped

  / pu:pt; pupt/ adj [pred 作表语] (also ,pooped `out) (infml 口 esp US) very tired; exhausted 很累; 筋疲力尽.

  poor

  / pR:(r); ?@ pUEr; pJr/ adj (-er, -est) 1 having very little money with which to buy one's basic needs 贫穷的; 贫困的: She was too poor to buy clothes for her children. 她穷得没钱给孩子买衣服. * He came from a poor family. 他出身於穷苦人家. * the poorer countries of the world 世界上的贫穷国家. 2 [pred 作表语] ~ in sth having sth only in very small quantities; deficient in sth 缺乏某物; 某方面不足: a country poor in minerals 缺乏矿产的国家 * soil poor in nutrients 缺少养分的土壤. 3 (a) not good; inadequate, esp in contrast with what is usual or expected 不好的, 不充分的, 不足的(尤与一般的或所期望的情况相比): We had a poor crop of raspberries this year. 今年我们的悬钩子歉收. * They received a poor return on their investment. 他们的投资获利甚微. * Attendance at the concert was very poor. 那次音乐会的上座率极低. * the party's poor performance in the election 该党在选举中的拙劣表现. (b) of low quality; deficient 劣质的; 不足的: poor food, light, soil 劣质食品、 微弱的光线、 贫瘠的土壤 * a poor diet 粗劣的日常饮食 * be in poor health 健康欠佳 * Her remarks were in very poor taste. 她的话真没意思. (c) inferior; insignificant 差的; 无关紧要的: Watching the event on television was a poor substitute for actually being there. 从电视上观看那个比赛比现场观看可差远了. * Getting third prize was poor consolation for all their hard work. 他们那麽努力才获得三等奖, 真有点说不过去. * She came a poor second, ie a long way behind the winner. 她得了个第二名, 成绩很差(远远落在第一名的後面). (d) (of a person) not good or skilled at sth (指人)在某方面不好的, 对某事物不熟练的: a poor judge of character 对品性判断不准 * a poor loser, ie one who shows anger at losing in games or sport 输不起的人(输了就生气的人) * a poor sailor, ie sb who gets sea-sick easily 容易晕船的人. 4 (esp infml 尤作口语?w) deserving pity or sympathy; unfortunate 值得怜悯或同情的; 可怜的; 不幸的: The poor little puppy had been abandoned. 那可怜的小狗被人遗弃了. * Poor chap, his wife has just died. 不幸的小伙子啊, 他刚刚死了妻子. * `I've been feeling ill for two weeks.' `Poor you!' `两周以来我身体一直不好.'`真叫人同情!' 5 (a) (derog 贬) deserving contempt 可鄙的: What a poor creature he is! 他真卑鄙! * his poor attempts to be witty 他那卑劣的取巧行为. (b) (esp joc or ironic 尤作戏谑语或反语) humble 谦恭的: in my poor opinion 依本人拙见. 6 (idm 习语) the poor man's sb/sth person or thing that is an inferior or a cheaper alternative to a well-known person, institution, food, etc 降而求其次的人或事物: Sparkling white wine is the poor man's champagne. 白葡萄汽酒算是廉价的香槟. a poor relation person or thing with less power, prestige or respect than others of the same type 较同类逊色的人或事物: Some people may regard radio as the poor relation of broadcasting. 有些人可能认为无线电广播在广播事业中稍逊一筹.

  the poor

  n [pl v] 1 people with little money or possessions 穷人: raising money for the poor and needy 为穷苦人筹款. 2 (idm 习语) grind the faces of the poor => grind.

  poor-box

  n (esp formerly) box placed in a church, in which people may put gifts of money for the poor (尤指旧时)(教堂中募集济贫款的)慈善箱.

  Poor Law

  (Brit) (formerly) group of laws concerned with giving help and care to poor people (旧时)济贫法.

  poor-spirited

  adj lacking courage; timid 缺乏勇气的; 胆小的.

  poor white

  (usu derog or offensive 通常作贬义或作轻蔑语) (esp in Southern US) member of a class of poor white-skinned people in a mainly Black community (尤指美国南方以黑人为主的社区中的)贫苦白人.

  poorly

  / 5pR:lI; ?@ 5pUErlI; `pJrlI/ adv 1 in a poor(3) manner; badly 很糟地; 不充分地; 不足地: poorly dressed 穿得不好的 * The street is poorly lit. 街上灯光暗淡. * She was poorly prepared for the examination. 她考试准备得不充分. 2 (idm 习语) poorly `off (infml 口) having very little money 贫困的; 没钱的: The widow and children are very poorly off. 那寡妇和孩子们一贫如洗.

  poorly

  adj [esp pred 尤作表语] (infml 口) not well; ill 健康欠佳; 不舒服: The child has been poorly all week. 那孩子整个星期都病病歪歪的. * You look rather poorly to me. 我看你好像不大舒服. =>Usage at sick 用法见sick.

  poorness

  / 5pR:nIs; ?@ 5pUErnIs; `pJrnIs/ n [U] lack of a desirable quality or element; state of being poor(2) 贫乏; 不足: the poorness of the soil 土壤的瘠薄. Cf 参看 poverty.

  pop

  / pCp; pBp/ n 1 [C] short sharp explosive sound 短促清脆的爆破声: The cork came out of the bottle with a loud pop. 瓶塞砰的一声拔出来了. 2 [U] (infml 口) (esp non-alcoholic) fizzy drink (尤指不含酒精的)起泡饮料; 汽水: a bottle of pop 一瓶汽水. 3 (idm 习语) in pop; US in hock (sl 俚) in pawn 已典当; 在当铺里.

  pop

  adv with a pop 砰的一声: It came out pop. 那东西砰的一声就出来了. * go pop, ie make a pop 发出短促清脆的爆破声.

  pop

  / pCp; pBp/ n (infml 口) (used esp as a term of address 尤用作呼唤语) (a) father 爸爸. Cf 参看 papa, poppa. (b) any older man 老大爷; 老伯伯.

  pop

  / pCp; pBp/ n [U, C usu pl 作不可数名词或可数名词, 後者通常作复数] (infml 口) modern popular style, esp in music 现代流行风格(尤指音乐的): pop music, culture 流行音乐、 普及文化 * a pop singer, song, concert 流行歌曲歌手、 流行歌曲、 流行歌曲音乐会 * top of the pops, ie the most popular current recordings 最受欢迎的流行音乐录音. Cf 参看 classical 2.

  pop art

  style of art developed in the 1960's, based on popular culture and the mass media, using material such as advertisements, comic strips, etc 波普艺术(20世纪60年代的一种艺术风格, 以大众文化和大众传播媒介, 如以广告、 连环漫画等为基础发展而成).

  pop festival

  large (usu outdoor) gathering of people to hear performances by pop musicians, sometimes lasting several days 流行音乐会演(通常为在室外举行的大型活动, 由流行音乐家表演节目, 有时持续多日).

  pop group

  band and singer(s) who play pop music 表演流行音乐的乐队和歌手.

  pop

  / pCp; pBp/ v (-pp-) 1 [I, Ip] make a short sharp explosive sound (as when a cork comes out of a bottle) 发出短促清脆的爆破声(如拔瓶塞的声音): Champagne corks were popping (away) throughout the celebrations. 庆祝会上开香槟酒瓶塞的砰砰声不绝於耳. 2 [Tn] cause (sth) to burst with such a sound 使(某物)破裂, 发出短促清脆的声音: The children were popping balloons. 孩子们把汽球弄得劈啪作响. 3 [Tn] (US) dry (corn) until it bursts open and puffs up 爆(玉米): pop maize 爆玉米花. 4 [Ip] ~ away/off (at sth) (infml 口) fire a gun (at sth) (向某物)开枪: They were popping away at the rabbits all afternoon. 他们一下午都在用枪打兔子. 5 [Tn] (dated Brit infml 旧, 口) pawn (sth) 典当(某物). 6 (idm 习语) pop the `question (infml 口) make a proposal of marriage 求婚. 7 (phr v) pop across, down, out etc come or go quickly or suddenly in thedirection specified (迅速或突然)来, 去: He's just poppeddown the road to the shops. 他刚才急匆匆地沿这条路去商店了. * She's popped over to see her mother. 她赶著去看她的母亲. * He's only popped out for a few minutes. 他刚出去一会儿. * Where's Tom popped off to? 汤姆一眨眼上哪里去了? pop sth across, in, into, etc sth put or take sth somewhere quickly or suddenly (迅速或突然)将某物放到或带到某处: pop a letter in the post 把信一下子投进邮筒 * She popped the tart into the oven. 她把果馅饼很快地放进烤箱里. * He popped his head round the door to say goodbye. 他从门口探进头来说了声再见. pop in make a brief visit 作短暂的访问; 来或去一会儿: She often pops in for coffee. 她常来喝杯咖啡. pop sth in deliver sth as one is passing 顺便带交某物: I'll pop the books in on my way home. 我要在回家时顺路把这些书送到. pop off (infml 口) die 死: She said she had no intention of popping off for some time yet.她说她还想多活几天. pop out (of sth) come out suddenly 突然出来: The rabbits popped out as soon as we opened the hutch. 我们一打开兔箱, 兔子就突然跑出来了. * (fig 比喻) His eyes nearly popped out of his head when he saw what he had won. 他一看到自己赢得的东西, 顿时两眼瞪得大大的. pop up (infml 口) appear or occur, esp when not expected 出现, 发生(尤指出乎意料): He seems to pop up in the most unlikely places. 在他似乎绝不可能到的地方, 他往往就在那里出现.

  popcorn

  / 5pCpkR:n; `pBp9kRrn/ n [U] maize that has been heated so that it bursts and forms fluffy balls (热爆的)玉米花.

  pop-eyed

  adj (a) having naturally bulging eyes 眼球突出的. (b) with eyes wide open with surprise (因惊讶)睁大眼睛的: She was pop-eyed with amazement. 她惊奇得瞪著眼发愣.

  popgun

  / 5pCpgQn; `pBp9^Qn/ n child's toy gun that shoots a cork with a popping sound 玩具木塞气枪.

  pop-up

  adj 1 (of the pages of a book) rising into a 3-dimensional form as the book is opened (指书页)打开书本时呈立体状的. 2 [attrib 作定语] (of an automatic toaster) that operates by causing the toast to move quickly upwards when it is ready (指自动的面包片加热器)面包片加热後自动弹起的.

  pop

  abbr 缩写 = population: pop 12m, ie 12 million 人口1200万.

  pope

  / pEUp; pop/ n head of the Roman Catholic Church who is also the Bishop of Rome (天主教的)教皇, 教宗: the election of a new pope 新教皇的选举 * Pope John Paul 约翰·保罗教皇(亦译若望·保禄教宗).

  popery

  / 5pEUpErI; `popErI/ n [U] (derog 贬) (a) Roman Catholicism 天主教. (b) papal system 教皇制度.

  popish

  / 5pEUpIF; `popIF/ adj (derog 贬) (a) of or relating to Roman Catholicism 天主教的; 与天主教有关的: popish forms of worship 天主教的崇拜仪式. (b) of or relating to the papal system 教皇制度的; 与教皇制度有关的.

  pope's nose

  (US infml 口) = parson's nose (parson).

  popinjay

  / 5pCpIndVeI; `pBpIn9dVe/ n (dated derog 旧, 贬) conceited person, esp a man who is vain about his clothes; fop 骄矜的人; (尤指)衣著上追求虚荣的人; 花花公子; 纨绔子弟.

  poplar

  / 5pCplE(r); `pBplL/ n (a) [C] any of several types of tall straight slender tree 杨树. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page i. (b) [U] its soft wood 杨木.

  poplin

  / 5pCplIn; `pBplIn/ n [U] 1 type of shiny (usu) cotton cloth used esp for making skirts 府绸. 2 (formerly) type of cloth with a ribbed surface, made from silk and wool (旧时)毛葛(丝与羊毛合织的一种起棱的布料).

  popover

  / 5pCpEUvE(r); `pBp9ovL/ n (US) cake in the form of a thin hollow shell made of batter 酥脆饼(由面糊烤成的一种空心薄松饼).

  poppa

  / 5pCpE; `pBpE/ n (US infml 口) (used esp as a term of address 尤用作呼唤语) father 爸爸. Cf 参看 papa, pop2.

  popper

  / 5pCpE(r); `pBpL/ n (Brit infml 口) = press-stud (press2).

  poppet

  / 5pCpIt; `pBpIt/ n (Brit infml 口) (a) (used esp as an affectionate name for a child 尤用作对小孩的昵称) darling 宝宝; 宝贝儿: How's my little poppet today? 我的小乖乖今天好吗? * Don't cry, poppet. 宝宝, 别哭了. (b) small and dainty person 可爱的人儿: Isn't she a poppet? 她多可爱呀!

  poppy

  / 5pCpI; `pBpI/ n any of several types of wild or cultivated plant with showy (esp bright red) flowers, milky juice and small black seeds 罂粟: the `opium poppy, ie the type from which opium is obtained 可制取鸦片的罂粟 * [attrib 作定语] poppy fields 罂粟田. =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, page ii.

  poppycock

  / 5pCpIkCk; `pBpI9kBk/ n [U] (infml 口) nonsense 胡扯; 废话: He dismissed the official explanationas complete poppycock. 他认为官方的解释是一派胡言, 不值一顾.

  Popsicle

  / 5pCpsIkl; `pBpsIkl/ n (US propr 专利名) = ice lolly (ice).

  populace

  / 5pCpjUlEs; `pBpjElEs/ (usu 通常作 the populace) n [Gp] (fml 文) the general public; ordinary people 民众; 平民; 百姓; 人民大众: He had the support of large sections of the populace. 他获得大多数民众的支持. * The populace at large is/are opposed to sudden change. 人民群众普遍反对突然实行的变革.

  popular

  / 5pCpjUlE(r); `pBpjElL/ adj 1 (a) liked, admired or enjoyed by many people 为众人所喜爱、 赞赏或欢迎的; 流行的: a popular politician 深孚众望的政治家 * Jeans are popular among the young. 牛仔裤年轻人很喜爱. * Jogging is a popular form of exercise. 慢跑是一种十分普及的体育活动. (b) ~ with sb liked, admired or enjoyed by sb 某人所喜爱、 赞赏或欢迎的: measures popular with the electorate 受选民欢迎的措施 * (infml 口) I'm not very popular with the boss (ie He is annoyed with me) at the moment. 我现在不称老板的心. 2 [attrib 作定语] (sometimes derog 有时作贬义) suited to the taste or the education level of the general public 适应大众口味或教育水平的; 普及的; 通俗的; 庸俗的: popular music 流行音乐 * the popular press 通俗报刊 * novels with popular appeal 适合大众口味的小说 * popular (ie simplified) science 大众科学 * popular (ie low) prices 廉价. 3 [attrib 作定语] of or by the people 人民的; 依靠人民的: the popular vote 人民的投票 * issues of popular concern 人民群众关心的问题 * by popular demand 根据人民群众的要求. 4 [attrib 作定语] (of beliefs, etc) held by a large number of people (指信念等)广大民众所持有的: a popular myth, superstition, misconception, etc 民众的神话、 迷信、 错误观念等.

  popularly

  adv by many or most people (人们)普遍地, 广泛地; 由大多数人: a popularly held belief 一般人所持的看法 * It is popularly believed that... 人们普遍认为... * the European Economic Community, popularly known as the Common Market 欧洲经济共同体, 即众所周知的共同市场.

  popular front

  political party representing left-wing groups 人民阵线(代表左翼团体的政党).

  popularize, popularise

  / 5pCpjUlEraIz; `pBpjElE9raIz/ v [Tn] 1 make (sth) generally liked 使(某事物)受大家欢迎. 2 make (sth) known or available to the general public, esp by presenting it in an easily understandable form 使(某事物)众所周知或普及(尤指以通俗易懂形式): popularize new theories in medicine 普及医学新理论 * popularize the use of personal computers 推广个人计算机的使用.

  popularization, popularisation

  / 9pCpjUlEraI5zeIFn;?@ -rI5z-; 9pBpjElErI`zeFEn/ n [U].

  popularity

  / 9pCpjU5lArEtI; 9pBpjE`lArEtI/ n [U] quality or state of being liked or admired by many people 受大家喜爱或赞赏的性质或状态; 普及; 流行; 通俗性; 声望: win/gain/enjoy/command the popularity of the voters 获得广大选民的拥戴 * His popularity among working people remains as strong as ever. 他在劳动人民中一如既往声望很高. * Her books have grown in popularity recently. 她的书近来大受欢迎.

  populate

  / 5pCpjUleIt; `pBpjE9let/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (a) live in (an area) and form its population居住於(某地区)(而构成其人口成分): deserts populated by nomadic tribesmen 游牧部落居住的沙漠地区 * densely/thickly/sparsely/thinly populated regions 人口密度大[稠密/密度小/稀疏]的地区. (b) move to (an area) and fill it with people 落户於, 移居於(某地区); 向(某地区)移民: The islands were gradually populated by settlers from Europe. 岛上逐渐迁入很多欧洲移民.

  population

  / 9pCpjU5leIFn; 9pBpjE`leFEn/ n 1 [CGp] (a) people who live in an area, a city, a country, etc (地区、 城市、 国家等的)全体居民: the populations of Western European countries 西欧各国的全体人民 * The government did not have the support of the population. 政府不得人心. (b) particular group or type of people or animals inhabiting an area, etc (聚居於某地区的)一群或一类的人或动物: the working population 全体劳动者 * the immigrant population 全体移民. (c) total number of these 人口; 区域内动物的总数: What is the population of Ireland? 爱尔兰人口有多少? * a city with a population of over 10 million 人口超过1000万的城市. 2 [U] degree to which an area has been populated 人口密度; 动物聚居的密度: areas of dense/sparse population 人口稠密[稀疏]的地区.

  population explosion

  sudden increase in populationresulting from an increased birth-rate and/or a reduced death-rate 人口爆炸(由於出生率上升和[或]死亡率下降而引起的人口急剧增加).

  vox populi

  / 9vCks 5pCpjUlaI; 9vBks`pBpjElaI/ (Latin 拉) (also infml 口语作 vox pop / 9vCks 5pCp; 9vBks `pBp/) public opinion or popular belief, esp as expressed in short media interviews with ordinary people on matters of interest 舆论(尤指经传媒片断表达的).

  populism

  / 5pCpjUlIzEm; `pBpjElIzm/ n [U] type of politics that claims to represent the interests of ordinary people 平民主义, 平民论(声言代表民众利益的政治主张).

  populist

  / -Ist; -Ist/ n supporter or representative ofpopulism 平民主义者; 平民论者.

  populist

  adj: populist theories 平民主义的理论.

  populous

  / 5pCpjUlEs; `pBpjElEs/ adj having a large population; densely populated 人口多的; 人口稠密的: the populous areas near the coast 沿海人口稠密的地区.

  porcelain

  / 5pR:sElIn; `pRrslIn/ n [U] (a) hard white translucent material made from china clay, used for making cups, plates, ornaments, etc 瓷: [attrib 作定语] a porcelain figure 瓷像. (b) objects made of this 瓷器: a valuable collection of antique porcelain 一批珍贵的古代瓷器收藏品.

  porch

  / pR:tF; pRrtF/ n 1 covered entrance to a building, esp a church or house 门廊(尤指教堂或房子的). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, pages vi, viii. 2 (US) = veranda.

  porcine

  / 5pR:saIn; `pRrsaIn/ adj (fml 文) of or like a pig (似)猪的: her rather porcine features 她那有点像猪的面貌.

  porcupine

  / 5pR:kjUpaIn; `pRrkjE9paIn/ n animal related to the squirrel, with a body and tail covered with long spines which it can stick out to protect itself when attacked 豪猪; 箭猪.

  pore

  / pR:(r); pRr/ n any of the tiny openings in the surface of the skin or of a leaf, through which moisture can pass (皮肤上的)毛孔; (叶子上的)气孔: He was sweating at every pore. 他汗流浃背.

  pore

  / pR:(r); pRr/ v (phr v) pore over sth study sth by looking at it or thinking about it very carefully 钻研(某事物); 审察; 审视: She was poring over an old map of the area. 她正在仔细查阅该地区的旧地图. * The child spends hours poring over her books. 那孩子用了几个小时仔细阅读她的那些书.

  pork

  / pR:k; pRrk/ n [U] (usu fresh, not salted or cured) flesh of a pig eaten as food (通常指未加盐或未加工处理的新鲜的)猪肉; 鲜猪肉: roast pork 烤猪肉 * a leg of pork 猪腿肉 * [attrib 作定语] pork sausages 猪肉香肠. Cf 参看 bacon, gammon, ham 1.

  porker

  n pig raised for food, esp a young pig fattened for killing 食用猪; (尤指育肥待宰的)小猪.

  pork-barrel

  n (US sl 俚) government money spent on local projects in order to win votes 政府为争取选票而花费在地方项目上的款项.

  pork-butcher

  n (Brit) butcher who sells pork, ham, bacon and food made from pork, eg sausages, pies, etc 出售猪肉制品的商人; 猪肉商.

  pork pie

  pie made of pastry filled with minced pork, often eaten cold 猪肉馅饼(常冷吃).

  pork-pie hat

  hat with a flat top and a brim turned up all round 平顶卷边圆帽.

  porn

  / pR:n; pRrn/ n [U] (infml 口) = pornography.

  porno

  / 5pR:nEU; `pRrno/ adj (infml 口) = pornographic (pornography).

  pornography

  / pR:5nCgrEfI; pRr`nB^rEfI/ n [U] (a) describing or showing sexual acts in order to cause sexualexcitement 色情描绘; 色情表演. (b) books, films, etc that do this 色情作品(书刊、 影片等): the trade in pornography 色情作品的交易.

  pornographer

  / pR:5nCgrEfE(r); pRr`nB^rEfL/ n person who produces or sells pornography 制作或贩卖色情作品的人.

  pornographic

  / 9pR:nE5grAfIk; 9pRrnE`^rAfIk/ adj of or relating to pornography 色情的; 诲淫的: pornographic films, magazines, subjects 色情电影、 刊物、 题材.

  pornographically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  porous

  / 5pR:rEs; `pRrEs/ adj 1 allowing liquid or air to pass through, esp slowly 能使液体或气体(尤指缓慢地)穿透的; 能渗透的: He added sand to the soil to make it more porous. 他往土里搀沙子以提高渗水性能. * In hot weather clothes made of a porous material like cotton are best. 热天穿棉布之类有渗透性的材料做的衣服最为适宜. Cf 参看 permeable (permeate). 2 containing pores 有毛孔或气孔的.

  porousness, porosity

  / pR:5rCsEtI; pR`rBsEtI/ ns [U] quality or state of being porous 渗透性.

  porphyry

  / 5pR:fIrI; `pRrfErI/ n [U] type of hard red rock which contains red and white crystals, and may be polished and made into ornaments 斑岩(色红、 坚硬, 可制装饰品).

  porpoise

  / 5pR:pEs; `pRrpEs/ n sea mammal with a blunt rounded snout, similar to a dolphin or small whale 鼠海豚.

  porridge

  / 5pCrIdV; ?@ 5pR:r-; `pRrIdV/ n 1 [U] soft food made by boiling a cereal (esp crushed oats) in water or milk (谷类加水或牛奶煮成的)粥; (尤指)麦片粥: a bowl of porridge with milk and sugar for breakfast 早餐吃的一碗甜奶粥. 2 (idm 习语) do porridge (Brit sl 俚) be in prison; serve a prison sentence 坐牢; 服刑.

  port

  / pR:t; pRrt/ n 1 [C, U] place where ships load and unload cargo or shelter from storms; harbour 港; 港口: a naval/fishing port 军[渔]港 * The ship spent four days in port. 该船在港口里停泊了四天. * They reached port at last. 他们终於抵港了. 2 [C] town or city with a harbour, esp one where ships load and unload cargo and where customs officers are stationed 港口城市(尤指船只装卸货物并设有关卡者); 港市; 口岸: Rotterdam is a major port. 鹿特丹是个重要的港口城市. * [attrib 作定语] the port authorities 港务局. 3 (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) any place where goods or people enter or leave a country 货物或人员出入境的任何场所: an airport 飞机场 * a port of entry 进口港. 4 (idm 习语) any port in a `storm (saying esp ironic 谚, 尤作反语) in times of trouble or difficulty one takes whatever help is available 危难之时任何解救方法均可一试; 慌不择路.

  port of call

  1 place where a ship stops during a voyage (途中)停靠港. 2 (infml 口) place where a person goes or stops, esp during a journey 前往或停留之处, 落脚处(尤指旅途中): The visiting politician's first port of call was the new factory. 那位政界人士到访, 第一个地点是那座新工厂.

  port

  / pR:t; pRrt/ n (nautical 海) 1 opening in the side of a ship where people may enter or for loading and unloading cargo (船的)舱门, 上下货口. 2 = porthole.

  port

  / pR:t; pRrt/ n [U] the side of a ship or aircraft that is on the left when one is facing forward (船或飞行器的)左舷: put the helm to port 把舵转向左舷 * The ship was leaning over to port. 船正向左舷倾斜. * [attrib 作定语] the port side 左舷 * a port tack, ie a course sailed with the wind blowing on the port side 左舷抢风航行. Cf 参看 starboard.

  port

  / pR:t; pRrt/ n (a) [U] strong sweet (usu dark-red) wine made in Portugal 波尔图葡萄酒(产自葡萄牙, 性醇, 通常为深红色). (b) [C] glass of this 一杯波尔图葡萄酒.

  portable

  / 5pR:tEbl; `pRrtEbl/ adj that can be (easily) carried; not fixed permanently in place 便携式的; 手提式的; 轻便的: a portable radio, television set, typewriter, etc 便携式收音机、 电视机、 打字机等.

  portability

  / 9pR:tE5bIlEtI; 9pRrtE`bIlEtI/ n [U]: I bought it for its portability, not its appearance. 我是图其轻便才买的, 并不是因为样子好看.

  portable

  n that can be (easily) carried; not permanentlyin place 便携式物品; 轻便物品: The document had been typed on a small portable. 这份文件是用便携式打字机打的.

  portage

  / 5pR:tIdV; `pRrtIdV/ n 1 [U] (cost of) carrying goods; carriage 搬运(费); 运输. 2 (esp US) (a) [U] carrying boats or goods overland between two rivers, lakes, etc, eg on a canoeing trip (两水路间的)陆运(将小船或货物从一水域经陆地运至另一水域之作业, 如乘小划子途中所需的). (b) [C] place where this is done (两水路间的)陆运区间.

  portal

  / 5pR:tl; `pRrtl/ n (often pl 常作复数) (fml 文) doorway or gateway, esp a grand and imposing one 门; 入口; (尤指)壮观的大门: temple portals of carved stone 寺院的石雕大门.

  portal vein

  (anatomy 解) vein carrying blood to the liver or to any organ other than the heart 门静脉.

  portcullis

  / 9pR:t5kQlIs; pRrt`kQlIs/ n (formerly) strong heavy iron grating raised or lowered at the entrance to a castle (旧时)(城堡入口可升降的)铁闸门, 吊闸. =>illus at castle 见 castle 插图.

  portend

  / pR:5tend; pRr`tZnd/ v [Tn] (fml 文) be a sign or warning of (sth in the future); foreshadow 预示; 预兆; 预告: His silence portends trouble. 他沉默不语可不是好兆头.

  portent

  / 5pR:tent; `pRrtZnt/ n ~ (of sth) (fml 文) sign or warning of a future (often unpleasant) event; omen 预示; 预兆; (常指)凶兆: portents of disaster 凶兆 * I see it as a portent of things to come. 我把它看作是将要到来的事物的前兆.

  portentous

  / pR:5tentEs; pRr`tZntEs/ adj 1 of or like a portent; ominous (似)预示的, 预兆的; 不祥的: portentous events, signs 不祥的事件、 徵兆. 2 (derog贬) pompously solemn 装腔作势的; 煞有介事的.

  portentously

  adv: `No good will come of this,' she announced portentously. `这绝好不了,'她煞有介事地说.

  porter

  / 5pR:tE(r); `pRrtL/ n 1 person whose job is carrying people's luggage and other loads, eg in railway stations, airports, hotels, markets, etc 搬运工, 脚夫(如於车站、 机场、 旅馆、 市场等处的): a hospital porter 医院中任搬运工作的勤杂工. 2 (US) attendant in a sleeping-car or parlour-car on a train (铁路之卧车或特等客车上的)列车员, 服务员.

  porterage

  / 5pR:tErIdV; `pRrtLIdV/ n [U] (a) carrying of luggage or goods by a porter (行李或其他物品的)搬运, 搬运工作. (b) cost of this 搬运费.

  porter

  / 5pR:tE(r); `pRrtL/ n (Brit) (US doorman) person whose job is to be on duty at the entrance to a hotel, large building, etc (旅馆、 大建筑物等的)门卫, 门房, 守门人: The hotel porter will call a taxi for you. 旅馆的门卫可以给你叫计程车.

  porter's lodge

  (Brit) 1 room at the entrance to a large building, esp a university college (大建筑物的)门房, 传达室(尤指大学之学院的). 2 house at the gates of an estate 庄园入口处的房子.

  porter

  / 5pR:tE(r); `pRrtL/ n [U] (esp formerly) type of dark-brown bitter beer (尤指旧时的)黑啤酒.

  porterhouse steak

  / 9pR:tEhaUs 5steIk; 9pRrtL9haJs`stek/ piece of top-quality beefsteak cut for grilling, etc (供炙烤等的)上等牛排.

  portfolio

  / pR:t5fEUlIEU; pRrt`folI9o/ n (pl ~s) 1 flat case (often made of leather) for carrying loose papers, documents, drawings, etc 公事包, 文件夹(常为皮制的). 2 set of investments (eg stocks and shares) owned by a person, bank, etc (个人、 银行等所有的)投资组合(如债券和股票): My stockbroker manages my portfolio for me. 我的证券经纪人替我管理投资组合. * [attrib 作定语] portfolio management 投资组合管理. 3 position and duties of a minister of State 大臣或部长的职位或职责: She resigned her portfolio. 她辞去了大臣职务. * Minister without portfolio, ie (in Britain) a Cabinet Minister without responsibility for a particular department (英国)不管部大臣(有职无责者).

  porthole

  / 5pR:thEUl; `pRrt9hol/ (also port) n window-like structure in the side of a ship or an aircraft (船或飞行器的)舷窗.

  portico

  / 5pR:tIkEU; `pRrtI9ko/ n (pl ~es or ~s) roof supported by columns, esp one forming an entrance to a large building 柱廊; (尤指高大建筑物的)有柱的门廊.

  portion

  / 5pR:Fn; `pRrFEn/ n 1 [C] part or share into which sth is divided 部分; (分事物时的)一份: He divided up his property and gave a portion to each of his children. 他把财产分给子女, 每人一份. * You give this portion of the ticket to the inspector and keep the other.把票的这一部分交给检票员, 另一部分自己留著. * (dated 旧) a marriage portion, ie a dowry 嫁妆. 2 [C] amount of food suitable for or served to one person (食物的)一份, 一客: a generous portion of roast duck 一大份烤鸭 * She cut the pie into six portions. 她把馅饼切成六份. * Do you serve children's (ie smaller) portions? 你们供应儿童量(小份)的餐食吗? 3 [sing] (fml 文) person's fate or destiny (人的)命运: It seemed that suffering was to be his portion in life. 他好像命中注定了要受苦受难似的.

  portion

  v (phr v) portion sth out (among/between sb) divide sth into shares (share1 1) to give to several people 把某事物按份儿分给(若干人): She portioned out the money equally between both children. 她把钱均分给两个孩子. * The work was portioned out fairly. 工作分配得很公平. Cf 参看 apportion.

  Portland cement

  / 9pR:tlEnd sI5ment; 9pRrtlEnd sE`mZnt/ type of cement made from chalk and clay similar in colour to Portland stone 普通水泥; 波特兰水泥.

  Portland stone

  / 9pR:tlEnd 5stEUn; 9pRrtlEnd `ston/ type of yellowish-white limestone used for building 波特兰石(一种白中发黄的石灰石, 用於建筑)

  portly

  / 5pR:tlI; `pRrtlI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (esp of an older person) having a stout body; fat (尤指年长者)发福的, 胖的: a portly old gentleman 胖胖的老绅士 * portly members of the city council 体形丰满的市议员们.

  portliness

  n [U].

  portmanteau

  / pR:t5mAntEU; pRrt`mAnto/ n (pl ~s or -teaux / -tEUz; -toz/) (dated 旧) large oblong (usu leather) case for clothes that opens on a hinge into two equal parts 旅行衣箱(通常为皮制, 以合叶联接相同的两部分).

  portmanteau word

  (also blend) invented word that combines parts of two words and their meanings eg motel from motor and hotel or brunch from breakfast and lunch 紧缩词, 合并词(将两个词的词素合并构成一个新词, 如 motel 为 motor 和 hotel 的紧缩词, brunch 为 breakfast 和 lunch 的紧缩词).

  portrait

  / 5pR:treIt, also -trIt; `pRrtret, -trIt/ n 1 painted picture, drawing or photograph of (esp the face of) a person or an animal (人或动物的)画像, 照片; (尤指面部的)肖像: paint sb's portrait 给某人画像 * She had her portrait painted. 她让人给自己画了像. =>illus at caricature 见caricature插图. Cf 参看 landscape. 2 description in words 文字描绘; 描写: The book contains a fascinating portrait of life at the court of Henry VIII. 该书生动地描写了亨利八世的宫廷生活.

  portraitist

  / -Ist; -Ist/ n person who makes portraits 肖像画家; 画像者; 人像摄影师: a skilled portraitist 擅长画像的人.

  portraiture

  / -tFE(r); ?@ -tFUEr; -tFJr/ n [U] (art of making) portraits (portrait 1) (人或动物的)画像, 照片; 画像或人像摄影的技法.

  portrait painter

  person who paints portraits; portraitist 画像者; 肖像画家.

  portray

  / pR:5treI; pRr`tre/ v [Tn, Cn.n/a] ~ sb (as sb/sth) 1 make a picture of sb 为某人画像; 画某人的像: She is portrayed wearing her coronation robes. 给她画的是她穿著加冕礼服的像. * a picture of the general portraying him as a Greek hero 把这位将军画成希腊英雄的一幅画. 2 describe sb/sth in words 描述或描写某人[某事物]: The diary portrays his family as quarrelsome and malicious. 日记中描述了他家反宅乱的事. 3 act the part of sb or represent sth in a play, etc (在戏剧等中)扮演某人或表现某事物: She frowned and stamped her feet to portray anger, eg in a mime. 她又皱眉头又跺脚表示生气(如在哑剧中).

  portrayal

  / pR:5treIEl; pRr`treEl/ n 1 [U] action of portraying 画像; 描述; 描写; 扮演. 2 [C] description or representation 描摹; 表现: a skilful portrayal of a lonely and embittered old man 对一个孤苦伶仃的老人惟妙惟肖的描绘.

  pose

  / pEUz; poz/ v 1 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (for sb) sit or stand in a particular position in order to be painted, drawn or photographed 摆好姿势(以便画像或拍照): He had to pose wearing a laurel wreath. 他得摆好戴著月桂花冠的姿势. * The artist asked her to pose for him. 那位画家要求她摆好姿势以便为她画像. (b) [Tn] put (sb) in a particular position in order to paint, draw or photograph him 使(某人)摆好姿势(以便画像或拍照): The artist posed his model carefully. 那位画家仔细摆好模特儿的姿势. * The subjects are well posed in these photographs. 这些照片中的人物姿势都挺好. 2 [I] (derog 贬) behave in an unnatural or affected way in order to impress people 装腔作势: Stop posing and tell us what you really think. 别装蒜啦, 告诉我们你的真实想法吧. 3 [Ipr] ~ as sb/sth claim or pretend to be sb/sth 自称或装成某人[某事物]: She poses as an expert in old coins. 她自诩为古钱币专家. * The detective posed as a mourner at the victim's funeral. 那侦探佯装成吊唁者参加了受害人的葬礼. 4 [Tn] cause (sth) to arise; create or present (followed esp by the ns shown) 引起(某事物); 造成, 提出(尤接下列名词): Winter poses particular difficulties for the elderly. 冬天给上年纪的人带来特殊的困难. * Heavy traffic poses a problem in many old towns. 交通拥挤是许多旧城镇的难题. * His resignation poses the question of whether we now need a deputy leader. 他一辞职引出了一个问题, 即我们目前是否需要有人代理领导职务.

  pose

  n 1 position in which a person poses or is posed (pose 1b) (为画像或拍照而摆的)姿势, 姿态: a relaxed pose for the camera 为拍照摆成的自然的姿势 * She adopted an elegant pose. 她摆了一个优美的姿势. 2 (derog 贬) unnatural or affected way of behaving, intended to impress people 装腔作势的举动: His concern for the poor is only a pose. 他对穷人的关心只不过是做做样子罢了. 3 (idm 习语) strike an attitude/a pose => strike2.

  poser

  n 1 (infml 口) awkward or difficult question or problem 棘手的或困难的问题: That's quite a poser! 那事真伤脑筋! 2 =poseur.

  poseur

  / pEU5z\:(r); po`z[/ n (fem 阴性作 poseuse / pEU5z\:z; po`z\z/) (also poser) (derog 贬) person who behaves in an unnatural affected way in order to impress others 装腔作势的人: Some people admired him greatly while others considered him a poseur. 有的人对他佩服得五体投地, 而有的人则认为他装腔作势.

  posh

  / pCF; pBF/ adj (-er, -est) (infml 口) (a) elegant or luxurious; smart 精美的; 豪华的; 漂亮的: a posh car, hotel 豪华的轿车、 旅馆 * a posh wedding 隆重的婚礼 * You look very posh in your new suit. 你穿上新衣服漂亮极了. (b) (sometimes derog 有时作贬义) upper-class 上等阶层的: a posh accent 上等人的腔调 * They live in the posh part of town. 他们住在高等住宅区.

  posit

  / 5pCzIt; `pBzIt/ v [Tn] (fml 文) suggest or assume (sth) as a fact; postulate 断定或假定(某事物)为实; 假设.

  position

  / pE5zIFn; pE`zIFEn/ n 1 [C] place where sb/sth is 位置; 方位: From his position on the cliff top, he had a good view of the harbour. 他位於悬崖顶上, 海湾看得清清楚楚. * fix a ship's position, ie by observing the sun or stars 确定船只的方位(藉观察太阳或星体) * We were sitting in a draughty position near the door. 我们坐在门边有穿堂风经过的地方. * The troops stormed the enemy position, ie where the enemy had placed soldiers and guns. 部队向敌人的阵地发起了猛攻. 2 [U] state of being advantageously placed (eg in a competition or a war) 有利的状况(如竞争中或战争中的): Several candidates had been manoeuvring for position long before the leadership became vacant. 领导职位尚未空缺, 几个竞争者早就在为向上爬而钩心斗角了. 3 [C, U] way in which sb/sth is placed or arranged; attitude or posture 某人[某物]所处的或被安置的方式; 姿态; 姿势: sit/lie in a comfortable position 舒舒服服地坐[躺]著 * in an upright, a horizontal, etc position 以垂直、 水平等方式 * They had to stand for hours without changing position. 他们得一动不动地站几个小时. 4 [C] ~ (on sth) view or opinion held by sb 看法; 观点: The candidates had to state their position on unilateral disarmament. 候选人须 表明他们对单方面裁军所持的立场. * She has made her position very clear. 她已明确阐述了自己的观点. 5 [C esp sing 尤作单数] situation or circumstances, esp when they affect one's power to act 处境, 情势(尤指影响自己的行动能力者): Their failure to come to a decision put her in an impossible position. 他们未能做出决定, 这使她进退无门. * He was in the unenviable position of having to choose between imprisonment or exile. 他已陷於进退维谷的地步, 不是坐牢就是流放, 必须在两者间做出抉择. * What would you do in my position? 你处在我的地位, 你怎样做呢? * I am not in a position (ie I am unable) to help you. 我没有能力帮助你. * The economic position of the country is disastrous. 国家的经济形势非常糟糕. 6 (a) [C] place or rank in relation to others (相对於他人的)地位, 等级: a high/low position in society 高的[低的]社会地位 * `What is his position in class?' `He's third from the top.' `他在班上得第几名?'`第三名.' (b) [U] high rank or status 高的等级或地位: people of position 上层人士 * Wealth and position were not important to her. 财富和地位她都不放在心上. 7 [C] (fml 文) paid employment; job (有报酬的)职位; 工作: a position in/with a big company 在一家大公司中的职务 * He applied for the position of assistant manager. 他申请副经理一职. * She had worked for the firm for twenty years and was in a position of trust. 她为这家公司工作了二十年, 因而被委以重任. 8 [C] (sport 体) (in team games) function and/or part of the playing area assigned to a player (队际竞技活动中)某一队员的职责和[或]位置: `What position does he play?' `Centre-forward.'`他在比赛中在什麽位置?'`中锋.' 9 (idm 习语) in a false position => false. in/into position in/into the right or proper place 在[进入]适当的位置; 在位; 就位; 到位: The orchestra were all in position, waiting for the conductor. 管弦乐队队员都已各就各位, 等待著指挥. * The runners got into position on the starting line. 赛跑运动员已进入起跑线上的位置. out of po`sition not at the right place 不在适当的位置上: The chairs are all out of position. 椅子全都放得不是地方.

  position

  v [Tn] 1 place (sth) in (a certain) position 将(某物)放在(某一)位置上: position the aerial for the best reception 把天线安装在接收效果最好的位置上 * She positioned herself near the warm fire. 她待在温暖的炉子的旁边. 2 find or mark the position of (sth); locate 找出或标出(某物)的位置; 定位: They were able to position the yacht by means of radar. 他们能够用雷达测定快艇的方位.

  positional

  / -FEnEl; -FEnEl/ adj.

  positive

  / 5pCzEtIv; `pBzEtIv/ adj 1 with no possibility of doubt; clear and definite 无可怀疑的; 明确的; 确定的: positive instructions, orders, rules, etc 明确的指示、 命令、 规定等 * We have no positive proof of her guilt. 我们没有她犯罪的确切证据. 2 ~ (about sth/that...) (of a person) confidently holding an opinion; convinced (指人)有把握的, 确信的: Are you absolutely positive that it was after midnight? 你是否有绝对把握认为那事是在午夜以後发生的? * She was quite positive about the amount of money involved. 她对所涉及的钱数十分肯定. 3 (a) providing help; constructive 有助益的; 建设性的: make positive proposals, suggestions, etc 提出有益的建议、 意见等 * Try to be more positive in dealing with the problem. 对解决该问题再积极一些. (b) showing confidence and optimism 自信的; 乐观的: a positive attitude, feeling, etc 乐观的态度、 情绪等 * positive thinking, ie a determined mental attitude that helps one achieve success 必胜的思想. 4 (infml 口) absolute; complete 彻底的; 绝对的; 完全的: Her behaviour was a positive outrage. 她的行为残暴到了极点. * It was a positive miracle that we arrived on time. 我们能够及时赶到, 这简直是奇迹. 5 (of the results of a test or an experiment) indicating that a substance is present (指试验或实验的结果)表明存在某物质的, 阳性的: a positive reaction 阳性反应 * The tests proved positive. 试验结果呈阳性. * They were hoping for a positive result from the experiment. 他们希望从实验中获得阳性结果. 6 (mathematics 数) (of a quantity) greater than zero (指数量)正的: a positive number 正数 * the positive sign (+) 正号. 7 tending towards increase or improvement 倾向於增加或改善的: Positive progress has been achieved during the negotiations. 谈判取得了良好的进展. * There have been positive developments in international relations. 国际关系已逐步改善. * positive discrimination, ie deliberately favouring an underprivileged group, esp in employment policy 具有积极意义的区别对待(尤指在就业政策中所实施的偏向贫困阶层的做法). 8 containing or producing the type of electrical charge produced by rubbing glass with silk 正电的; 正极的: a positive charge 正电荷 * the positive terminal of a battery, ie the one through which electric current leaves the battery 电池的正极端子. 9 (of a photograph) showing light and shadows as in nature or in the object photographed, not reversed as in a negative (指照片)正片的: a positive image 正片影像. Cf 参看 negative. 10 (grammar) (of an adjective or adverb) in the simple form, not the comparative or superlative (指形容词或副词)原级的(非比较级的或最高级的).

  positive

  n 1 (grammar) positive adjective 原级形容词: `Silly' is the positive and `sillier' the comparative. *silly 是原级形容词, sillier是比较级形容词. 2 positive quality or quantity 确实; 正量; 正数. 3 photograph printed from a negative plate or film (照片的)正片.

  positively

  adv (a) (infml 口) extremely; absolutely 极其; 绝对地: He was positively furious when he saw the mess. 他看到混乱的情况, 气得不得了. * She was positively bursting to tell us the news. 她迫不及待地要把那消息告诉我们. (b) with complete certainty; firmly 十分肯定地; 坚定地: She positively assured me that it was true. 她向我明确地保证那是事实. * Are you positively convinced that he is not coming back? 你确信他不回来了吗?

  positiveness

  n [U].

  positive pole

  (a) positive terminal of an electric battery; anode (电池的)正极, 阳极. (b) north-seeking pole of a magnet (磁体的)北极.

  positivism

  / 5pCzItIvIzEm; `pBzEtIv9IzEm/ n [U] system of philosophy based on things that can be seen or proved rather than on speculation 实证主义, 实证论(一种哲学体系, 以可眼见或证明之事物为基础, 忽视理性的作用).

  positivist

  / -vIst; -vIst/ n person who studies or teaches positivism 实证主义者; 实证论者.

  positron

  / 5pCzItrCn; `pBzI9trBn/ n (physics 物) minute piece of matter (elementary particle) that has a positive electric charge and the same mass as an electron 正电子; 阳电子. Cf 参看 electron.

  posse

  / 5pCsI; `pBsI/ n [CGp] (esp US) group of people who can be summoned by an officer of the law, eg a sheriff, to find a criminal, maintain order, etc 地方武装团队(可由执法官员召集以查缉罪犯、 维持治安等).

  possess

  / pE5zes; pE`zZs/ v 1 [Tn] (a) have (sth) as one's belongings; own 领有(某事物); 持有: He decided to give away everything he possessed and become a monk. 他决定放弃他所有的一切, 出家为僧. * They possess property all over the world. 他们在世界各地均拥有财产. * The family possessed documents that proved their right to ownership. 这家人持有可以证明他们享有所有权的文件. (b) have (sth) as a quality 具有(某品质): Does he possess the necessary patience and tact to do the job well? 他有做好这项工作必备的耐性和应变能力吗? 2 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态, Cn.t] control or dominate (a person's mind) 控制, 支配(人的思想): She seemed to be possessed (by the devil). 她好像著了魔似的. * She was possessed by jealousy. 她妒火中烧. * He is possessed with the idea that he is being followed. 他老是觉得有人跟踪他. * What possessed you to do that? 是什麽驱使你做出那种事的? 3 (idm 习语) be possessed of sth(fml 文) have (a quality) 具有(某品质): She is possessed of a wonderfully calm temperament. 她性情非常文静. like one possessed violently or with great energy, as if taken over by madness or a supernatural spirit 猛烈地, 拼命地(如同发疯或有妖魔附体一般): He fought like a man possessed. 他进行了殊死的战斗.

  possessor

  n person who possesses sth 所有人; 持有某物的人: He is at last the proud possessor of a driving-licence. 他终於获得了驾驶执照, 这使他颇为得意.

  possession

  / pE5zeFn; pE`zZFEn/ n 1 [U] state of possessing; ownership 领有; 持有; 具有: fight for/win/get possession of the ball 争球 * The possession of a passport is essential for foreign travel. 去国外旅行需持有护照. * On her father's death, she came into possession of a vast fortune. 她在父亲死後继承了大量财产. * She has valuable information in her possession. 她掌握了重要的信息. * The house is for sale with vacant possession, ie without tenants. 空房出售(无租户). 2 [C esp pl 尤作复数] thing that is possessed; property 所有物; 财产: He lost all his possessions in the fire. 他在火灾中损失了所有的财产. * He came here without friends or possessions and made his fortune. 他来时举目无亲、 身无长物, 全凭白手起家. 3 [C] country controlled or governed by another 属地; 殖民地: The former colonial possessions are now independent states. 以前的许多殖民地现已成为独立的国家. 4 (idm 习语) in possession (of sth) (a) having or controlling (sth) so that others are prevented from using it 占有, 控制(某物)(致使他人无法使用): Their opponents were in possession of the ball for most of the match. 他们的对手在比赛的大部分时间里控制著球. (b) having or living in sth 占据某物; 住在某处所中: He was caught in possession of stolen goods/with stolen goods in his possession. 他人赃并获. * While they are in possession we can't sell the house. 他们还住著这所房子, 我们无法出售. possession is nine points of the `law (saying 谚) a person who occupies or controls sth is in a better position to keep it than sb else whose claim to it may be greater 现实占有, 败一胜九(占有或控制某物者打起官司来总占上风). take possession (of sth) (fml 文) become the owner or occupier (of sth) 成为(某物的)所有者; 占有(某物).

  possessive

  / pE5zesIv; pE`zZsIv/ adj 1 ~ (with sth/sb)(a) showing a desire to own things and an unwillingness to share what one owns 显示占有欲的; 不愿与人分享的: The child was very possessive with his toys. 那孩子把自己的玩具把得紧紧的. (b) treating sb as if one owns him, demanding total attention or love (视某人为己有而欲霸占其全部精力或感情)占有欲强的: possessiveparents 让子女唯命是从的父母 * She found her boyfriend'spossessive behaviour intolerable. 她忍受不了男朋友控制她感情的行为. 2 (grammar) of or showing possession 表示所属关系的; 属有格的: the possessive case 属有格 * `Anne's', `the boy's', `the boys'' are possessive forms. Anne's、 the boy's、 the boys'都是属有格形式. * `Yours', `his', etc are possessive pronouns. *yours、 his等是物主代词.

  possessive

  n (grammar) 1 [C] possessive word or form 表示所属关系的词或词语形式: `Ours' is a possessive. ours是属有代词. 2 the possessive [sing] the possessive case 属有格. Cf 参看 genitive.

  possessively

  adv.

  possessiveness

  n [U].

  posset

  / 5pCsIt; `pBsIt/ n type of drink made with warm milk and ale or wine with spices, used formerly as a remedy for colds 牛奶酒(热牛奶加麦芽啤酒或葡萄酒以及香料而成之饮料, 旧时用以治感冒).

  possibility

  / 9pCsE5bIlEtI; 9pBsE`bIlEtI/ n 1 [U] ~ (of sth/doing sth); ~ (that...) state of being possible; likelihood 可能; 可能性: within/beyond the bounds of possibility 在可能范围之内[之外] * The possibility of breaking the world record never occurred to him. 他从来没想到有可能打破世界记录. * Is there any possibility that we'll see you this weekend? 我们本周末能见到你吗? * What is the possibility of the weather improving? 天气有可能变好吗? 2 [C] event that may happen; prospect 可能的事; 想见中的事: Changing jobs is one possibility. 换换工作是有可能的事. * Bankruptcy is a distinct possibility if sales don't improve. 倘若销售情况得不到改善, 保不住要破产. * She prepared for all possibilities by taking a sunhat, a raincoat and a woolly scarf. 她带了太阳帽、 雨衣和毛围巾, 一切有备无患. 3 [C esp pl 尤作复数] capability of being used or improved; potential可以利用或改善的余地; 潜力: The house is very dilapidated but it has possibilities. 这房子已破旧不堪, 但还有可利用的价值. * She saw the possibilities of the scheme from the beginning. 她从一开始就预见到这计画可能成功.

  possible

  / 5pCsEbl; `pBsEbl/ adj 1 (a) that can be done 可能的; 可能做到的: It is not humanly possible (ie A human is not able) to lift the weight. 人举不起这样的重量. * Come as quickly as possible, ie as quickly as you can. 尽快来吧. (b) that can exist or happen 可能存在或发生的: Frost is possible, although unlikely, at this time of year. 在一年中的这个时候, 下霜也是可能的, 虽然可能性并不大. * Are you insured against all possible risks?你对一切可能发生的危险都投保了吗? 2 that isreasonable or acceptable 合理的; 可以认可的: a possiblesolution to the dispute, ie one that may be accepted, although not necessarily the best 行得通的解决争端的办法(但不见得是最好的办法) * There are several possible explanations. 存在著几种合乎情理的解释.

  possible

  n person who is suitable for selection, eg for a job or a sports team (工作、 运动队等的)适合候选的人: They interviewed 30 people of whom five were possibles. 他们对30人进行了面试, 其中有五人符合候选条件. * a Rugby trial between `probables' and `possibles' `预备队员'和`候补队员'之间的橄榄球选拔赛.

  possibly

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv 1 perhaps 大概; 也许; 或许: `Will you be leaving next week?' `Possibly.' 你打算下周离开吗?'`有可能.' * She was possibly the greatest writer of her generation. 她也许是她那时代最伟大的作家. 2 reasonably; conceivably 合理地; 可以想见地: I can't possibly lend you so much money. 我没有可能借给你这麽多钱. * I will come as soon as I possibly can. 我尽可能早来. * You can't possibly take all that luggage with you. 你绝无可能把所有那些行李都带著.

  possum

  / 5pCsEm; `pBsEm/ n 1 = opossum. 2 (idm 习语) play `possum (infml 口) pretend to be unaware of sth in order to deceive sb (as a possum pretends to be dead when being attacked) 佯装不知以欺骗人(如负鼠受袭时装死状); 装傻; 装糊涂.

  post

  / pEUst; post/ n 1 [C] (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) piece of metal or wood set upright in the ground to support sth, mark a position, etc (金属或木头的)柱子, 支柱, 桩, 标柱, 标杆: `gate posts 门柱 * a `goal post 球门柱 * a `lamp-post, ie supporting a street light 路灯柱 * a `signpost 路标 * `boundary posts, ie marking a boundary 界桩 * a `bedpost, ie any of the upright supports of a bedstead, esp a four-poster 床柱(床架的垂直支柱, 尤指四根的). 2 [sing] place where a race starts or finishes (速度竞赛的)起点或终点标志: the `starting/`finishing/`winning post 起点[终点/获胜]标. 3 (idm 习语) be left at the post => leave1. deaf as a post => deaf. (be) first past the post winning in an election because one has received the most votes though not necessarily an absolute majority 以得票最多(但不一定超过半数)在选举中获胜. from pillar to post => pillar. pip sb at the post => pip5.

  post

  v 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) display (a notice, placard, etc) in a public place 公布(告示、 招贴等): Post no bills, eg warning that advertisements, etcmust not be posted on a wall. 禁止招贴. * Advertisementshave been posted up everywhere announcing the new show. 到处贴满了广告宣传这一新节目. (b) [esp passive 尤用於被动语态 Tn, Cn.a, Cn.n/a] ~ sb/sth (as sth) announce sth about sb/sth by means of a poster, list, etc displayed publicly (以张贴招贴、 名单等形式)公开宣布某事: Details of the election will be posted outside the town hall. 选举的详情将贴在市政厅外. * The ship was posted (as) missing, ie was announced as missing. 布告称该船失踪. 2 [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (over) cover sth with bills, placards, etc 将告示、 招贴等贴在某物上: post a wall (over) with advertisements 在墙上张贴广告.

  post

  / pEUst; post/ n 1 position of paid employment; job (有报酬的)职位; 工作: He was appointed to the post of general manager. 他获任命为总经理. * She was offered a post in the new government. 她受聘在新政府中任职. * She had been in the same post for 20 years. 她担任同一职务已20年. * He asked to be relieved of his post, ie offered his resignation. 他提出辞职. 2 place where a person is on duty, esp a soldier on watch 岗位; (尤指士兵的)哨位: The sentries are all at their posts. 哨兵们都已各就各位. * The guards were ordered not to leave their posts. 卫兵们奉令不得离开岗位. 3 (a) place occupied and defended by soldiers, esp a frontier fort (部队的)驻地, 防区; (尤指)边防要塞. (b) soldiers occupying this驻军. 4 (also `trading post) (esp formerly) settlementdeveloped for trading, esp in a region that is undevelopedor sparsely populated (尤指旧时的)贸易站(尤指设於不发达或人口稀少之地区的).

  post

  v [Tn, Tn.pr] 1 ~ sb (to sth) appoint sb to a job or a responsibility 派某人做某工作或担负某任务: post an officer to a unit, the front, overseas 把一名军官派往某单位、 前线、 海外 * After several years in London, he was posted to the embassy in Moscow. 他在伦敦任职几年後被派往驻莫斯科大使馆工作. 2 ~sb (at/on sth) place ( a soldier, etc) at his post2(2) 布置(士兵等)站岗: We posted sentries (at the gates). 我们(在大门口)设了岗哨.

  posting

  / -IN; -IN/ n (esp Brit) appointment to a post2(1), esp an official one 任命, 委派(尤指担任官职): The ambassador expects that his next posting will be (to) Paris. 那位大使预期他下次派驻巴黎.

  post

  / pEUst; post/ n 1 (also esp US mail) (a) [C, U] letters, parcels, etc; correspondence 信件、 包裹等; 邮件: There was a big post/a lot of post this morning. 今早邮件很多. * He's dealing with his post at the moment. 他此刻正在处理信件. (b) [U] official transport and delivery of these 邮政; 邮递: send sth by post 邮寄某物 * The parcel was damaged in the post. 包裹在邮寄中损坏了. (c) [C] any of the regular collections (esp from a post-box) or deliveries (eg to a house) of letters, etc 信件等的定时收集(尤指自邮筒中)或投递(如入户): catch/miss (ie be in time/too late for) the 2 o'clock post 赶上[错过]两点钟的邮局收信时间 * The parcel came in this morning's post, ie by this morning's delivery. 包裹是今早邮来的. (d) the post [sing] post-box or post office 邮筒; 邮箱; 邮局: Please take these letters to the post. 请将这些信件投邮. (e) the Post [sing] = the post office. 2 [C] (a) (formerly) any of a number of men placed at stages along a route in order to ride to the next stage with letters, etc (旧时)驿站之间骑马传送信件等的人. (b) (formerly) cart, etc for carrying letters (旧时)运送信件的马车等, 驿车. 3 (idm 习语) by return post => return2.

  post-bag

  n 1 (US `mail-bag) bag for carrying post 邮袋. 2 (esp Brit infml 口) letters received by sb at a particular time 一次收取的信件: The newspaper received a huge post-bag of complaints. 报社一次收到了大量的投诉信件.

  post-box (US `mailbox)

  n box where letters are placed for collection 邮筒; 邮箱. Cf 参看 pillar-box (pillar).

  postcard

  n card for sending messages by post without an envelope and often with a picture or photograph onone side 明信片. Cf 参看 letter-card, picture postcard (picture).

  postcode (also `postal code, US `Zip code)

  n group of numbers (or letters and numbers) used as part of an address so that letters can by sorted by machine 邮政编码(为一组数字或字母加数字, 用作地址之一部分, 以便机器分拣信件).

  post-free

  adv, adj (a) (carried) free of charge by post or with postage already paid (邮件)免付邮资(的), 邮资已付(的): ,post-free delivery 免费投递 * The book will be delivered post-free. 该书将免费寄送. (b) (of a price) including the charge for postage (指价格)包括邮费在内(的): a special offer at a post-free price of 5/at 5 post-free 5英镑免付邮资的特别优惠.

  postman

  / -mEn; -mEn/ (US `mailman) (pl -men) n person employed to collect and deliver letters, etc 邮递员; 邮差.

  postmark

  n official mark stamped on letters, parcels, etc giving the place and date of posting and cancelling the postage stamps 邮戳: [attrib 作定语] postmarked Tokyo 盖了东京邮戳的 * postmarked Friday 盖了星期五邮戳的.

  post office

  1 building or room where postal business, eg sale of postage stamps, etc takes place 邮政局(指建筑物). 2 the `Post Office (also the Post) publicdepartment or corporation responsible for postal services邮政局(指部门或机构). `post-office box (abbr 缩写 P`O box) numbered place in a post office where letters are kept until the person or company they are for collects them 邮政信箱.

  post-paid

  adj, adv with postage already paid 邮资已付(的).

  post-town

  n town to which the post for a district is delivered (某一地区中)设有邮局的镇.

  post

  / pEUst; post/ v 1 (also esp US mail) (a) [Tn] put (a letter, etc) into a post-box or take it to a post office 投寄(信件等); 邮寄: Could you post this letter for me? 你替我把这封信寄出去行吗? (b) [Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) send (a letter, etc) to sb 将(信等)寄给某人: They will post me the tickets/post the tickets to me as soon as they receive my cheque. 他们收到我的支票後就立刻把票寄给我. 2 (a) [Tn] (in bookkeeping) enter (an item) in a ledger (簿记)将(帐目)登入分类帐: post export sales 把出口销售额登入分类帐. (b) [Tn.p] ~ sth up (in bookkeeping) bring (a ledger) up to date by transferring items from a day-book (簿记)把日记帐过入(分类帐): post up a ledger 过入分类帐. 3 [Ipr] (formerly) travel by stages, using relays of horses (旧时)骑驿马递送: post from town to town 骑驿马到各城镇递送. 4 (idm 习语) keep sb posted keep sb informed of the latest developments, news, etc 使某人不断获悉最新发展情况、 消息等: He asked them to keep him posted about the sales of his book. 他要求他们把他著作的销售情况随时告诉他.

  post-haste

  adv with great speed 火速地; 赶紧: She went post-haste to the bank and cashed the cheque. 她急忙赶到银行, 把支票兑换成现金.

  post-

  pref 前缀 (with ns, vs and adjs 与名词、 动词和形容词结合) after 後: postgraduate * post-date * Post-Impressionist. Cf 参看 ante-, pre-.

  post-date

  / 9pEUst5deIt; 9post`det/ v [Tn] 1 put a date on (a document, etc) that is later than the actual date 在(文件等)上填入比实际晚的日期: a ,postdated `cheque, ie one which cannot be cashed until the date specified 期票(在所示日期前不能兑现). 2 give to (an event) a date later than its actual date or the date previously given to it 将(某事)的日期确定为比实际晚的日期或比以前所称之较晚的日期. 3 be or occur at a later date than (sth) 日期较(某事物)为晚; 发生在(某事物)之日期之後. Cf 参看 antedate.

  post-mortem

  / 9pEUst 5mR:tEm; 9post`mRrtEm/ n 1 medical examination made after death in order to find the cause of death; autopsy 验尸; 尸体剖检: A post-mortem showed that the victim had been poisoned. 尸体检验表明受害者是被毒死的. * The doctor carried out a post-mortem on the body. 那医生对尸体进行了剖验. 2 (infml 口) discussion or review of an event after it has happened 事後的分析或反思: a post-mortem on the election defeat 对选举失败的事後剖析.

  post-mortem

  adj (a) made or occurring after death 死後进行的; 死後发生的: a post-mortem examination 尸体剖检. (b) (infml 口) occurring after an event has happened 事後发生的: post-mortem recriminations 事後的反责.

  post-war

  / 9pEUst 5wR:(r); 9post`wRr/ adj [esp attrib 尤作定语] existing or happening (in the period) after a war, esp World War II 战後的; (尤指)第二次世界大战之後的: the post-war period of economic expansion 战後经济成长时期 * post-war developments in industry 战後的工业发展.

  postage

  / 5pEUstIdV; `postIdV/ n [U] amount charged or paid for carrying letters, etc by post 邮费; 邮资: What is the postage on this parcel? 寄这个包裹要多少钱? * How much is the postage for an airmail letter to Canada? 寄往加拿大的航空信要多少邮费?

  postage stamp

  small stamp2(1) for sticking onletters, parcels, etc, showing the amount paid for postage 邮票.

  postal

  / 5pEUstl; `postl/ adj (a) of the post3(1b) 邮政的; 邮务的; 邮递的: postal charges, workers, districts 邮费、 邮政员工、 邮区. (b) sent by post3(1b) 邮寄的: Postal applications must be received by 12 December. 邮寄的申请书须於12月12日以前寄达. * If you will be on holiday on election day, you may apply for a postal vote. 倘若选举那天你在休假, 可以申请用邮寄方法投票.

  postal code

  = postcode (post3).

  postal order

  (Brit) (US `money order) official piece of paper bought from a post office, representing a certain sum of money that can be posted to a specified person who then can exchange it for that sum 邮政汇票.

  poste restante

  / 9pEUst 5restB:nt; ?@ re5stAnt; 9postrZs`tBnt/ (US also general delivery) department in a post office where letters for a person may be sent and kept until he collects them (邮局的)邮件待领处.

  poster

  / 5pEUstE(r); `postL/ n (a) large placard displayed in a public place 招贴; 海报: a poster advertising the circus 宣传马戏团的海报. (b) large printed picture 印成的大幅画: Her bedroom is hung with posters. 她的卧室里挂著一些大画片.

  poster paint (also `poster colour)

  type of artist's paint, in strong bright colours 广告色; 广告颜料.

  posterior

  / pC5stIErIE(r); pBs`tIrIL/ adj (fml 文) 1 ~ (to sth) later (than sth) in time or in a series (时间或次序)在(某事物)之後的. Cf 参看 prior1. 2 (in architecture, biology, medicine) placed behind or at the back; from the back (用於建筑学、 生物学、 医学)後置的, 位於背面的, 自後面的: a posterior view of the skull 颅骨背视图. Cf 参看 anterior.

  posterior

  n (infml joc 口, 谑) buttocks 屁股; 臀部: a large posterior 大屁股 * a slap on the posterior 打屁股.

  a posteriori

  / 9eI 9pCsterI5R:raI; `epBs9tZrI`RraI/ (using reasoning that proceeds) from known facts to probable causes, eg saying `The boys are very tired so they must have walked a long way.' (用推理方法)由已知事实推测出原因(如说`孩子们很疲倦, 那麽他们一定走了很长的路.') Cf 参看 a priori.

  posterity

  / pC5sterEtI; pBs`tZrEtI/ n [U] 1 following or future generations 後代; 後世: plant trees for the benefit of posterity 为造福後代而植树. 2 (fml 文) person's children, grandchildren, etc; descendants 子孙; 後裔: recorded for posterity 为後人而记载下来的 * Posterity will remember him as a truly great man. 他的子孙永远不会忘记他是真正的伟人.

  postern

  / 5pCstEn; `pBstLn/ n (arch 古) side or back entrance, esp a concealed entrance to a castle, etc 边门; 後门; 边道; 便道; (尤指城堡等的)暗道: [attrib 作定语] a postern door/gate 後门.

  postgraduate

  / 9pEUst5grAdVUEt; post`^rAdVJEt/ (US graduate) adj (of studies, etc) done after taking a first degree (指学习或研究等)大学毕业後所进行的.

  postgraduate

  n person doing postgraduate studies 研究生. Cf 参看 graduate, undergraduate.

  posthumous

  / 5pCstjUmEs; ?@ 5pCstFEmEs;`pBstFEmEs/ adj (a) happening or given after death 死後发生的; 死後获得的: posthumous fame, earnings 死後获得的名声、 收入 * the posthumous award of a medal for bravery 死後获得的勇敢勋章. (b) (of a literary work) published after its author's death (指著作)作者死後出版的: Forster's posthumous novel 福斯特身後出版的小说. (c) (of a child) born after its father's death (指小孩)父亲死後出生的, 遗腹的.

  posthumously

  adv: The prize was awarded posthumously. 该奖是在获奖人死後追赠的.

  postilion (also posttillion)

  / pC5stIlIEn; pB`stIljEn/ n (formerly) person whose job was to ride on one of the horses pulling a carriage (旧时)骑在多匹马驾辕的马车之一匹马上的御者.

  postmaster

  / 5pEUstmB:stE(r); ?@ -mAst-; `post9mAstL/ n (fem 阴性作 postmistress / -mIstrIs; -9mIstrIs/) person in charge of a post office 邮政局长.

  Postmaster General

  person in charge of the postal system of a country 邮政大臣; 邮政部长.

  postnatal

  / 9pEUst5neItl; 9post`netl/ adj (a) occurring in the period after childbirth 分娩後的; 产後的: ,postnatal de`pression 产後抑郁症. (b) concerning a newborn child 与初生婴儿有关的: postnatal care 对初生婴儿的照料 * a postnatal nurse, unit 照料初生婴儿的护士、 部门. Cf 参看 antenatal, pre-natal.

  postpone

  / pE5spEUn; pos`pon/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tg] ~ sth (to sth) arrange sth at a later time; defer sth 使某事物延期; 推迟某事物: The match was postponed to the following Saturday because of bad weather. 比赛因天气不好而延期到下星期六进行. * Let's postpone making adecision until we have more information. 咱们在获取更多情报之後再做决定不迟. Cf 参看 advance 6, cancel 1. 2 (idm 习语) postpone the evil `hour/`day put off until a later time an unpleasant task, etc, that one will eventually have to do 缓做一终须做的厌恶事.

  postponement

  n (a) [U] act of postponing or delaying 延期; 推迟: Rain caused the postponement of several race-meetings. 几次赛马大会因雨延期. (b) [C] instance of this 延期的事: After many difficulties and postponements, the ship was ready for launching. 该船几经周折拖宕後, 已准备下水.

  postprandial

  / 9pEUst5prAndIEl; post`prAndIEl/ adj (fml 文) happening immediately after a meal 饭後的: postprandial speeches 餐後的演说 * (joc 谑) His postprandial nap was disturbed by the arrival of the boss. 老板一到, 惊扰了他餐後假寐.

  postscript

  / 5pEUsskrIpt; `posskrIpt/ n ~ (to sth) 1 (abbr 缩写 PS) extra message added at the end of a letter after the signature (信末签名後的)附笔, 又及: She mentioned in a postscript to her letter that the parcel had arrived. 她在信末附笔中说包裹已寄到. 2 facts or information added to sth after it is completed 补遗; 补笔; 後话: There was an interesting postscript to these events when her private diaries were published. 她的日记发表後, 补充了一些有关这些事件的趣闻.

  postulant

  / 5pCstjUlEnt; ?@ -tFU-; `pBstFJlEnt/ n person who lives in a monastery or convent in preparation for entering a religious order 住在修道院里准备担任圣职的人. Cf 参看 novice 2.

  postulate

  / 5pCstjUleIt; ?@ -tFU-; `pBstFJ9let/ v [Tn, Tf] (fml 文) put (sth) forward as a fact or accept (sth) as true, esp as a basis for reasoning or argument 假定, 假设(某事物)(尤指作推理或论证之出发点): The school building programme postulates an increase in educational investment. 修建校舍的计画是在增加教育经费的前提下拟定的. * He postulated that a cure for the disease will have been found by the year 2000. 他推断到2000年能研究出治愈该病的方法.

  postulate

  / 5pCstjUlEt; ?@ -tFU-; `pBstFElEt/ n thing assumed to be true, or accepted as a basis for reasoningor calculation 假定; 假设; 公设: the postulates of Euclideangeometry 欧几里得几何学的公设.

  postulation

  / 9pCstjU5leIFn; ?@ -tFU-; 9pBstFE`leFEn/ n [U, C].

  posture

  / 5pCstFE(r); `pBstFL/ n 1 (a) [C] attitude or position of the body 姿势; 姿态: an awkward posture 笨拙的姿态 * The artist asked his model to take a reclining posture. 画家要求模特儿取斜倚著的姿势. (b) [U] way in which a person holds himself as he stands, walks or sits 坐立或行走的方式; 举止: She has very good posture. 她举止很优雅. * Poor posture will give you backache.坐姿不好会使人腰背酸痛. 2 [C] way of looking at sth; attitude 看法; 态度: The government adopted an uncompromising posture on the issue of independence. 政府在独立这一问题上采取了毫不妥协的态度. Cf 参看 stance.

  posture

  v 1 [I] stand, sit, etc in a self-conscious, exaggerated manner; pose 以不自然的、 装模作样的方式站著、 坐著等; 摆姿势: Stop posturing in front of that mirror and listen to me! 别对著那面镜子摆样子了, 听我的吧! 2 [Tn] put or arrange (sb) in a certain posture(1a) 摆(某人)的姿势: posture a model 摆模特儿的姿势. posturing / 5pCstFErIN; `pBstFErIN/ n [U, C esp pl 作不可数名词或可数名词, 後者尤作复数] (a) standing, sitting, etc in a self-conscious, exaggerated manner 不自然的、 装模作样的站姿、 坐姿等; 摆出的姿势. (b) behaving in an insincere or artificial manner, esp expressingviews one does not really hold 装模作样或故作姿态的行为; (尤指)言不由衷: Her liberal views were soon revealed as mere posturing. 她那些开明的观点很快地就暴露出只不过是做做样子而已. * The electorate is growing tired of his posturings. 选民对他的口是心非逐渐生厌.

  posy

  / 5pEUzI; `pozI/ n small bunch of flowers; bouquet (小的)花束.

  pot

  / pCt; pBt/ n 1 [C] (a) round vessel made of earthenware, metal, etc for cooking things in (烹饪用的)锅: pots and pans 锅碗瓢盆 * a chicken ready for the pot 待下锅的鸡. (b) (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) any of various types of vessel made for a particular purpose 作某用途的器皿: a `teapot * a `coffee-pot * a `flowerpot * a `chamber-pot * a `lobster-pot. =>illus 见插图. (c) amount contained in a pot 一锅、 罐、 壶等的量: They've eaten a whole pot of jam! 他们吃了满满一罐果酱. * Bring me another pot of coffee. 给我再来一壶咖啡. =>illus 见插图. 2 [C esp pl 尤作复数] (infml 口) large sum; a lot of money 大量; 大笔钱: making pots of money 赚大钱. 3 [C] (sl 俚) prize in an athletic contest, esp a silver cup (运动会的)奖品; (尤指)银杯. 4 the pot [sing] (esp US) (a) total amount of the bets made on one hand in a card-game 纸牌戏中一局赌注的总额. (b) all the money pooled by a group of people for a common purpose, esp for buying food; kitty 为某一共同目的(尤指购买食品)而集体凑集的基金总数; 储金. 5 [C] = pot-belly a. 6 [U] (sl 俚) marijuana 大麻烟. 7 [C] (Brit) (in billiards) stroke that sends the correct ball into one of the pockets (台球)击球入袋的一击. 8 [C] = pot-shot. 9 (idm 习语) go to `pot (infml 口) be spoilt or ruined 被损坏; 被毁掉; 完蛋: The firm is going to pot under the new management. 公司在新人管理下就要垮台了. keep the `pot boiling (a) keep sth (eg a children's game) moving at a fast pace 使某事物(如儿童游戏)快速进行. (b) keep interest in sth alive 使对某事物的兴趣不减. put a quart into a pint pot => quart. take ,pot `luck accept whatever is available, esp food at a meal, without any choice or alternative being offered 赶上什麽是什麽; (尤指)有什麽吃什麽, 吃便饭: You are welcome to eat with us, but you'll have to take pot luck. 欢迎你和我们一起吃饭, 可要有什麽吃什麽. * We seldom book hotels when travelling, we usually just take pot luck. 我们旅游时很少预定旅馆的房间, 通常都是赶上什麽算什麽. the ,pot calling the `kettle black (saying 谚) the accuser having the same fault as the person he is accusing 锅笑壶黑; 乌鸦笑猪黑: She accused us of being extravagant talk about the pot calling the kettle black! 她指责我们铺张浪费--老鸹别嫌猪黑!

  pot-belly

  n (a) (also pot) large protruding belly 大肚子. (b) person who has this 肚子大的人. ,pot-`bellied adj (a) (of a person) having a pot-belly (指人)肚子大的. (b) (fig 比喻) (of a container) curving out below the middle (指容器)下部向外鼓的: a pot-bellied stove, ie one with a pot-bellied container in which the fuel burns 炉膛大的火炉.

  pot-boiler

  n book, picture, etc written or painted only to earn money 仅为赚钱而创作的书、 画等: She produced regular pot-boilers while also working on her masterpiece. 她一面不断发表为 口的作品, 一面搞她的大作.

  pot-bound

  adj (of a plant) having roots that fill its pot1(1b) completely (指植物)根生满花盆的.

  pot-herb

  n any plant whose leaves, stems or roots are used in cooking to add flavour, esp to soups and stews (调味用的)植物性香料.

  pot-hole

  n 1 deep hole worn in rock, eg in limestone caves by water 瓯穴(石灰石洞穴等内之岩石上被水侵蚀成的深洞). 2 rough hole in a road surface made by rain and traffic (路面上因下雨和行车而形成的)坑洼.

  pot-holer

  n.

  pot-holing

  n [U] (sport 体) exploring pot-holes in rocks and caves 瓯穴探测.

  pot-hunter

  n (a) (in shooting) person who shoots every bird or animal he sees and thinks only of profit rather than sport (射击活动)纯为牟利而非以运动为目的的行猎者. (b) person who takes part in a contest only for the sake of the prize 只为获奖而参加比赛的人.

  pot plant

  plant grown in a flowerpot 盆栽植物.

  pot-roast

  n piece of meat browned in a pot1(1a) and cooked slowly with very little water 炖肉.

  pot-shot (also pot)

  n (a) shot made without taking careful aim 胡乱射击. (b) (fig 比喻) random attempt at sth (对某事物的)随便一试.

  pot

  / pCt; pBt/ v (-tt-) 1 (a) [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] plant (sth) in a flowerpot 将(植物)栽在花盆里: a potted azalea 盆栽的杜鹃花. (b) [Tn, Tn.p] ~ sth (up) plant (cuttings or seedlings) in a pot 把(插枝或籽苗)种在花盆里: pot up chrysanthemum cuttings 把菊花插枝种到花盆里. 2 [Tn] (infml 口) put (a baby or young child) on a chamber-pot 使(幼儿)坐便盆. 3 [Tn] (in billiards) drive (a ball) into a pocket(6) (台球)击(球)入袋. 4 [Ipr] ~ at sth shoot at sth 向某物射击: pot at a rabbit 向兔子射击. 5 [Tn] kill (sth) with a pot-shot 乱射(动物): They potted dozens of rabbits. 他们胡乱射击打死几十只兔子. 6 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] put (cooked meat or fish) in a pot in order to preserve it 将(熟的肉或鱼)装入罐内保存: potted beef, ham, shrimps, etc 装罐保存的牛肉、 火腿、 小虾等.

  potting-shed

  n shed where plants are grown in pots (pot1 1b) before being planted outside 盆栽棚舍(植物先在此处作盆中栽培, 然後移到室外种植).

  pot-pourri

  / 9pEU5pUErI; ?@ 9pEUpE5ri:; 9popJ`ri/ n 1 [C, U] mixture of dried petals and spices used to perfume a room, cupboard, etc 乾燥的花瓣及香料之混合物(用以使房间、 橱柜等生香). 2 [C] musical or literary medley (音乐或文学作品的)杂集, 杂曲, 杂文集.

  potable

  / 5pEUtEbl; `potEbl/ adj (fml 文) fit for drinking; drinkable 适於饮用的; 可喝的.

  potash

  / 5pCtAF; `pBt9AF/ n [U] any of various salts of potassium (esp potassium carbonate) used to make fertilizers, soap and various chemicals 钾碱; (尤指)碳酸钾, 氢氧化钾.

  potassium

  / pE5tAsIEm; pE`tAsIEm/ n [U] chemical element, a soft shiny silvery-white metal occurring in rocks and in the form of mineral salts and essential for all living things 钾. =>App 10 见附录10.

  potation

  / pEU5teIFn; po`teFEn/ n (fml or joc 文或谑) (a) [U] act of drinking 喝; 饮. (b) [C] drink, esp an alcoholic one 饮料; (尤指)酒.

  potato

  / pE5teItEU; pE`teto/ n (pl ~es) 1 (a) [C] plant grown for its rounded starchy tubers which are eaten cooked as a vegetable 马铃薯: The potato is vulnerable to several pests. 马铃薯易受几种害虫的侵害. (b) [C] one of these tubers 马铃薯的块茎; 土豆: The potatoes are ready to be dug up. 快要收获土豆了. * Would you like another potato? 你要不要再来个土豆? (c) [U] this served as food (熟的)马铃薯: a dish of meat topped with mashed potato 一盘土豆泥盖浇肉 * [attrib 作定语]potato soup 土豆汤. 2 (idm 习语) a hot potato => hot.

  potato crisp

  (Brit) (US potato chip) = crisp.

  potato beetle

  pest that destroys the leaves of potato plants 三带负泥虫(伤害马铃薯叶子的害虫).

  poteen

  / pC5ti:n; po`tin/ n [U] (in Ireland) whisky made in an illicit still3 (爱尔兰)私酿的威士忌酒.

  potent

  / 5pEUtnt; `potnt/ adj 1 (a) (of drugs, etc) having a strong effect (指药物等)效力大的: a potent charm,cure, medicine 很有效的符咒、 治疗法、 药物. (b) havinggreat power 威力大的: potent weapons 威力大的武器. (c) strongly persuasive; convincing 说服力强的; 令人信服的: potent arguments, reasoning, etc 有说服力的论据、推理等. 2 (of males) capable of having sexual intercourse; not impotent (指男性)有性交能力的; 无阳痿的.

  potency

  / -nsI; -nsI/ n [U].

  potently

  adv.

  potentate

  / 5pEUtnteIt; `potn9tet/ n (esp formerly) ruler with direct power over his people; autocratic monarch (尤指旧时)统治者, 君主: the splendid court of an Eastern potentate 东方君主的豪华宫廷.

  potential

  / pE5tenFl; pE`tZnFEl/ adj [attrib 作定语] (a) that can or may come into existence; possible 可能存在或出现的; 可能的: a potential source of conflict 可能引起冲突的根源 * a potential leader 可能成为领导者的人 * The book is arguably a potential best seller. 该书或可成为一部畅销书. (b) in existence and capable of being developed or used 潜在的; 有潜力的: potential energy, power, resources, etc 潜力、 潜能、 潜在的资源 * a machine with several potential uses 具有多种潜在功能的机器.

  potential

  n [U] 1 (a) ~ (for sth) possibility of being developed or used 潜在性; 可能性: She recognized the potential for error in the method being used. 她意识到在所采用的方法中可能出错. * He studied the German market to find the potential there for profitable investment. 他对德国的市场进行了研究以寻求投资获利的可能性. (b) qualities that exist and can be developed 潜力; 潜能: exploit/fulfil/realize one's potential 发掘[发挥/认识]自己的潜力 * She has artistic potential/potential as an artist. 她有做艺术家的潜质. * The product has even more potential in export markets. 这种产品在出口市场上甚至会有更大的销售潜力. 2 energy of an electric charge expressed in volts; voltage 电势; 电位; 电压: a current of high potential 高压电.

  potentiality

  / pE9tenFI5AlEtI; pE9tZnFI`AlEtI/ n (esp pl 尤作复数) (fml 文) power or quality that exists but has not been developed 潜力; 潜在性: a country with great potentialities 具有很大潜力的国家.

  potentially

  / -FElI; -FElI/ adv: a potentially rich country, ie one with many natural resources that could be developed 潜力大的国家(有丰富自然资源可开发者) * a potentially catastrophic situation 可能引发严重灾难的形势.

  potion

  / 5pEUFn; `poFEn/ n (formerly) drink of medicine, poison or a liquid used in magic (旧时)(药物、 毒物或有魔力的)饮料: a `love potion 春药饮剂 * The magician displayed his charms and potions. 魔术师展示了咒符和有魔力的饮品.

  potsherd

  / 5pCt-F\:d; `pBt9F[d/ n (esp in archaeology) broken piece of pottery (尤指考古学)陶器碎片. Cf 参看 shard.

  potted

  / 5pCtId; `pBtId/ adj 1 grown or preserved in a pot 盆栽的; 罐装的. =>pot1 1,6. 2 (often derog 常作贬义) (of a book, etc) in a short simplified form (指书等)简写的, 节略的: a potted history of England 英国简史 * a potted version of `Hamlet' 《哈姆雷特》的节本 * (fig 比喻) She gave her parents a potted version of the night's events, ie an account that omitted anything disturbing. 她把夜间发生的事向父母粗略地讲了一遍(略去了一些令人担心的内容).

  potter

  / 5pCtE(r); `pBtL/ (US putter / 5pQtEr; `pQtL/) v 1 [I] work or move in a leisurely aimless way 懒散地工作; 漫无目的地走动: He loves to potter in the garden. 他喜欢在花园里随便走走. 2 (phr v) potter about/around (sth) (a) move from one place or thing to another in aleisurely way 游逛; 闲逛; 闲荡: potter about the exhibition慢悠悠地参观展览. (b) work in an unhurried relaxed way, doing small or trivial tasks 磨磨蹭蹭地做琐碎的事情: We spent the weekend pottering around (in) the house. 我们周末做一些琐碎的家务事.

  potterer

  / 5pCtErE(r); `pBtErL/ n (often derog 常作贬义) person who potters, esp one who never finishes a task 懒散的人; (尤指)磨洋工的人.

  potter

  / 5pCtE(r); `pBtL/ n person who makes earthenwarepots by hand 制陶工人; 陶工.

  pottery

  / 5pCtErI; `pBtErI/ n 1 [U] earthenware pots, etc made by hand 陶器: a valuable collection of Japanese pottery 一批珍贵的日本陶器收藏品. 2 [U] craft of making pots, esp by hand 陶器制造术(尤指手工业): She is learning pottery. 她在学习制陶技术. * [attrib 作定语] a pottery class 制陶技术学习班. 3 [C] place where pottery is made; potter's workshop 陶器制造厂; 陶器作坊. 4 the Potteries [pl] district in Staffordshire, the centre of the English pottery industry 波特里斯(英国斯塔福德郡之一区, 为陶器工业中心). =>illus at App 1 见附录1插图, pages xiv, xv.

  potter's wheel

  horizontal revolving disc on which wet clay is shaped to make pots 陶均, 陶轮(制陶器用的转盘).

  potty

  / 5pCtI; `pBtI/ adj (-ier, -iest) (Brit infml 口) 1 (a) (of a person or his behaviour) foolish or mad (指人或其行为)傻气的, 疯癫的: Surely you don't expect me to take your potty suggestions seriously? 你肯定不会指望我认真考虑你那些荒谬的建议吧? * He seems to have gone/to be quite potty. 他好像疯疯癫癫的了. * That noise is driving me potty! 那噪声要把我吵疯了! (b) ~ about sb/sth extremely enthusiastic about sb/sth 对某人[某事物]著迷的: She's potty about jazz. 她迷上了爵士音乐. 2 (derog 贬) small or unimportant 微小的; 不重要的: A person with his ambition won't stay long in a potty little firm like this. 一个有雄心大志的人在这样一个不起眼的小公司里是待不长的.

  pouch

  / paUtF; paJtF/ n 1 (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) small (esp leather) bag carried in the pocket or attached to a belt (放在衣袋里或连在腰带上的)小袋(尤指皮制的): a to`bacco-pouch 烟袋 * an,ammu`nition-pouch 子弹袋. 2 area of baggy loose skin, eg under the eyes of a sick person 皮肤的松弛下垂处(如病人眼下的). 3 (a) bag-like pocket of skin in which a female marsupial, eg a kangaroo, carries her young 育儿袋(袋鼠等雌性有袋动物的袋). (b) bag-like pocket of skin in the cheeks of some rodents, eg hamsters, in which they store and carry food 颊囊, 颊(某些啮齿类动物如仓鼠等口腔内两侧的)袋囊(用以储存和携带食物).

  pouch

  v 1 [I, Tn, Tn.pr] (cause sth to) form a pouch (使某物)成为袋状: wear a dress pouched over a belt 穿著腰带上方蓬松的连衣裙. 2 [Tn] put (sth) into a pouch; pocket 将(某物)装入袋内: to pouch a ball, ie catch it, eg in cricket 接住球(如板球戏中).

  pouffe (also pouf)

  / pu:f; puf/ n 1 large thick cushion used as a seat or for resting the feet on (大而厚的)坐垫, 脚垫. 2 = poof.

  poulterer

  / 5pEUltErE(r); `poltErL/ n (Brit) person who sells poultry and game 贩卖家禽和野味的人.

  poultice

  / 5pEUltIs; `poltIs/ n soft heated mass spread on a cloth and put on a sore place on the body to soothe pain, reduce swelling, etc 泥罨剂; 泥敷剂; 膏药: a kaolin, mustard, etc poultice 高岭土、 芥子末等泥罨剂.

  poultice

  v [Tn] put a poultice on (sth) 敷泥罨剂於(某处).

  poultry

  / 5pEUltrI; `poltrI/ n (a) [pl v] hens, ducks, geese, turkeys, etc kept for eating or for their eggs; domestic fowls 家禽: The poultry have been fed. 家禽已经喂过饲料了. * [attrib 作定语] poultry farming 家禽饲养业. (b) [U] meat of these eaten as food 家禽肉: Poultry is expensive at this time of year. 一年中的这个时候禽肉很贵. * There's not much poultry in the shops. 商店里禽肉不太多.

  pounce

  / paUns; paJns/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (on sb/sth) make a sudden attack by swooping or springing down 突然袭击; 猛扑: We saw the tiger about to pounce (on the goat). 我们看见老虎要(向那只山羊)扑过去. * The hawk pounced on its prey and carried it off. 那只鹰向那小动物猛扑过去把它叼走了. * We hid behind the bushes, ready to pounce on the intruder. 我们藏在灌木丛後面, 准备向来犯者发起突然袭击. * (fig 比喻) pounce on a mistake, ie spot it very quickly 一眼就看到错误.

  pounce

  n [sing] sudden attack by pouncing 突然的袭击; 猛扑的举动.

  pound

  / paUnd; paJnd/ n 1 [C] (a) (abbr 缩写 lb) standard measure of weight, 16 ounces in the avoirdupoissystem, equal to 0.454 kg (常衡)磅(重量单位, 合16盎司或0.454千克): Apples are sold by the pound. 苹果按磅出售. * The luggage weighs 40 lbs. 这行李重40磅. * He's eaten a whole pound of plums! 他吃了整整一磅李子. (b) standard measure of weight, 12 ounces in the troy system, equal to 0.373 kg. (金衡)磅(重量单位, 合12盎司或0.373千克). =>App 4, 5 见附录4、 5. 2 [C] (symb 符号为 ) (a) (also ,pound `sterling) unit of British money; 100 pence (英)镑(英国货币单位, 合100便士): The ticket will cost about a pound. 该票价约为一英镑. * I've spent 5 on food today. 今天我买食物花了5英镑. * [attrib 作定语] a five-pound note, ie a banknote for 5 一张五英镑的钞票 * a pound coin, ie a coin worth 1 一枚一英镑的硬币. =>App 4 见附录4. Cf 参看 sterling n. (b) unit of money of various other countries, eg Cyprus, Egypt, Ireland, Israel and Malta 镑(其他一些国家如塞浦路斯、 埃及、 爱尔兰、 以色列以及马尔他等的货币单位). (c) the pound [sing] value of the British pound on international moneymarkets 英国货币在外汇市场上的比价: The Governmentis worried about the weakness of the pound (against other currencies). 英国政府忧虑货币(较之其他货币)疲软. 3 (idm 习语) (have, want, demand, etc) one's pound of `flesh (insist on) receiving the full amount that is legally due to one even when it is morally offensive to do so (坚持)要讨回全部数额(尽管合法但不合理): Their distress had no effect on him he was determined to have his pound of flesh. 他对他们的不幸无动於衷--坚持向他们讨债. in for a penny, in for a pound => penny. penny wise pound foolish => penny.

  pound

  / paUnd; paJnd/ n 1 (formerly) enclosed area in a village where cattle, etc that had strayed were kept until their owners claimed them (旧时)乡村中收留走失的牲畜以待失主认领的围场. 2 (a) place where stray cats and dogs are kept until their owners claim them 收留走失的猫狗以待失主认领的处所. (b) place where motor vehicles that have been parked illegally are kept until their owners claim them 扣押违章停放之机动车以待车主认领的处所.

  pound

  / paUnd; paJnd/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (to sth) crush or beat sth with repeated heavy strokes 连续地猛撞或猛击某物: pound crystals (to powder) 把结晶体捣碎(成粉末) * pound garlic (to a paste) in a mortar 在臼中把大蒜舂烂(成糊状) * The ship was pounded to pieces against the rocks. 那船在岩石上撞得粉碎. 2 [Ipr, Ip, Tn] ~ (away) (at/against/on sth) hit (sth) with repeated heavy blows or gunfire 连续地猛击或射击(某物): the sound of feet pounding on the stairs 楼梯上响起的沉重脚步声 * Someone was pounding at the door. 有人在砰砰地敲门. * The heavy guns pounded (away at) the walls of the fort. 重炮对著要塞外墙(不停地)轰击. * Who is that pounding (on) the piano? 是谁用那麽大劲儿弹钢琴呢? 3 [I, Ipr] ~ (with sth) (of the heart) beat heavily (指心脏)剧烈地跳动: a heart pounding (with fear) (因恐惧)剧烈跳动的心脏 * She could feel her heart pounding painfully as she finished the race. 她跑完赛程後感到心脏都快要跳出来了. 4 (idm 习语) pound the `beat (infml 口) (esp of a policeman) regularly patrol an allotted district on foot (尤指警察)在辖区作例行徒步巡逻. 5 (phr v) pound along, down, up, etc move in the direction specified with heavy rapid steps 以沉重而快速的步伐朝某方向移动: The horses came pounding along the track. 马都在沿著跑道奔驰. * Don't pound up the stairs! 上楼梯脚步轻点吧!

  poundage

  / 5paUndIdV; `paJndIdV/ n [U] 1 charge of a certain sum (eg 5p) per pound in value (1) 按每英镑价值所付的费用(如 5 便士); 每英镑收费. 2 (a) charge of a certain sum (eg 5p) per pound in weight (1 lb) 按每磅重量所付的费用(如5便士); 每磅收费. (b) charge of a certain amount (eg 3 oz) per pound in weight (1 lb) 按每磅重量之定量(如 3 盎司)所付的费用.

  pounder

  / 5paUndE(r); `paJndL/ n 1 thing that weighs a pound (1 lb) 一磅重的东西. 2 (in compounds 用以构成复合词) (a) thing that weighs a specified number of pounds ...磅重的东西: a three-pounder, eg a fish weighing 3 lb 三磅重的东西(如3磅重的一条鱼). (b) gun that fires a shell of the specified number of pounds 发射...磅重炮弹的炮: an eighteen-pounder, ie a gun that fires shells weighing 18 lb each 发射18磅重炮弹的炮.

  pour

  / pR:(r); pRr/ v 1 (a) [Ipr, Ip] (of a liquid or substance that flows like liquid) flow, esp downwards, in a continuous stream (指液体或液体般流动之物)不断流动(尤指自上而下): Blood was pouring from the wound. 血从伤口中涌出. * I knocked over the bucket and the water poured (out) all over the floor. 我打翻了水桶, 水流了一地. * Sweat was pouring down his face. 他满头大汗. * The ceiling collapsed and rubble poured into the room. 天花板坍塌了, 碎砖破瓦掉落到了屋里. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p] cause (a liquid or substance that flows like liquid) to flow in a continuous stream 使(液体或液体般流动之物)不断流动; 倒; 灌; 注: Although I poured it carefully, I spilt some of the oil. 虽然我倒油时很小心, 但还是洒了一些. * Pour the milk into a jug. 把牛奶灌进壶里. * Pour out the water left in the bucket. 把桶里的剩水倒出来. =>illus 见插图. (c) [I, Ipr, Ip, Tn, Tn.pr, Tn.p, Dn.n, Dn.pr] ~ sth (for sb) serve (esp tea or coffee) (to sb) by putting it into a cup (为某人)斟, 倒(尤指茶或咖啡): This teapot doesn't pour well. 这个茶壶不好倒. * Shall I pour (out) (the tea)? 我来倒(茶)好吗? * I've poured two cups of coffee. 我倒了两杯咖啡. * I've poured coffee into your cup by mistake. 我错把咖啡倒在你的杯子里了. * Shall I pour you some tea? 我给你斟点茶好吗? * Let me pour you a glass of wine. 让我给你倒杯酒吧. * I've poured a glass of wine for you. 我给你斟了一杯酒. 2 [I, Ipr, Ip] (of rain) fall heavily (指雨)倾盆而下: It's pouring (down). 大雨如注. * She watched the rain pouring down the windows. 她注视著顺著窗户往下流的大雨. * (infml 口) a pouring wet day 大雨天. 3 [Ipr, Ip, Tn.pr, Tn.p] (cause people or things to) come or go in a continuous stream (使人或事物)不断地涌来或涌现: Commuters were pouring into the station. 通勤者涌入车站. * The fans poured out of the stadium cheering wildly. 体育爱好者们欣喜若狂地从体育场中蜂涌而出. * The shops and offices pour millions of workers into the street at this time of day. 一天的这段时间有数以百万计的职工从工厂和办公场所涌向街头. * Letters of complaint poured in (to head office). 投诉信件源源不断地寄到(总部). 4 (idm 习语) it never rains but it pours => rain2. pour oil on the `flames make a bad situation worse 使情况变得更糟; 火上加油. pour oil on troubled `waters (try to) calm a disagreement, violent dispute, etc (试图)调解争端、 平息风波等. pour scorn on sb/sth speak of sb/sth with contempt 以鄙夷的口气说到某人[某事物]: She poured scorn on the suggestion that he might never return. 她鄙弃有人暗示他一去不复返之意. pour/throw cold water on sth => cold1. 5 (phr v) pour (sth) out (cause sth to) be expressed freely (and fully) (将某事物)尽情表达出来: When he realized we knew the truth, the whole story came pouring out. 他意识到我们已了解真相, 便把事情的原委和盘托出. * She poured out her troubles to me over a cup of coffee. 她边喝咖啡边向我倾诉她的苦恼.

  pout

  / paUt; paJt/ v (a) [I] push the lips or the lower lip forward, esp as a sign of annoyance or sulking 撅嘴(尤指表示烦恼或生气): Tell that child to stop pouting! 叫那孩子别撅著嘴撒娇! * She pouted to show off her new lipstick. 她撅著嘴炫耀她的新口红. (b) [Tn] push (thelips) forward in this way 撅(嘴): pout one's lips provocatively 挑衅地撅著嘴.

  pout

  n (esp sing 尤作单数) pouting expression of the face 撅嘴的面部表情.

  poutingly

  adv with a pout; sulkily 撅著嘴地; 板著脸地; 生气地.

  poverty

  / 5pCvEtI; `pBvLtI/ n [U] 1 state of being poor 贫穷; 贫困: live in poverty 过著穷困的生活 * She had been worn down by poverty and illness. 她贫病交加, 受尽折磨. 2 existing in too small amounts; scarcity or lack 贫乏; 缺乏: His work was criticized for its poverty of imagination. 他的作品因缺乏想像力而受到批评. * They were handicapped by (a) poverty of resources. 他们因资源短缺处境窘迫. 3 state of being inferior; poor quality 低劣; 劣质: the poverty of the soil 土地的贫瘠 * They were recognizable by the poverty of their dress. 根据衣著寒酸这一点可以把他们认出来. 4 (idm 习语) grinding poverty => grinding (grind). Cf 参看 poorness.

  poverty line

  minimum level of income needed to buy the basic necessities of life 贫困线(购买基本的生活必需品所需之收入的最低水平): There are still too many people living below the poverty line. 生活在贫困线以下的人数仍然过多.

  poverty-stricken

  adj affected by poverty(1); extremely poor 贫困不堪的; 极度贫穷的: poverty-stricken families, homes, housing 一贫如洗的家庭、 缺衣乏食的家、 四壁萧然的房屋.

  poverty trap

  situation in which one is unable to improve one's income because one depends on state benefits that are reduced as one's earnings increase 贫困陷阱(受政府津贴者因工资增加而津贴减少, 无法改善经济状况).

  POW

  / 9pi: EU 5dQblju:; 9pi o `dQblju/ abbr 缩写 = prisonerof war: a POW camp 战俘营.

  powder

  / 5paUdE(r); `paJdL/ n 1 (a) [U] (substance in the form of a) mass of fine dry particles 粉; 粉末; 粉状物质: crush lumps of sugar to powder 把成块的糖压成粉末 * The snow was as dry as powder. 雪乾得像粉一样. (b) [C, U] (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) substance in this form, esp one for a special use, eg as a cosmetic or medicine 粉状物质(尤指有某种用途者, 如作化妆品或药剂的): `face-powder 扑面粉 * `talcum powder 爽身粉 * take a powder (ie powdered medicine) to cure indigestion 服用药粉以治消化不良 * a special powder for cleaning fur 一种可清洗毛皮衣服的皂粉 * `soap powder 肥皂粉 * `baking-powder 发酵粉. 2 [U] = gunpowder (gun). 3 (idm 习语) keep one's `powderdry keep in a state of readiness to cope with a possible emergency 作好准备以对付可能出现的紧急情况: The problem may not arise, but there's no harm in keeping our powder dry. 问题不一定会发生, 但有备无患并无害处.

  powder

  v [Tn] put powder on (sth) 施粉於(某物): powder one's face/nose 在脸上[鼻子上]搽粉 * powder a baby after her bath, ie with talcum powder 给幼儿洗澡後再给她扑爽身粉 * the fashion for powdered hair 在头发上施以粉末装饰的流行发型. powdered adj (of a substance that is naturally liquid) dried and made into powder (指原为液体之物质)经乾燥而成粉的: The paint is sold in powdered form. 该油漆以粉制品形式出售. * powdered milk, eggs, etc 奶粉、 蛋粉.

  powdery

  / 5paUdErI; `paJdErI/ adj 1 like powder 粉状的: a light fall of powdery snow 细雪的轻轻飘落. 2 covered with powder 布满粉状物的: a powdery nose 敷粉的鼻子.

  powder blue

  (of a) pale blue 淡蓝色(的).

  powder-keg

  n 1 small metal barrel for holdinggunpowder (金属的)小型火药桶. 2 (fig 比喻) potentiallydangerous or explosive situation 具有潜在危险的或爆炸性的情势: Rising tensions have turned the area into a powder-keg and any incident could set off a riot. 形势越来越紧张, 该地区已成了火药桶, 任何小事均能激起一场动乱.

  powder-magazine

  n place where gunpowder is stored 火药库.

  powder-puff (also puff)

  n soft fluffy pad used for applying face-powder 粉扑.

  powder-room

  n (euph 婉) ladies' lavatory in a department store, hotel, theatre, etc (百货商店、 旅馆、 剧院等的)女厕所.

  power

  / 5paUE(r); `paJL/ n 1 [U] (in people) ability to do or act (人的)能力: It is beyond/outside/not within my power (ie I am unable or am not in a position) to help you. 我没有能力帮助你. * I will do everything in my power to help you. 我愿尽我的力量帮助你. 2 (a) [U] (also powers [pl]) particular faculty of the body or mind (生理上或精神上)某方面的能力: He has lost the power of speech. 他丧失了言语能力. * The drug affects one's power(s) of concentration. 这种药影响人精神不能集中. * He had to use all his powers of persuasion. 他只好尽力进行说服. (b) powers [pl] all the faculties of aperson's body or mind 体力; 智力: a woman of impressive intellectual powers 智力超群的女人 * His powers are failing, ie He is becoming weak. 他的体力正在衰退. 3 [U] strength or energy behind or contained in sth 力; 力量: There was a lot of power behind that blow. 那一击的力量很大. * The ship was helpless against the power of the storm. 那船抵挡不住风暴的力量. * (fig 比喻) They were defeated by the power of her oratory. 她靠能言善辩战胜了他们. =>Usage at strength 用法见strength. 4 [U] (a) control over others 操纵力; 影响力: the power of the law 法律的力量 * have sb in one's power, ie be able to do what one wishes with sb 对某人具有影响力(能操纵某人) * have power over sb/sb's fate 能决定某人的命运 * fall into sb's power 落入某人的手心中 * He made the mistake of underestimating the power of the press. 他犯的错误是低估了新闻界的力量. (b) political control; rule 政权; 统治: seize power, ie in a political coup 夺取政权 * This government came (in)to power at the last election. 这一届政府是经最近大选後上台执政的. 5 [C esp pl 尤作复数] right possessed by or given to a person or group; authority (个人或团体所掌握或获得的)职权; 权势: The powers of the police need to be clearly defined. 必须对警方的权限作出明确的规定. * The President has exceeded his powers, ie has done more than he is allowed or has the right to do. 总统已逾越了自己的职权. * (law 律) power of attorney, ie the right to act on sb's behalf in business or financial matters 委任权(在商务或财务中代表某人之权利). 6 [C] person, group or state with great authority or influence 很有权力或影响力的人、 团体或国家: world powers, ie countries with the most influence in international affairs 世界大国(在国际事务中最具影响力的国家) * `Is the press a great power in your country?' `Yes, it's far more important than the Church.' `贵国的新闻界有很大的影响力吗?'`有, 新闻界比起教会来要重要得多.' * The country was a great naval power in past centuries, ie had great international influence because it had a large navy. 该国在前几个世纪是海上强国. * No power on earth could force me to do it. 谁也不能强迫我做这事. 7 [U] (a) energy that can be harnessed and used to do work 动力: wind, nuclear, hydroelectric power 风力、 核动力、 水电动力 * We need to provide industry with power it can afford. 我们需向工业界提供他们负担得起的电力. * [attrib 作定语] the power supply 电源. (b) [attrib 作定语] operated by mechanical or electrical energy 机动的; 电动的: power brakes/steering 动力制动器[转向装置] * power tools 电动工具. (c) (of an engine, etc) capacity or performance (发动机等的)功率, 性能: a car's power of acceleration 汽车的加速性能 * the terrifying power of the huge machine 巨型机器的巨大功率. 8 [C esp sing 尤作单数] (mathematics 数) result obtained by multiplying a number by itself a certain number of times 乘方; 幂: the third power of 2 (= 2 x 2 x 2 = 8) 2的三次幂(= 2 x 2 x 2 = 8) * the second, third, fourth, etc power of x (= x2, x3, x4, etc) x的二次、 三次、 四次等幂(= x2、 x3、 x4?p等) * to the power of sth, ie multiplied by itself a certain number of times 某数的自乘 * 44 represents four to the power of four, ie 4 x 4 x 4 x 4 = 256 44表示4自乘4次. 9 [U] (of a lens) capacity for magnifying (指透镜)放大率, 放大倍数: the power of a microscope, telescope, etc 显微镜、 望远镜等的放大倍数. 10 [C] good or evil spirit 神灵; 鬼怪: She believed in the existence of a benevolent power. 她相信有大慈大悲的神仙. * the powers of darkness, ie the forces of evil or of the Devil 邪恶的势力. 11 (idm 习语) the corridors of power => corridor. do sb a `power of good (infml 口) be very beneficial to sb 对某人大有好处: Her holiday has done her a power of good. 她度过了这一假期对她大有好处. * A long cool drink would do us all a power of good! 我们要是能喝上一大杯清凉饮料, 那多好哇! in `power having control or authority 掌握权力: the party in power 执政党 * The Government has been in power for two years. 这届政府已执政两年. more power to sb's `elbow (infml 口) (used to express encouragement to sb doing sth 用以鼓励某人做某事): She is campaigning for an improved bus service more power to her elbow! 她正在发起一项改进公共汽车运营服务的活动--祝她成功! the (real) power behind the `throne the person who really controls an organization, a country, etc, in contrast to the person who is legally in charge (组织、 国家等中)幕後实际掌握权力的人: The President's wife was suspected of being the real power behind the throne. 总统夫人有充当幕後掌权者之嫌. the ,powers that `be (often ironic 常作反语) people who control an organization, a country, etc (组织、 国家等之)当权者, 当权派: He was waiting for the powers that be to decide what his next job would be. 他在等待当权派给他分派下一工作.

  powered

  adj equipped with or operated by mechanical energy 有动力装置的; 用动力推动的: a new aircraft powered by Rolls Royce engines 一架装备有罗尔斯.罗伊斯(亦译劳斯.莱斯)发动机的新飞机 * a high-powered car 马力大的小汽车 * (fig 比喻) rather low-powered political discussions 显得有点没精打采的政治讨论.

  power-boat

  n boat with an engine, esp a very powerful one, for racing or towing water-skiers 汽艇; 快艇.

  power cut

  interruption in the supply of electricity 电力供应的中断; 停电: the violent storms caused several power cuts 造成几处停电的狂风暴雨.

  power-dive

  n steep dive made by an aircraft with its engines working (飞机的)动力俯冲, 开油门俯冲. v [I] (of an aircraft) make such a dive (指飞机)开油门俯冲.

  power house

  1 = power-station. 2 (fig 比喻) (a) very powerful group, organization, etc 强大的团体、 组织等. (b) very strong or energetic person 身强力壮的人; 精力充沛的人.

  power-point

  n socket on a wall, etc where electrical appliances can be plugged in to an electric circuit (墙上等处的)电源插座.

  power politics

  political action or diplomacy based on the threat of using force 强权政治.

  power-station (US `power plant)

  n building where electricity is generated 发电站; 发电厂: a coal-fired power-station 燃煤火力发电站 * a nuclear power-station 核电站.

  powerful

  / 5paUEfl; `paJLfEl/ adj (a) of or having great power 强有力的; 力量大的: a powerful blow 有力的一击 * a powerful machine, motor bike, engine, etc 大功率的机器、 摩托车、 发动机等. (b) having a strong effect 很有效力的; 作用大的: a powerful image, remedy, speech 清晰的影像、 特效的药品、 有力的讲话 * a powerful appeal to the public's sense of justice 要求公众主持正义的强烈呼吁. (c) physically strong 强健的: powerful legs 强健的腿部 * a man with a powerful physique 身强力壮的男子. (d) having great control or influence 权力大的; 有势力的: a powerful enemy, nation, ruler, trade union强敌、 强国、 强有力的统治者、 有势力的工会.

  powerfully

  / -fElI; -fElI/ adv: He is very powerfully built, ie has a large strong physique. 他身强力壮.

  powerless

  / 5paUElIs; `paJLlIs/ adj 1 without power or strength 无权力的; 无力量的: render sb powerless 使某人失去权力. 2 ~ to do sth completely unable to do sth 对做某事无能为力的: I am powerless to intervene in the matter. 我对调停此事无能为力. * They were powerless to resist. 他们无力抵抗.

  powerlessly

  adv.

  powerlessness

  n [U].

  powwow

  / 5paUwaU; `paJ9waJ/ n 1 meeting or conference of N American Indians (北美印第安人的)会议. 2 (infml 口) meeting to discuss sth 讨论会: hold a powwow 举行讨论会.

  powwow

  v [I, Ipr] ~ (about sth) (infml 口) have a discussion (about sth) 讨论(某事物).

  pox

  / pCks; pBks/ n 1 the pox [sing] = syphilis. 2 [U] (in compounds 用以构成复合词) disease that causes pock-marks 痘: `smallpox * `chicken-pox.

  pp

  abbr 缩写 = 1 pages. 2 / 9pi: 5pi:; 9pi `pi/ (also per pro / p\: 5prEU; 9p[ `pro/) (before a signature) on behalf of (Latin per procurationem) (签字前)代表...(源自拉丁文per procurationem): pp J E Symonds, eg signed by his secretary in his absence 代表J·E·西蒙兹(例如本人不在场而由秘书代签者). 3 (music 音) very softly; very quietly (Italian pianissimo) 极柔和, 极轻(源自意大利文pianissimo). Cf 参看 ff 2.

  PPE

  / 9pi: pi: 5i:; 9pi pi `i/ abbr 缩写 = (Brit) (esp at Oxford University) philosophy, politics and economics (尤用於牛津大学)哲学、 政治学和经济学: a degree in PPE 哲学、 政治学和经济学学位.

  PPS (also pps)

  / 9pi: pi: 5es; 9pi pi `Zs/ abbr 缩写 = (esp at the end of a letter) additional postscript (Latin post postscriptum) (尤用於信末)再附言(源自拉丁文post postscriptum). Cf 参看 PS 2.

  PR

  / 9pi: 5B:(r); 9pi `Br/ abbr 缩写 = 1 proportional representation. 2 (infml 口) public relations: a PR exercise, ie one that tries to create good will while not solving problems or achieving results 公关活动.

  pr

  abbr 缩写 = 1 (pl prs) pair. 2 price.

  practicable

  / 5prAktIkEbl; `prAktIkEbl/ adj 1 that can be put into practice; workable 可以实施的; 行得通的: a practicable scheme, solution, suggestion, etc 切实可行的计画、 解决办法、 建议等. 2 (of roads, etc) fit to be used by traffic; passable (指道路等)适於车辆往来的, 可通行的: the mountain route that is practicable only in summer 只有在夏季才可以通行的山路. Cf 参看 impracticable.

  practicability

  / 9prAktIkE5bIlEtI;9prAktIkE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  practicably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv.

  practical

  / 5prktIkl; `prAktIkl/ adj 1 concerned with practice(1) and action rather than theory 实践的; 实际的: practical experience, skills 实践经验、 实际技能 * It's an interesting idea but there are many practical difficulties. 这是一个很有意思的想法, 然而却存在著许多实际困难. Cf 参看 theoretical 1. 2 suitable for the purpose for which it was made; useful 切合实际的; 实用的: a practical device with many different uses 一种多用途的实用器械 * practical clothing for outdoor sports 适於室外运动穿的衣服 * Your invention is ingenious, but not very practical. 你所发明的东西巧是巧, 但不太实用. 3 (a) (of a person) clever at doing and making things (指人)心灵手巧的: She's very practical. 她心灵手巧. * He has a practical partner who organizes everything for him. 他有个很能干的伙伴, 替他把一切弄得井井有条. (b) sensible and realistic 讲求实际的; 实事求是的: We must be practical and work out the cost before we make a decision. 我们应该实事求是地先把费用算出来, 然後再做决定. 4 that is so in effect; virtual 事实上的; 实际上的: The owner's brother has been in practical control of the firm for years. 业主的弟弟实际控制该商行已有多年. 5 (idm 习语) for (all) `practical purposes as far as really matters; in reality 事实上; 实际上: The sale was supposed to last for a week, but for all practical purposes it's over. 减价销售原来预料要持续一周, 然而实际上现在已经结束了. Cf 参看 impractical.

  practical

  n (infml 口) practical(1) examination or lesson, eg in a scientific subject 实验课考试, 实习课(如某一学科的): a physics practical 物理实验.

  practicality

  / 9prAktI5kAlEtI; 9prAktI`kAlEtI/ n 1 [U] quality or state of being sensible and realistic 实际性; 现实性; 实用性: He questioned the practicality of the proposal. 他对该项建议的可行性表示怀疑. 2 practicalities [pl] practical(1) matters rather thanideas 实际的事务: We need to start discussing practicalities.我们需要著手讨论实际问题.

  practically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv 1 almost; virtually 几乎; 实际上: It rained practically every day. 几乎天天下雨. * His work is practically unknown here. 他的作品在这里实际上不为人知. 2 in a practical manner 实际地; 实事求是地: She solved the problem very practically. 她很实事求是地解决了这个问题.

  practical joke

  trick played on sb for amusement, usu involving some physical action 恶作剧: The children put salt in the sugar bowl as a practical joke. 孩子们玩恶作剧把盐放进了糖罐里. ,practical `joker person who plays practical jokes 玩恶作剧的人.

  practice

  / 5prAktIs; `prAktIs/ n 1 [U] actual doing of sth; action as contrasted with theory 实践; 实际: put a plan into practice 实行某计画 * The idea would never work in practice, ie It seems good in theory but would be useless if carried out. 那种设想永远也实现不了. 2 (a)[U] regularly repeated exercise done in order to improveone's skill (经常反覆的)练习: an hour's practice every day 每天一小时的练习 * Playing the piano well requires a lot of practice. 要弹好钢琴就得多练习. * [attrib 作定语] a practice game 练习赛. (b) [C] period of time spent doing this 进行练习的一段时间; 练习期间: The players will meet for a practice in the morning. 运动员们在早上一起训练. 3 (a) [U] way of doing sth that is common or habitual 惯例; 常规: It is accepted/standard practice to pay a deposit with one's order. 在预订时交付定金是一般的[普遍遵守的]惯例. * Paying bills promptly is good financial practice. 及时付帐是理财的好习惯. * It is the practice in Britain to drive on the left. 车辆靠左行驶是英国的制度. (b) [C] thing done regularly; habit or custom 惯常做的事; 习惯; 习俗: the practice of closing shops on Sundays 星期天店铺休业的惯例 * I had coffee after dinner, as is my usual practice. 我饭後喝咖啡, 这是我的习惯. 4 (a) [U] work of a doctor or lawyer (医生或律师的)工作: a doctor working in general practice, ie as a family doctor 全科医生(如家庭医生) * She has retired from practice/is no longer in practice. 她已退休[已不再执业]. (b) [C] (place of) business of a doctor or lawyer (医生或律师的)业务; 诊所; 律师事务所: a medical/legal practice 诊所[法律事务所] * a group practice, ie a partnership of several doctors 联合诊所(由几位医生联合执业) * His practice is in the centre of the city. 他的事务所位於市中心. * She has just bought (into) a very profitable practice. 她刚买下一个赢利很高的事务所(的股票). 5 [U] (a) (esp of a doctor or lawyer) practising one's profession (尤指医生或律师的)执业, 生意: the practice of law/medicine 律师的业务[医生的行医].(b) exercising one's faith, etc 修养: the practice of one's religion 修道. 6 (idm 习语) ,in/,out of `practice having/not having spent time doing practice 勤於[疏於]实践或练习: It's important to keep in practice. 经常练习很重要. * If you don't play, you'll get out of practice. 不练习就会荒疏. make a habit/practice of sth => habit. ,practice makes `perfect (saying 谚) doing sth (eg a skill or craft) repeatedly is the only way to become very good at it 熟能生巧. sharp practice => sharp.

  practician

  / prAk5tIFn; prAk`tIFEn/ n = practitioner.

  practise (US practice)

  / 5prAktIs; `prAktIs/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr, Tg] ~ (sth) (on sth) do sth repeatedly or regularly in order to improve one's skill 练习; 实习: I haven't been practising enough. 我练习得还不够. * She's practising (a new piece) on the piano. 她在练习弹奏(一支新曲子). * I need to practise my Italian before my business trip. 我出差以前需要练习一下意大利语. * Practise throwing the ball into the net. 练习投篮. 2 [Tn] make (sth) part of one's behaviour by doing it regularly 经常做(某事)养成习惯: practise economy, patience, self-control, etc 厉行节约、 锻炼耐性、 锻炼自制力. 3 [I, Ipr, Tn] ~ (as sth) work as a doctor or lawyer 执业为医生或律师: Does he still practise? 他还在执业吗? * She practised as a solicitor for many years. 她当了许多年事务律师. * practise homoeopathic medicine 施行顺势疗法. 4 [I, Tn] do (sth) actively 积极从事(某事物): He was a Catholic but didn't practise (his religion). 他那时是天主教徒, 但并不实践信仰. * a practising Anglican 实践信仰的圣公会教徒. 5 (idm 习语) ,practise what one `preaches do habitually oneself what one tells others to do 躬行实践; 身体力行.

  practised (US -ticed)

  adj ~ (in sth) expert, esp as a result of much practice; experienced 熟练的; 内行的; 有经验的: He performed the job with practised skill. 他干这工作很熟练. * practised in the art of deception 善使手腕骗人的.

  practitioner

  / prAk5tIFEnE(r); prAk`tIFEnL/ (also practician) n 1 person who practises a skill or an art 习艺者; 实习者. 2 person who practises a profession, esp medicine 从业者; (尤指)行医者: a general practitioner 全科医生.

  praesidium

  = presidium.

  pragmatic

  / prAg5mAtIk; prA^`mAtIk/ adj 1 treating things in a sensible and realistic way; concerned with practical results 务实的; 实事求是的; 注重实效的: a politician valued for his pragmatic approach 因讲求实际而受人尊重的政治家 * a pragmatic solution to the problem 实事求是地解决问题的方法. 2 of or concerning pragmatism(2) 实用主义的; 实用主义观点的.

  pragmatically

  / -klI; -klI/ adv.

  pragmatism

  / 5prAgmEtIzEm; `prA^mE9tIzEm/ n [U] (fml 文) 1 thinking about or treating things in a practical way 实用的观点或思想方法. 2 (in philosophy) belief that the truth or value of a theory can only be judged by its practical results (哲学)实用主义.

  pragmatist

  / -tIst; -tIst/ n 1 person who acts in a practical way 做事从实际出发的人. 2 believer in pragmatism(2) 实用主义者.

  prairie

  / 5preErI; `prZrI/ n wide area of level grassland, esp in N America; plain2 大草原(尤指北美洲的). Cf 参看 pampas, savannah, steppe, veld.

  prairie-dog

  n small N American burrowing animal with a bark like a dog's 草原犬鼠(产自北美洲, 穴居, 叫声似犬吠).

  praise

  / preIz; prez/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.n/a] ~ sb/sth (for sth); ~ sb/sth as sth express approval or admiration for sb/sth 称赞或赞赏某人[某事物]: The guests praised the meal. 客人们称赞这顿饭做得好. * He was obviously expecting to be praised. 他显然想要得到表扬. * He praised her for her courage. 他赞扬她很勇敢. * Critics praised the work as highly original. 评论家们称赞该作品独树一帜. 2 [Tn] honour or glorify (God) in prayer; worship 赞美, 颂扬(上帝); 崇拜. 3 (idm 习语) praise, etc sb to the skies => sky.

  praise

  / preIz; prez/ n [U] 1 expression of approval or admiration; act of praising (praise1 1)称赞; 赞美; 赞扬: high (ie great) praise 高度的赞扬 * courage beyond (ie too great for) praise 无与伦比的勇气 * He received praise from his colleagues for winning the prize. 他因获得该奖而受到同事们的称赞. * an achievement worthy of great praise 值得大加表扬的成绩 * The leader spoke in praise of those who had died for their country. 领导人表彰为国捐躯的人们. 2 worship (of God); glory (对上帝的)崇拜; 荣耀: a hymn of praise 赞美诗 * Praise be (to God), ie Thank goodness! 谢天谢地! 3 (idm 习语) be loud in one's praise => loud. damn sb/sth with faint praise => damn1. sing sb's/sth's praises => sing.

  praiseworthy

  / -w\:TI; -w[TI/ adj deservingpraise; commendable 值得称赞的; 值得表扬的: a very praiseworthy achievement 值得大大夸奖的成绩.

  praiseworthily

  / -TIlI; -TElI/ adv.

  praiseworthiness

  n [U].

  praline

  / 5prB:li:n; `prB9lin/ n sweet2(1) made by browning nuts in boiling sugar, used esp as a flavouring or filling for chocolate confectionery 果仁糖(尤用作巧克力点心的加料或夹馅).

  pram

  / prAm; prAm/ n (Brit) (US `baby buggy, baby carriage, buggy) four-wheeled carriage, pushed by hand, for a baby (手推的)幼儿车(有四轮).

  prance

  / prB:ns; ?@ prAns; prAns/ v 1 [I] (of a horse) move jerkily by raising the forelegs and springing forward from the hind legs (指马)腾跃. 2 (phr v) prance about, along, around, in, out, etc move in the specified direction in a high-spirited or arrogant way 手舞足蹈地或神气活现地朝某方向移动: She was prancing along in her new outfit. 她穿著全套新衣服神气活现地走著. * He pranced out of the room in a fury. 他盛怒之下大摇大摆走出了房间. * They were prancing about (ie jumping or dancing happily) to the music. 他们跟著音乐欢蹦乱跳.

  prance

  n [sing] prancing movement (马的)腾跃; 欢蹦乱跳; 昂首阔步.

  prang

  / prAN; prAN/ v [Tn] (sl 俚 esp Brit) damage (a vehicle) in a crash 撞毁, 撞坏(车辆): He's pranged his new bike. 他把他那辆新自行车撞坏了.

  prang

  n (damage caused to a vehicle in a) crash (车辆等的)撞毁, 碰撞: He's had a bit of a prang. 他出了严重的撞车事故.

  prank

  / prANk; prANk/ n playful or mischievous trick 玩笑; 恶作剧: a childish prank 像孩子般的胡闹 * play a prank on sb 戏弄某人.

  prankster

  / 5prANkstE(r); `prANkstL/ n person who plays pranks 开玩笑者; 搞恶作剧的人.

  prate

  / preIt; pret/ v (derog 贬) (a) [I, Ip] ~ (on about sth) talk or chatter too much (about sth) (对某事物)喋喋不休, 唠唠叨叨: Listen to him prating on about nothing. 听他瞎唠叨. (b) [I] talk (foolishly) 胡扯: a prating idiot 胡说八道的笨蛋.

  prattle

  / 5prAtl; `prAtl/ v [I, Ip] (a) ~ (away) (of a child) talk in a simple way; babble (指儿童)说简单的话, 牙牙学语: The baby is prattling (away) happily in her cot. 那幼儿在小床上牙牙自语, 快活得很. (b) (often derog 常作贬义) ~ (on about sth) (of an adult) talk at length, esp about unimportant things (指成人)絮絮叨叨地说; (尤指)闲聊: prattle on about the village gossip 闲扯些村里的事.

  prattle

  n [U] unimportant chatter; gossip 闲聊; 闲话.

  prattler

  / 5prAtlE(r); `prAtlL/ n (often derog 常作贬义) person who prattles (prattle b) 说话絮叨的人.

  prawn

  / prR:n; prRn/ n type of edible shellfish like a large shrimp 大虾; 对虾; 明虾: [attrib 作定语] a ,prawn `cocktail, ie a dish of prawns served with mayonnaise 一盘浇有蛋黄酱的大虾.

  pray

  / preI; pre/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Tn.pr, Tf, Tt] ~ (to sb) (for sb/sth); ~ sb (for sth) offer thanks, make requests known, etc (to God) 祈祷; 祷告: The priest prayed for the dying man. 牧师为死者做祷告. * They prayed (to God) for an end to their sufferings/for their sufferings to end. 他们为早日结束苦难而祈祷. * They prayed that she would recover. 他们为她尽快康复而祈祷. * She prayed to be forgiven/(to) God for forgiveness. 她祈求宽恕[上帝宽恕]. 2 [Tn.pr, Dn.t] ~ sb (for sth) (dated fml 旧, 文) ask sb (for sth/to do sth) as a favour; beg (为某事物)恳求某人; 乞求某人(做某事物): We pray you for mercy/to show mercy. 我们恳求你发慈悲. * We pray you to set the prisoner free. 我们恳求你释放这个囚犯.

  prayer

  / preE(r); prZr/ n 1 (a) [C] ~ (for sth) solemn request to God or to an object of worship 祈祷; 祷告: say one's prayers 做祷告 * a prayer for forgiveness, rain, success 为获得宽恕、 雨水、 成功而做的祷告 * He arrived, as if in answer to her prayers. 他终於来了, 好像她祷告很灵验. (b) fixed form of words used for this祈祷文: the Lord's Prayer 主祷文 * prayers he had learnt as a child 他儿时念过的祈祷文. 2 [U] action of praying 祈祷; 祷告: spend time in prayer 做祷告 * Let us kneel in prayer. 我们跪下祈祷吧. * She believed in the power of prayer. 她相信祈祷的力量. 3 (a) [sing] form of religious service consisting mainly of prayers (宗教的)祈祷式: Evening/Morning Prayer 晚[早]祷. (b) prayers[pl] informal meeting in order to pray (非正式的)祷告会: family/morning/evening/daily prayers 家庭的[早晨的/晚上的/每天的]祷告会.

  prayer-book

  n (a) book containing prayers, for use in church, etc (教堂等使用的)祈祷书. (b) the `Prayer Book (also the ,Book of ,Common `Prayer) prayer-book used in Anglican services (圣公会的)祈祷书, 公祷书.

  prayer-mat (also `prayer-rug)

  n small carpet on which Muslims kneel when praying (穆斯林做祷告时用的)跪毯.

  prayer-meeting

  n (esp in Protestant churches) meeting where people say personal prayers aloud to God (尤指新教教会的)祷告会.

  prayer-wheel

  n revolving drum-shaped box inscribedwith or containing prayers, used esp by Tibetan Buddhists(西藏喇嘛教徒用的刻有或带有祈祷文的)祈祷轮, 地藏车.

  pre-

  pref 前缀 (used fairly widely with vs, ns, adjs and advs 与大量动词、 名词、 形容词、 副词连用) before 在...前; 先於: pre-cook * prefabricate * pre-medication * pre-Christian * prematurely. Cf 参看 ante-, post-.

  pre-arrange

  / 9pri:E5reIndV; 9priE`rendV/ v [Tn] arrange(sth) in advance 预先安排(某事物): Run to your positionswhen you hear the prearranged signal. 你们听到预定的信号时, 就各就各位.

  pre-arrangement

  n [U].

  pre-cast

  / 9pri:5kB:st; ?@ -5kAst; `pri`kAst/ adj (of concrete) made into blocks ready for use in building (指混凝土)预先浇铸的, 预制的.

  pre-condition

  / 9pri:kEn5dIFn; 9prikEn`dIFEn/ n = prerequisite.

  pre-eminent

  / 9pri:5emInEnt; prI`ZmEnEnt/ adj superior to all others; outstanding 超群的; 杰出的: a scientist pre-eminent in his field 在其领域中出类拔萃的科学家.

  pre-eminence

  / -Ens; -Ens/ n [U]: awards for those who achieve pre-eminence in public life 给予在社会生活中有突出表现者的奖励.

  pre-eminently

  adv.

  pre-empt

  / 9pri:5empt; prI`Zmpt/ v 1 [Tn] obtain (sth) by acting in advance of others 抢先取得(某物); 预先占有(某物). 2 [Tn] (US) occupy (public land) in order to have the right to buy it before others (为获得优先购买权而)占有(公地). 3 [Tn] prevent (sth) by taking action in advance; forestall 抢先采取行动以阻止(某事物); 先发制人: The workers took control of the factory in order to pre-empt its sale by the owners. 工人们先发制人接管了工厂以阻止厂主将工厂出售. 4 [I] (in bridge) make a high opening bid despite having poor cards, in order to prevent further bidding (桥牌中)先发制人叫牌(尽管牌不好也仍叫得很高以阻止对方叫牌).

  pre-emption

  / 9pri:5empFn; prI`ZmpFEn/ n [U] 1 (fml 文) (a) purchase by one person, group, etc before others have the chance to buy 优先购买. (b) right to do this 优先购买权. 2 obtaining or preventing (sth) by acting in advance 抢先行动以占有或阻止(某事物).

  pre-emptive

  / -tIv; -tIv/ adj of or concerning pre-emption 优先购买的; 预先采取行动的: a pre-emptive right to buy 优先购买权 * pre-emptive purchase 优先购买 * a pre-emptive attack/strike, ie one designed to forestall a likely enemy attack 先发制人的攻击[打击] * a pre-emptive bid, ie (in bridge) one made to prevent further bidding 先发制人的叫牌(用以阻止对方叫牌).

  pre-exist

  / 9pri:Ig5zIst; 9priI^`zIst/ v [I] (a) exist beforehand 先存; 先在. (b) live a life before this life 生存於前世.

  pre-existence

  / -Ens; -Ens/ n [U] earlier form of existence, esp that of the soul before it enters the body 先存(尤指灵魂在进入肉体前的存在); 前世.

  pre-existent

  / -Ent; -Ent/ adj existing previously, esp in an earlier life 先存的; (尤指)前世的.

  pre-heat

  / 9pri:5hi:t; pri`hit/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] heat (sth) beforehand (esp an oven to a specified temperature before putting food in it to cook) 预热(某物, 尤指烤箱, 待达到一定温度後将食物放入进行烹调): Cook the pie for 20 minutes in a pre-heated oven. 在经过预热的烤箱里烘烤馅饼20分钟.

  pre-natal

  / 9pri:5neItl; pri`netl/ adj (esp US) of or occurring in the period before (giving) birth; antenatal出生前的; 产前的; 孕期的: ,pre-natal `check-ups, `classes,`exercises 产前检查、 孕期卫生课程、 孕期体操. Cf 参看 postnatal.

  pre-ordain

  / 9pri:R:5deIn; 9priRr`den/ v [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Tf] decide or determine (sth) beforehand预先决定或确定(某事物); 注定: Fate had pre-ordained their meeting/that they should meet. 他们的相逢是命中注定的. * Her success in life seemed pre-ordained. 她似一生注定功成德立.

  pre-package

  / 9pri:5pAkIdV; pri`pAkIdV/ (also pre-pack / 9pri:5pAk; pri`pAk/) v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] put (goods) into packs ready for sale before distribution to shops 预先包装(货物)(再批发到商店): pre-packaged fruit 预先包装的水果.

  Pre-Raphaelite

  / 9pri:5rAfElaIt; 9pri`rAfE9laIt/ n (art 美术) member of a group of British 19th-century artists who painted in a style considered to be that of Italian painting before the time of Raphael 拉斐尔前派画家(指英国19世纪一种流派的成员, 其作品被认为具有拉斐尔以前之意大利绘画风格).

  Pre-Raphaelite

  adj of, concerning or in the style of the Pre-Raphaelites 拉斐尔之前的; 拉斐尔前派的; 具有拉斐尔前派风格的: a Pre-Raphaelite portrait 具有拉斐尔前派风格的肖像画.

  pre-record

  / 9pri:rI5kR:d; 9prirI`kRrd/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (esp broadcasting 尤用於广播) record (film, sound, a television programme, etc) in advance, for use later 预先录制(影像、 声音、 电视节目等): The sound effects had been pre-recorded and were added to the dialogue. 音响效果经预录後已加入对话中. * The interview was pre-recorded. 采访过程是预先录制好的. Cf 参看 live1 7.

  pre-recorded

  adj (of tape) with film or sound already recorded on it (指磁带)已录影的, 已录音的.

  pre-school

  / 9pri:5sku:l; pri`skul/ adj of the time or age before a child is old enough to go to school 学龄前的; 学前的: a ,pre-school `child/a child of pre-school age 学龄前儿童 * ,pre-school `learning 入学前的学习.

  pre-set

  / 9pri:5set; 9pri`sZt/ v (-tt-; pt, pp pre-set) [Tn, Cn.t] set (a clock, timer, etc) beforehand 预先调整(时钟、 定时器等): She pre-set the cooker to come on at 6.30. 她把炊具预先调好在6点30分钟操作. * The video was pre-set to record the match. 录像机已预调好以便录下比赛情况.

  pre-shrunk

  / 9pri:5FrQNk; 9pri`FrQNk/ adj (of cloth) shrunk before being made into garments, so that they will not shrink when they are washed (指布料)缩过水的, 防缩的: ,pre-shrunk `jeans 防缩牛仔裤.

  pre-stressed

  / 9pri:5strest; pri`strZst/ adj (of concrete) strengthened by having stretched cables inside it (指混凝土)预加应力的.

  pre-tax

  / 9pri:5tAks; `pri`tAks/ adj before tax has been deducted 未扣除税款的; 纳税前的: ,pre-tax `income, `profits, `surplus, etc 税前收入、 利润、 盈余等.

  pre-war

  / 9pri:5wR:(r); 9pri`wRr/ adj [esp attrib 尤作定语] occurring or existing before a war, esp the Second World War (发生或存在於)战前的; (尤指)第二次世界大战以前的: in the pre-war period 在战前 * ,pre-war `cars, `housing, ma`chinery, etc, ie built or made before the Second World War 第二次世界大战以前造的汽车、 房屋、 机器等 * ,pre-war `governments 战前的各国政府.

  preach

  / pri:tF; pritF/ v 1 (a) [I, Ipr] ~ (to sb) (about/against/on sth) give a sermon, esp in church 讲道, 布道(尤指在教堂中): The vicar preached to the congregation for half an hour. 那位教区牧师向会众讲道半个小时. * He preaches well. 他讲道讲得好. * What did he preachabout/on? 他宣讲了什麽? * He preached against violence.他讲道中宣讲反对暴力的道理. (b) [Tn, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) give (a sermon) 讲(道); 布(道): He preaches the same sermon every Christmas. 他每逢圣诞节都宣讲同一教旨. (c) [Tn, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) make (a religion or teaching) known by talking about it publicly; teach (sth) 宣扬(教义或教条); 教导(某事物): preach the Gospel/the word of God 传布福音[上帝的道] * They preached the new doctrines throughout Europe. 他们在全欧洲宣讲这一新学说. 2 [Tn] try to persuade people to accept or support (sth); advocate 劝说人们赞成或支持(某事物); 说教; 鼓吹: She preached economy as the best means of solving the crisis. 她大力鼓吹节约是解决危机的关键. * He was always preaching the virtues of capitalism. 他总是宣传资本主义的长处. 3 [I, Ipr] ~ (at/to sb) (often derog 常作贬义) give unwanted advice on morals, behaviour, etc, esp in a persistent, annoying manner 进行道德、 操守等方面的说教(尤指唠叨、 令人厌烦): I am tired of listening to you preach (at me). 我懒得听你(对我讲)的大道理. * You are in no position to preach to me about efficiency! 你没有资格对我大谈什麽效率问题! 4 (idm 习语) practisewhat one preaches => practise. preach to the con`verted speak to people in support of views that they already hold 对人们宣传他们早已持有的观点: Telling conservationists that we need to preserve the natural heritage really is preaching to the converted! 向自然资源保护论者宣讲需要保护自然界遗产的道理, 真是多此一举.

  preacher

  n person who preaches, esp a clergyman who preaches sermons: 说教者; 鼓吹者; (尤指)传道人, 讲道的教士 * a good preacher 善於说教的人 * a preacher famous for his inspiring sermons 以讲道能激励人心见称的传道人.

  preamble

  / pri:5Ambl; `priAmbl/ n [C, U] ~ (to sth) opening statement explaining the purpose of the book, document, lecture, etc that follows (书籍、 文件、 讲演等的)前言, 序言, 开场白: He launched into his statement without any preamble. 他开门见山地发表言论.

  prebend

  / 5prebEnd; `prZbEnd/ n (religion 宗) income paid to a priest from the revenue of a church, esp a cathedral 牧师的薪俸.

  prebendary

  / 5prebEndrI; ?@ -derI; `prZbEnd9ZrI/ n priest who receives a prebend 受俸牧师.

  precarious

  / prI5keErIEs; prI`kZrIEs/ adj 1 depending on chance; uncertain 依靠机会的; 不确定的: She makes a rather precarious living as a novelist. 她当小说家, 过著不太稳定的生活. 2 unsteady; unsafe 不稳固的; 不安全的: He was unable to get down from his precarious position on the rocks. 他无法从岩石危险的位置上下来.

  precariously

  adv: to perch precariously 摇摇欲坠 * They lived precariously on the income from a few small investments. 他们依靠些微投资中的收入, 过著朝不保夕的生活.

  precariousness

  n [U].

  precaution

  / prI5kR:Fn; prI`kRFEn/ n ~ (against sth) thing done in advance to avoid danger, prevent problems, etc 预防措施或方法: take an umbrella just as a precaution 带把伞, 有备无患 * fire precautions/precautions against fire 防火措施 * I took the precaution of locking everything in the safe. 我把一切东西都锁在保险箱里以防万一.

  precautionary

  / prI5kR:FEnErI; ?@ -nerI; prI`kRFEn9ZrI/ adj done as a precaution; preventive 防备的; 预防的: precautionary measures 预防措施.

  precede

  / prI5si:d; prI`sid/ v 1 [I, Tn] come or go before (sth) in time, order, rank, etc (在时间、 顺序、 行列等上)在(某事物)之前; 先於(某事物): The Mayor entered, preceded by members of the council. 市政会的委员们入场後, 市长也入场了. * This point has been dealt with in the preceding paragraph. 这一点在前面一段里已经交代过了. * the days that preceded the final catastrophe 大祸即将临头的那些日子. 2 [Tn.pr] ~ sth with sth say sth before sth 在讲某话之前先讲某话; 在讲...前加上...: She preceded her speech with a vote of thanks to the committee. 她发表讲话以前先提议向全体委员表示感谢.

  precedence

  / 5presIdEns; `prZsEdEns/ n [U] ~ (over sb/sth) right to come before sb/sth in time, order, rank, etc (在时间、 顺序、 行列等上)领先於某人[某事物]的权利; 优先权: The longest-serving officer always takes precedence. 任职时间最长的官员事事优先. * The elder son has precedence over the younger one. 长子较之非长子享有优先权. * The needs of the community must take precedence over (ie must be met before) individual requirements. 公众的利益高於个人的利益. * a list of the English aristocracy in order of precedence, ie in order of social rank 按社会等级排列的英国贵族名单.

  precedent

  / 5presIdEnt; `prZsEdEnt/ n (a) [C] earlier decision, case, event, etc that is regarded as an example or rule for what comes later 可援为先例的判决、 事例、 事件等: create/establish/set a precedent (for sth) (为某事物)开创先例 * serve as a precedent for sth 为某事物提供范例 * There is no precedent for such an action. 这种行动没有先例可循. (b) [U] existing precedents (used esp in the expressions shown) 先例(尤用於下列示例): without precedent 没有先例 * break with precedent, ie not act according to precedents 打破先例(不按先例行事).

  precedented

  adj having or supported by a precedent 有先例的; 有前例可援的: a decision not precedented in English law 在英国法律中无前例可援的判决.

  precentor

  / prI5sentE(r); prI`sZntL/ n clergyman who is in charge of the music in a cathedral and (often) leads the singers (教堂歌咏班的)领唱者.

  precept

  / 5pri:sept; `prisZpt/ n 1 [C] rule or guide, esp for behaviour 规范; 准则; (尤指)格言, 箴言: follow the precepts of one's religion 遵循自己的宗教戒律 * He lived by the precept `practise what you preach'. 他奉行`言行一致'的准则. 2 [U] moral instruction 道德箴言; 教训: Example is better than precept. 身教胜於言教.

  preceptor

  / prI5septE(r); prI`sZptL/ n (fml 文) teacher 教师; 导师.

  precession

  / prI5seFn; prI`sZFEn/ n [U] (also pre,cessionof the `equinoxes) gradual change in the angle at which the earth revolves daily, causing the equinoxes to occur slightly earlier in each successive year 岁差(地球自转角度的渐次变化, 使每年的春分点及秋分点比上年略为提前).

  precinct

  / 5pri:sINkt; `prisINkt/ n 1 [C] area enclosed by definite boundaries, esp the walls of a cathedral, church or college (有界限围成的)区域; (尤指)教堂或大学墙以内的境域: a sacred precinct 教堂的地界范围 * these hallowed precincts 这些神圣的境域. 2 [C] (Brit) area in a town for specific or restricted use, esp one where vehicles may not enter 城镇中有某用途的或受限制的地区; (尤指禁止机动车通行的)行人专用区: a shopping precinct 购物区 * a pedestrian precinct 行人专用区. 3 [C] (US) subdivision of a county, city, etc (县、 市等的)分区: an election precinct 选区 * a police precinct 警察分管区. 4 precincts [pl] (a) boundaries; limits 界限; 范围: No parking within the hospital precincts. 医院范围内禁止停放车辆. (b) area around a place; environs 周围地区; 附近: the old city and its precincts 旧城市及其郊区 * the airport and precincts 机场及周围地区.

  preciosity

  / 9preFI5CsEtI; 9prZFI`BsEtI/ n (fml 文) (a) [U]over-refinement in language and art; being precious(3) (语言和艺术的)过於讲究; 矫揉造作. (b) [C often pl 常作复数] instance of this 过於讲究.

  precious

  / 5preFEs; `prZFEs/ adj 1 of great value (and beauty) 贵重的; 宝贵的: the precious metals, ie gold, silver and platinum 贵金属(金、 银、 白金) * precious gems/stones, ie diamonds, rubies, emeralds, etc 宝石(钻石、 红宝石、 绿宝石等). 2 ~ (to sb) highly valued; dearly loved 珍贵的; 受到珍爱的: precious moments together 相处在一起的珍贵时刻 * Each life is precious. 生命都是非常宝贵的. * a precious memento of happier times 幸福时日的珍贵纪念品 * She is very precious to him. 她在他心中占著非常重要的地位. * (infml ironic 口, 反语) She talks about nothing except her precious car! 她说话离不开她那宝贝汽车! 3 (derog 贬) (of language, style, etc) over-refined; unnatural (指语言、 风格等)过於讲究的, 矫揉造作的: poetry full of precious images 尽是挖空心思的意象的诗篇 * a rather precious young man 惺惺作态的年轻男子. 4 (infml often ironic 口, 常作反语) considerable 可观的: A precious lot of good that will do! 那样做大有好处!

  precious

  adv (used before little, few 用於little、 few之前) (infml 口) very 很; 非常: Precious few people can afford prices like that. 没有什麽人出得起那个价钱. * She has precious little to be cheerful about. 她几乎毫无乐趣.

  precious

  n (infml 口) (used as an affectionate name when speaking to sb 用作表示亲昵的称呼语) dear 亲爱的: What did you say, (my) precious? (我)亲爱的, 你说什麽呀?

  preciously

  adv in a precious(3) manner 过於考究地; 矫揉造作地.

  preciousness

  n [U] quality of being precious(1, 2) 贵重; 宝贵; 珍贵; 珍爱.

  precipice

  / 5presIpIs; `prZsEpIs/ n very steep or vertical face of a cliff, mountain or rock 悬崖; 峭壁: (fig 比喻) The country's economy was on the edge of the precipice, ie in danger of collapsing. 该国的经济已处於崩溃的边缘.

  precipitate

  / prI5sIpIteIt; prI`sIpE9tet/ v 1 [Tn] (fml 文) cause (sth) to happen suddenly or soon(er); hasten 使(某事物)突然或迅速地发生; 加速: events that precipitated his ruin 突然毁了他的事件 * One small error precipitated the disaster. 一个小小的错误酿成这一灾难. 2 [Tn, Tn.pr] (fml 文) (a) throw (sb/sth) with force (as if) from a great height (似)自极高处将(某人[某物])猛然扔下; 猛摔(某人[某物]). (b) ~ sb/sth into sth (fig 比喻) throw sb/sth suddenly (into a state or condition) 使某人[某事物]突然陷入(某种状况): The assassination of the ambassador precipitated the country into war. 由於大使遇刺, 该国顿时进入了战争状态. 3 (chemistry 化) (a) [I] (of a substance) separate into solid form from the liquid in which it is held (指物质)沉淀, 淀析. (b) [Tn] cause (a substance) to do this 使(物质)沉淀; 析出(某种物质). 4 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ (sth) (as sth) (cause vapour to) condense and form rain, snow etc (使水气)冷凝成为雨、 雪等: The clouds precipitate/are precipitatedas snow in winter. 在冬天云冷凝成为雪.

  precipitate

  n [C, U] (a) solid matter that has been precipitated (precipitate 3b) from a solution 沉淀物; (液体的)析出物; 冷凝物. (b) moisture condensed from vapour and deposited (as rain, dew, etc) (水气的)凝结物(如雨、 露等).

  precipitate

  / prI5sIpItEt; prI`sIpE9tEt/ adj (a) violently hurried 急促的; 迅猛的: a precipitate dash 猛冲. (b) (of an action) done without care or thought; rash2 (指行动)鲁莽的, 未经考虑的, 仓促的: his precipitate action in selling the property 他变卖财产的草率行为. (c) (of a person) acting without care or thought; impulsive (指人)鲁莽的, 仓促行事的, 感情用事的.

  precipitately

  adv.

  precipitation

  / prI9sIpI5teIFn; prI9sIpE`teFEn/ n 1 [U] (fml 文) violent haste 迅急; 匆促; 仓促; 鲁莽: to act with precipitation 仓促行事. 2 [U] separation of a solid substance from the liquid in which it is held 沉淀; 淀析. 3 (a) [C] fall of rain, sleet, snow or hail (雨、 雨夹雪、 雪、 雹子等的)降落: a heavy precipitation 一场大雨(或雨夹雪、 雪、 雹子). (b) [U] amount of rain, etc thatfalls in an area 某地区降雨等的量: the annual precipitationof the region 该地区的年降雨量.

  precipitous

  / prI5sIpItEs; prI`sIpEtEs/ adj (fml 文) dangerously high or steep 险峻的; 陡峭的: From a precipitous height we looked at the town spread out below. 我们从险峻的高处眺望铺展在下面的城镇. * a precipitous path down the mountainside 沿山腰而下的一条陡峭的小路 * a precipitous climb to the peak 向著陡峭山顶的攀登.

  precipitously

  adv: perched precipitously on the edge of the cliff 位於峭壁上的.

  precis

  / 5preIsi:; ?@ preI5si:; pre`si/ n [U, C] (pl unchanged复数不变 / -i:z; -iz/) restatement in shortened form of the main points or ideas of a speech or written text; summary (演说或文章的)摘要, 大意, 梗慨, 大纲.

  precis

  v [Tn] make a precis of (sth) 作(某事)的摘要; 写(某事)的大纲: precising a scientific report 给一份科学报告写摘要.

  precise

  / prI5saIs; prI`saIs/ adj 1 stated clearly andaccurately 叙述清楚而准确的: precise details, instructions, measurements 准确的细节、 明确的指示、 精确的尺寸 * a precise record of events 对事件的准确的记载. 2 [attrib 作定语] exact; particular 精确的; 独特的: at that precise moment 恰在那时 * It was found at the precise spot where she had left it. 那东西正好在她遗落的那个地点找到了. 3 (of a person, his mind, etc) taking care to be exact and accurate, esp about minor details (指人、 思想等)精细的, (尤指)一丝不苟的: a precise mind, worker 一丝不苟的头脑、 工作者 * 100, or 99.8 to be precise100, 或准确说来是99.8 * (often derog 常作贬义) a man with a very prim and precise (ie too careful or fussy) manner 一个锱铢必较的男子.

  precisely

  adv 1 (a) exactly; just 精确地; 恰好: at 2 o'clock precisely 正好在两点钟 * I can't remember precisely what happened. 我记不准所发生的事情了. * That is precisely what I mean. 那正是我的意思. * The two accounts are precisely the same. 这两种说法如出一辙. (b) in a precise(2) manner; carefully 精确地; 细心地: He enunciated the words very precisely. 他吐字非常清楚. 2 (used to express agreement with a statement and often to suggest that it states the obvious 用以表示同意并常含有当然如此之意) you are right; quite so 对; 的确如此: `But if the delivery is late, we will lose the order!' `Precisely.' `可要是不能如期交货, 我们就要失去这笔生意!'`的确如此.'

  preciseness

  n [U] 1 quality of being precise (1) 准确; 精确; 明确. 2 = precision 1.

  precision

  / prI5sIVn; prI`sIVEn/ n [U] 1 (also preciseness) exactness and clarity; quality of being precise(1) 准确(性); 明确(性); 精确(性): Your report lacks precision. 你的报告不够准确. * Aim for more precision in your style. 写东西时要力求准确. 2 accuracy 精密(度): clockwork precision 无比精确 * The diagram had been copied with great precision. 该图表的复制件极精确. * [attrib 作定语] precision timing 恰到好处的时机 * precision instruments/tools, ie those designed for very accurate work, measurements, etc 精密仪器[工具].

  preclude

  / prI5klu:d; prI`klud/ v [Tn, Tn.pr, Tsg] ~ sb from doing sth (fml 文) prevent (sth, or sb doing sth); make (sth) impossible 妨碍(某事物); 阻止(某人做某事); 使(某事物)行不通: That sale precludes further development on this site. 卖出以後妨碍了这一地点的进一步发展. * Their move does not preclude others from investing. 他们这一行动并不影响其他人进行投资. *These conditions preclude our taking part in the negotiations. 这些条件使我们无法参加谈判.

  preclusion

  / prI5klu:Vn; prI`kluVEn/ n [U].

  precocious

  / prI5kEUFEs; prI`koFEs/ adj (a) (of a child) having developed certain abilities at an earlier age than usual (指儿童)在某方面早熟的, 较早具备某种能力的, 超常的: a precocious child who could play the piano at the age of three 三岁就能弹奏钢琴的早慧儿童. (b) (of behaviour, ability, etc) showing this development (指行为、 能力等)较早显出的, 超常的: a precocious talent for mimicry 超常的模仿才能 * He shows a precocious interest in the opposite sex. 他年纪轻轻就表现出对异性的兴趣. (c) (derog 贬) (of a child) behaving in a manner more suited to an older person (指儿童)老气的: That child is far too precocious! 那孩子过於老成!

  precociously

  adv.

  precociousness, precocity

  / prI5kCsEtI; prI`kBsEtI/ ns [U] being precocious (指儿童)早熟, 早慧, 老气.

  precognition

  / 9pri:kCg5nIFn; 9prikB^`nIFEn/ n [U] (fml or psychology 文或心) knowledge of sth before it occurs 早知; 预知; 预见.

  preconceived

  / 9pri:kEn5si:vd; 9prikEn`sivd/ adj [attrib 作定语] (of an idea, opinion, etc) formed in advance and not based on knowledge or experience (指思想、 观点等)事先形成的: Tourists forget their preconceived ideas as soon as they visit our country. 游客访问了我国之後立刻消除了他们的先入之见.

  preconception

  / 9pri:kEn5sepFn; 9prikEn`sZpFEn/ n ~ (about sb/sth) opinion or idea formed in advance and not based on experience or knowledge 事先形成的观点或思想; 先入之见: Common preconceptions about life in this district are increasingly being challenged. 原先普遍存在著对那一地区生活的成见越来越站不住脚了. Cf 参看 misconception (misconceive).

  precursor

  / 9pri:5k\:sE(r); prI`k[sL/ n (fml 文) ~(of sth) 1 person or thing that comes before sth; forerunner 先驱; 先行者; 先兆; 前兆: small disturbances that were precursors of the revolution to come 预示革命将爆发的小规模动乱. 2 machine or invention that is later developed further (机器或发明物的)初期形式: Thefirst telephone was the precursor of modern communications networks. 最早出现的电话是现代通讯网的雏型.

  predator

  / 5predEtE(r); `prZdE9tL/ n 1 animal that kills and eats other animals 捕食其他动物的动物; 食肉动物: predators of the African grasslands 非洲草原的食肉动物. 2 (derog or joc 贬或谑) person who exploits others, esp financially or sexually 奴役他人者(尤指在财务或性关系方面): He denounced all landlords and money-lenders as evil predators. 他痛斥所有地主和放债者都是罪恶的剥削者.

  predatory

  / 5predEtrI; ?@ -tR:rI; `prZdE9tRrI/ adj 1 (of animals) (living by) killing other animals for food (指动物)捕食其他动物的, 食肉的: predatory birds 捕食动物的鸟 * The domesticated cat retains its predatory instincts. 猫依然保持著捕食动物的天性. 2 (a) (for the purpose of) plundering 掠夺的; 以掠夺为目的的: predatory groups of bandits 抢劫财物的匪帮 * a predatory attack 掠夺性的攻击. (b) (derog or joc 贬或谑) (of a person) wishing to exploit others for financial or sexual reasons(指人)(在财务或性关系方面)企图奴役他人的: predatory advances, attentions, etc 好色者的勾引、 殷勤等 * We were pestered by predatory salesmen. 贪心的商人敲了我们竹杠.

  predecease

  / 9pri:dI5si:s; 9pridI`sis/ v [Tn] (law 律) die before (sb) 死於(某人)之前: He left all his money to his wife without thinking that she might predecease him. 他把全部金钱都交给了妻子, 而没有考虑到妻子可能死得比他早.

  predecessor

  / 5pri:dIsesE(r); ?@ 5predE-; 9prZdI`sZsL/ n 1 person who held an office or position before sb else (职务或职位的)前任者: The decision was made by my predecessor. 那一决定是我的前任作出的. 2 thing that has been followed or replaced by sth else 被接继或被取代的事物: Will the new plan be any more acceptable than its predecessors? 新计画比原先的计画更能令人满意吗? Cf 参看 successor.

  predestination

  / 9pri:destI5neIFn; 9pridZstE`neFEn/ n [U]1 (a) theory or belief that everything that happens has been predetermined by God and that man cannot change it 宿命论. (b) destiny that cannot be changed; fate 命运; 造化. 2 doctrine or belief that God has decreed in advance that certain souls will be saved and others will not 得救预定论(认为上帝已预先选定某些灵魂得救, 余者受咒诅).

  predestine

  / 9pri:5destIn; prI`dZstIn/ v [esp passive 尤用於被动语态: Tn, Cn.t] (fml 文) decide or determine sth (as if) by fate (仿佛)命中注定某事物: It seemed that his failure was predestined. 他的失败似乎是命中注定的. * She was obviously predestined to succeed. 她显然注定了能成功. * They both felt that they were predestined to spend their lives together. 他们俩都觉得他们注定了要在一起生活一辈子.

  predetermine

  / 9pri:dI5t\:mIn; 9pridI`t[mIn/ v (fml 文) [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] decide or fix (sth) in advance; prearrange 预先决定或确定(某事物); 事先安排: predetermined behaviour, strategies, responses 既定的行为、 策略、 答覆 * A person's health is often genetically predetermined. 人的体质通常是由遗传决定的.

  predetermination

  / 9pri:dI9t\:mI5neIFn; 9pridI9t[mE`neFEn/ n [U].

  predicament

  / prI5dIkEmEnt; prI`dIkEmEnt/ n difficult or unpleasant situation, esp one in which sb is uncertain what to do (困难的或为难的)处境, 窘况(尤指不知所措者): Your refusal puts me in an awkward predicament. 你一拒绝让我感到十分为难. * A loan of money would help me out of my predicament. 只需一笔贷款就能帮我摆脱困境.

  predicate

  / 5predIkEt; `prZdIkEt/ n (grammar) part of a statement that says sth about the subject, eg `is short' in `Life is short' 谓语(话中对主语进行陈述的部分, 如 Life is short 中的 is short). Cf 参看 subject1 4.

  predicate

  / 5predIkeIt; `prZdI9ket/ v (fml 文) 1 [Tn, Tf, Tnt] declare or assert that (sth) is the case 宣称或断言(某事物): predicate a motive to be good 断言某动机是好的 * predicate that the market collapse was caused by weakness of the dollar 声称市场价格暴跌是由於美元疲弱而引起的. 2 [Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ sth on sth base sth on sth; make sth necessary as a consequence of sth 使某事物依据於另事物; 使某必需的事物成为另事物的结果: The project was predicated on the assumption that the economy was expanding. 这一计画是以经济发展的设想为依据的.

  predicative

  / prI5dIkEtIv; ?@ 5predIkeItIv; `prZdI9ketIv/ adj (grammar) (of an adjective or a noun) coming after a verb such as be, become, get, seem, look (指形容词或名词)用作表语的(即用在诸如 be、 become、 get、 seem、 look 等动词後面的). Cf 参看 attributive.

  predicatively

  adv.

  predicative adjective

  adjective used only after be, etc, eg `asleep' as in `She is asleep' 表语形容词(即只能用在 be 等之後的形容词, 如 She is asleep 中的 asleep).

  predict

  / prI5dIkt; prI`dIkt/ v [Tn, Tf, Tw] say in advance that (sth) will happen; forecast 预言(某事物)将发生; 预报; 预告: The earthquake had been predicted several months before. 这次地震早在几个月以前就发布了预报. * She predicted that the improvement would continue. 她预测情况将继续好转. * It is impossible to predict who will win. 要预测出谁将获胜是不可能的.

  predictable

  / -Ebl; -Ebl/ adj (a) that can be predicted可预言的; 可预报的: predictable behaviour, results, weather 可预料的行为、 结果、 天气. (b) (often derog 常作贬义) (of a person) behaving in a way that can be predicted (指人)举动可以料到的: I knew you'd say that you're so predictable! 我早就知道你会这样说--果不其然! * Opposition to the proposal came from predictablequarters. 对这项提案的反对意见来自那些早经料到会持反对态度的人.

  predictability

  / prI9dIktE5bIlEtI; prI9dIktE`bIlEtI/ n [U].

  predictably

  adv.

  prediction

  / prI5dIkFn; prI`dIkFEn/ n 1 [U] (action of) predicting 预言; 预报; 预告. 2 [C] forecast or prophesy 预言; 预报; 预告: Do you take seriously his prediction of a government defeat? 他预料政府要受挫, 你认为这话靠得住吗?

  predictor

  n person, instrument, etc that predicts 进行预测或预报的人、 仪器等; 预言者; 预测器.

  predigest

  / 9pri:daI5dVest; 9pridaI`dVZst/ v [Tn esp passive尤用於被动语态] treat (food) so that it is easy to digest 预先处理(食物)(以易於消化): special predigested food for babies 经特殊处理而易於消化的幼儿食品 * (fig 比喻) predigested reading matter 经过简写的阅读材料.

  predilection

  / 9pri:dI5lekFn; ?@ 9predl5ek-; 9prZdl`ZkFEn/ n (fml 文) ~ (for sth) special liking (for sth); preference(对某事物的)特殊爱好, 偏爱: a predilection for Japanesefood 对日本食物的偏爱.

  predispose

  / 9pri:dI5spEUz; 9pridIs`poz/ v (fml 文) 1 [Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态, Tnt] ~ sb to/towards sth influence sb (in a specified way) in advance 事先(在某方面)影响某人: His early training predisposed him to a life of adventure. 他早年所受的教养使他热衷於冒险活动. * be predisposed in sb's favour, ie be inclined to favour him 偏向某人(因事先受到影响). 2 [Tn.pr esp passive 尤用於被动语态] ~ sb to sth cause sb to be liable to sth 使某人倾向於某事物; 使某人易患某病: The inhabitants are predisposed to rheumatism by the damp climate. 因气候潮湿, 居民易患风湿症.

  predisposition

  / 9pri:dIspE5zIFn; 9pridIspE`zIFEn/ n [U, C] ~ (to/towards sth); ~ (to do sth) state of mind or body that makes sb liable to act in a certain way or to suffer from a certain disease 性向; 癖性; 易患某病之身心素质: a predisposition towards melancholia 易患忧郁症的精神倾向 * a predisposition to rheumatism 易患风湿症的体质 * a predisposition to criticize others 喜欢挑人毛病的癖性.

  predominant

  / prI5dCmInEnt; prI`dBmEnEnt/ adj 1 having more power or influence than others 有势力的; 占优势的: Which country is the predominant member of the alliance? 哪个国家在联盟中居於支配地位? * The Socialists were predominant in the last Parliament. 在上届国会中社会党人占优势. 2 most noticeable; prevailing 极其显著的; 盛行的: Her predominant characteristic is honesty. 她最为突出的特点是诚实.

  predominance

  / -Ens; -Ens/ n 1 [U, sing] ~ (of sth) state of being greater in strength, numbers, etc (力量、 数量等的)优势: the predominance of blue in the colour scheme 在色彩设计中以蓝色为主 * There is a predominance of men in the club. 该俱乐部男人居多. 2 [U] ~ (over sb/sth) state of being more powerful or influential (than sb/sth) 主导或支配(他人[他事物])的地位: The policy is designed to prevent the predominance of one group over another. 该政策旨在防止一些人压制另一些人. predominantly adv for the most part; mainly 大多; 主要地: a predominantly English-speaking population 以操英语者为主的居民.

  predominate

  / prI5dCmIneIt; prI`dBmE9net/ v 1 [I, Ipr] ~ (over sb/sth) have control, power or influence(over sb/sth) 支配, 统治, 左右(某人[某事物]): A smallgroup has begun to predominate in policy-making. 一小撮人在制定政策中已开始起主导作用. 2 [I] be superior in numbers, strength, etc (在数量、 力量等上)占优势: a colour scheme in which red predominates 以红色为主的色彩设计 * Oak-trees predominate in this forest. 这片森林以橡树居多.

  preen

  / pri:n; prin/ v [Tn] 1 (of a bird) clean or smooth (its feathers or itself) with its beak (指鸟)用喙整理(羽毛). 2 ~ oneself (often derog 常作贬义) (a) (of a person) make oneself look tidy by combing one's hair, etc (指人)(以梳头等动作)打扮自己: preen oneself in front of the mirror 对著镜子梳妆打扮. (b) congratulate oneself; be pleased with oneself 自我欣赏; 沾沾自喜.

  prefab

  / 5pri:fAb; ?@ 9pri:5fAb; 9pri`fAb/ n (infml 口) prefabricated house 预制房屋.

  prefabricate

  / 9pri:5fAbrIkeIt; pri`fAbrE9ket/ v [Tn] manufacture (a building, ship, etc) in sections that can be assembled later on a building site, in a shipyard, etc (以预制构件)组装(建筑物、 船舶等): prefabricated kitchens, houses, schools, etc 由预制构件组装的厨房、房屋、 校舍等.

  prefabrication

  / 9pri:fAbrI5keIFn;9pri9fAbrI`keFEn/ n [U].

  preface

  / 5prefIs; `prZfIs/ n 1 introductory statement atthe beginning of a book, esp one that explains the author'saims 序言; 前言. Cf 参看 foreword, introduction 2. 2 preliminary part of a speech 开场白; 引语.

  preface

  v [Tn.pr] 1 ~ sth with sth provide sth with a preface(1) 给某书作序: He prefaced the diaries with a short account of how they were discovered. 他给这本日记写了序言, 简述日记发现的经过. 2 ~ sth with sth/by doing sth begin or introduce (a speech, etc) 开始(讲话等); 作(讲话等的)开场白: She prefaced her talk with an apology/by apologizing for being late. 她先为迟到表示歉意, 然後开始讲话.

  prefatory

  / 5prefEtrI; ?@ -tR:rI; `prZfE9tRrI/ adj acting as a preface; introductory 作为开场白的; 作为开端的: after a few prefatory remarks, comments, etc 在几句开场白之後.

  prefect

  / 5pri:fekt; `prifZkt/ n 1 (esp Brit) any of a group of older pupils in a school who have authority over younger pupils and certain responsibilities for discipline, etc 学生长(中学的校级负有管理或维持纪律等责任的年长的学生). 2 (also Prefect) (a) (title of the) chief administrative officer of an area in certain countries, eg France and Japan 某些国家中的地区最高行政长官(如法国的省长和日本的县长)或其官衔. (b) head of the Paris police 巴黎警察局的局长.

  prefecture

  / 5pri:fektjUE(r); ?@ -tFEr; `prifZktFL/ n 1 area administrated by a prefect (2) in certain countries, eg France and Japan 某些国家中最高地方官管辖的行政区(如法国的省和日本的县). 2 (in France) prefect's official place of work or residence (法国的)省长或巴黎 警察局长的官署或官邸. 3 position or period of office of a prefect 法国的省长、 日本的县长等地区最高行政长官或巴黎警察局长的职位或任期.

  prefectural

  / pri:5fektFErEl; prI`fZktFErEl/ adj of a prefect(2) 最高地方官的; 巴黎警察局长的: the prefectural offices 省长等最高地方官的官府.

  prefer

  / prI5f\:(r); prI`f[/ v (-rr-) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tf, Tt, Tnt, Tg, Cn.a] ~ sth (to sth) choose sth rather than sth else; like sth better 选择某事物(而不选择他事物); 更喜欢某事物: There's coffee or tea. Which would you prefer? 有咖啡或茶. 你喜欢哪样? * I prefer walking to cycling. 我愿意步行, 不愿意骑自行车. * (fml 文) I should prefer that/prefer it if you did not go there alone. 我倒希望你不要一个人去那里. * She prefers to be alone. 她宁愿独自一人. * Their father prefers them to be homeearly. 他们的父亲希望他们早点儿回家. * I prefer walkingalone. 我比较喜欢一个人溜达. * I prefer my coffee black. 我爱喝不加奶的咖啡. 2 (idm 习语) prefer a `charge/`charges (against sb) (law 律) make an accusation (against sb) for consideration in a lawcourt (对某人)提出控告: prefer a charge against a motorist 对一个驾驶机动车的人提出控告 * We haven't enough evidence to prefer charges. 我们没有进行起诉的充分证据.

  preferable

  / 5prefrEbl; `prZfrEbl/ adj (not used with more 不可与more连用) ~ (to sth/doing sth) to be preferred (to sth); more desirable or suitable (对某事物来说)更可取的, 更称心的, 更适宜的: Cold food would be preferable in this heat. 在这样的热天吃冷食更好. * He finds country life preferable to living in the city. 他感到在乡村生活比在城市生活要好些. * Anything was preferable to that dreadful din in the house. 这屋子里乱七八糟的声音叫人难受得无以复加. preferably/ 5prefrEblI; `prZfrEblI/ adv rather than anything, anywhere,etc else (较之其他任何事物、 处所等)更可取: She wanteda cake, preferably one with chocolate icing. 她想吃蛋糕, 最好是有巧克力糖衣的. * They want to buy a new house, near the sea preferably. 他们要购买一所新房子, 最好在海边.

  preference

  / 5prefrEns; `prZfrEns/ n 1 (a) [U, sing] ~ (for sth) liking for sth (more than sth else) (与他物相较之)喜爱; 偏爱: There is milk and cream do you have a preference? 有牛奶也有奶油--你喜欢哪样? * It's entirely a matter of preference. 这完全是个见仁见智的问题. * She has a preference for blue. 她特别喜欢蓝色. (b) [C] thing that is liked better or best 偏爱的事物; 特别爱好的事物: What are your preferences? 你最喜欢什麽? 2 [U] ~ (to/towards sb) favour shown to one person, group, etc rather than another 优待; 优惠; 优先权: Employees who have worked here for many years will be given preference over newcomers. 与新来乍到者不同, 对那些工作多年的雇员将予以优待. * She tried not to show preference in her treatment of the children in her care. 她对待她所照顾的孩子尽可能不厚此薄彼. 3 (idm 习语) in preference to sb/sth rather than sb/sth 而不取某人[某事物]: She chose to learn the violin in preference to the piano. 她愿学小提琴而不学钢琴.

  preference shares, preference stock (US preferred shares/stock)

  (finance 财) shares/stockon which a firm must pay the dividend before distributing profits to holders of ordinary shares 优先股(可比普通股之持有者优先分得股息).

  preferential

  / 9prefE5renFl; 9prZfE`rZnFEl/ adj 1 of, giving, receiving or showing preference(2) 优先的; 给予优先的; 得到优先的; 优待的: preferential import duties, tariffs, etc, ie favouring a particular group, country, etc 特惠关税(优待某团体、 国家等). 2 (idm 习语) give sb/get preferential `treatment treat sb/be treated more favourably than sb else 偏向某人[得到优待]: Nobody gets preferential treatment in this office! 本办事处无论对谁均一视同仁!

  preferentially

  / -FElI; -FElI/ adv: be treated preferentially 得到优先.

  preferment

  / prI5f\:mEnt; prI`f[mEnt/ n [C, U] (fml 文) promotion to a higher position or rank 晋升: His preferment pleased his many admirers. 他获晋升, 喜欢他的许多人都感到高兴. * He was hoping for preferment. 他希望获得提升.

  prefigure

  / 9pri:5fIgE(r); ?@ -gjEr; pri`fI^jL/ v (fml 文) 1 [Tn] represent beforehand (sth that will happen in the future); foreshadow 预示(某事物将发生); 预兆: worrying events that may prefigure a period of economic recession 可能显示要出现一段经济衰退时期的令人担心的情况. 2 [Tn, Tf, Tw] picture (sth) to oneself beforehand; imagine 设想(某事物); 想像.

  prefix

  / 5pri:fIks; `pri9fIks/ n 1 (abbreviated as pref in this dictionary 本词典中略为pref) word or syllable (eg co-, ex-, non-, pre-, re-) placed in front of a word to add to or change the meaning of that word, eg un- in unhappy 前缀(置於单词之前, 以增加或改变其意义的词或音节, 如 co-、 ex-、 non-、 pre-、 re-, 又如 unhappy 中的 un-). 2 word (eg Dr, Mrs, etc) placed before a person's name as a title (人名前的)称谓(如Dr、 Mrs等). Cf 参看 suffix.

  prefix

  / 9pri:5fIks; pri`fIks/ v [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (to sth) 1 add sth at the beginning or as an introduction 将某事物加在前面: The official prefixed an explanatory note to the list of statistics. 那官员在统计表前加了一段说明文字. 2 add sth as a prefix (to a word, name, etc) (在单词上)加前缀; (在人名前)加称谓.

  pregnant

  / 5pregnEnt; `prZ^nEnt/ adj 1 (of a woman or female animal) having a baby or young animal developing in the womb (指妇女或雌性动物)怀孕的, 妊娠的: She was six months pregnant, ie had been pregnant for six months. 她那时已怀有六个月的身孕. * She is/got pregnant by another man. 是另一个男子使她怀孕的. 2 ~ with sth (a) full of sth 充满著某事物的; 富於某事物的: pregnant with joy, meaning, possibilities 洋溢著喜悦之情的、 富有意义的、 具有各种可能性的. (b) likely to cause sth 可能产生某事物的: pregnant with consequences, danger 可能产生重大影响的、 造成危险的. 3 (idm 习语) a pregnant `pause/`silence pause/silence full of unexpressed meaning or significance 耐人寻味的或意味深长的停顿[沉默]: There was a pregnant pause before she answered my question. 她耐人寻味地停顿了一下才回答我的问题. * His only reaction was a pregnant silence. 他唯一的反应是一阵意味深长的沉默.

  pregnancy

  / -nEnsI; -nEnsI/ n (a) [U] state or period of being pregnant(1) 怀孕; 孕期; 妊娠期: discomfort caused by pregnancy 因怀孕而引起的不适 * These drugs should not be taken during pregnancy. 这些药物在孕期内不得服用. * [attrib 作定语] a pregnancy test 妊娠试验. (b) [C] instance of being pregnant(1) 怀孕: She's had three pregnancies in four years. 她在四年中怀孕三次.

  prehensile

  / 9pri:5hensaIl; ?@ -sl; prI`hZnsl/ adj (of an animal's foot or tail) able to grasp and hold things (指动物的足或尾)能抓物的, 能缠绕东西的: the monkey's prehensile tail 猴子那能缠住东西的尾巴 * the prehensile claws of an eagle 老鹰那能抓住东西的爪.

  prehistoric

  / 9pri:hI5stCrIk; ?@ -tR:rIk; 9prihIs`tRrIk/ adj of or concerning the time before recorded history 史前的: prehistoric man, monuments, cave paintings 史前的人类、 遗迹、 洞穴壁画 * (joc or derog 谑或贬) His ideas on the education of girls are positively prehistoric, ie extremely old-fashioned. 他在女子教育问题上所持的观点是老掉牙的.

  prehistory

  / 9pri:5hIstrI; pri`hIstrI/ n 1 [U] (study of the) period before recorded history 史前; 史前学: European, Mexican, Aboriginal prehistory 欧洲、 墨西哥、 澳洲土著居民的史前史. 2 [sing] earliest stages ofthe development of sth 某事物的最早发展阶段: the prehistory of Western art 西方艺术的肇端.

  prejudge

  / 9pri:5dVQdV; pri`dVQdV/ v [Tn] 1 make a judgement about (a person or case) before a proper inquiry has been held 对(人或事)未经详察而预作判断: prejudge a matter, issue, client 未充分了解情况而判断某事、 问题、 当事人. 2 form an opinion about (sb/sth) without having the necessary information (在缺乏了解的情况下)形成对(某人[某事物])的看法: He felt he had been prejudged by his colleagues. 他觉得同事们对他怀有成见.

  prejudgement

  n [U, C].

  prejudice

  / 5predVUdIs; `prZdVEdIs/ n 1 (a) [U] opinion, or like or dislike of sb/sth, that is not founded on experience or reason 偏见; 成见: colour/racial prejudice, ie prejudice felt or shown against members of other races 种族偏见 * Her friendliness soon overcame the prejudice of her stepchildren. 她很热情, 因而丈夫前妻的孩子很快就消除了对她的偏见. * The selectors were accused of showing prejudice in failing to include him in the team. 有人指责遴选者怀有成见才未吸收他加入该队. (b) [C] ~ (against/in favour of sb/sth) instance of this 偏见; 成见: In order to succeed here you will need to overcome your prejudices. 你需要消除偏见, 才能在这里获得成功. * She has a prejudice against modern music. 她对现代音乐怀有偏见. * The anthology reveals a prejudice in favour of lyric poets. 这部选集显示出对抒情诗人有所偏爱. 2 (idm 习语) to the prejudice of sth (esp law 尤用於法律) with the result that sb's interests are harmed 损及某人的利益: to theprejudice of sb's rights 有损於某人的权利 * The newspaper reported his remarks, to the prejudice of his chances of being elected. 该报报道了他说的话, 这可能对他参加竞选产生不利影响. without `prejudice (to sth) (law 律) without having an effect on an existing right or claim 无损於现有的权益: The firm agreed to pay compensation without prejudice, ie without admitting liability. 公司在未承认负有责任的情况下同意付给赔偿金. * The offer was accepted without prejudice to the current pay negotiations. 该提议获得接纳, 但对目前正在进行的工资谈判并无影响.

  prejudice

  v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (against/in favour of sb/sth) cause sb to have a prejudice; influence sb 使某人抱偏见; 影响某人: The judge told the jury that they must not allow their feelings to prejudice them. 法官对陪审团说他们不应该感情用事. * Newspaper gossip had prejudiced her against him. 报上那些不三不四的文章使她对他抱有偏见. * Her charm prejudiced the judges in her favour. 她姿色迷人, 因而评委都偏向她. 2 [Tn] cause harm to (a case, claim, etc); weaken 使(事情、 权益等)受到损害; 削弱: He prejudiced his claim by demanding too much compensation. 他索赔过高反而使他的要求无法实现. * Lack of self-discipline prejudiced her chances of success. 她缺乏自制力对她获得成功有所影响.

  prejudiced

  adj (usu derog 通常作贬义) having or showing prejudice 有偏见的; 有成见的; 偏颇的; 偏心的: Try not to be prejudiced in your judgements. 你作判断时要尽量做到不存偏见. * She regarded her critics as ignorant and prejudiced. 她认为那些批评她的人既无知又存有偏见. * Since I am his mother, my opinion of him is naturally a prejudiced one. 因为我是他的母亲, 对他的看法自然是带有偏向的.

  prejudicial

  / 9predVU5dIFl; 9prZdVE`dIFEl/ adj ~ (to sth)(fml 文) causing harm (to a person's rights, interests,etc) (对某人的权利、 利益等)造成损害的: developmentsprejudicial to the company's future 对公司的未来有不利影响的一些新情况.

  prelacy

  / 5prelEsI; `prZlEsI/ n 1 [C] office, rank or see of a prelate 高级教士的职务、 级别或地位. 2 the prelacy [Gp] the whole body of prelates 主教或高级教士(总称); 主教或高级教士团.

  prelate

  / 5prelEt; `prZlEt/ n high-ranking clergyman, eg a bishop or an archbishop 高级教士(如主教或大主教).

  prelim

  / 5pri:lIm; `pri9lIm/ n (infml 口) 1 [C usu pl ] preliminary examination 初试; 预考. 2 prelims [pl] pages of a book (with the title, contents, etc) that come before the text 正文前的书页(包括书名、 目录等).

  preliminary

  / prI5lImInErI; ?@ -nerI; prI`lImE9nZrI/ adj ~ (to sth) coming before a more important action or event; preparatory (作为某一重要行动或事情的)开端的; 预备性的: after a few preliminary remarks 在几句开场白之後 * preliminary inquiries, experiments, negotiations初步的调查、 实验、 谈判 * (sport 体) a preliminary contest, heat, round, etc, ie held before a main contest in order to eliminate weaker players or teams 预赛、 初赛、 选拔赛 * All this is preliminary to the main election struggle. 这一切都只是进行大选较量的预选活动.

  preliminary

  n (usu pl 通常作复数) preliminary action, event, measure, etc 初步的行动、 事件、 措施等: the necessary preliminaries to a peace conference, eg the discussions about agenda and procedures 为召开和平会议而举行的必要的筹备会.

  prelude

  / 5prelju:d; `prZljud/ n 1 ~ (to sth) (a) action or event that happens before another larger or more important one and forms an introduction to it (行动或事件的)序幕, 前奏: His frequent depressions were the prelude to a complete mental breakdown. 他经常抑郁寡欢, 後来精神完全崩溃了. * The bankruptcy of several small firms was the prelude to general economic collapse. 几家小商行倒闭了, 随之而来的是经济大萧条. * I'm afraid that these troubles are just a prelude, ie to worse ones. 我看这些为难事只是个引子(大问题在後面). (b) introductory part of a poem, etc (诗等的)序: The lines form a prelude to his long narrative poem. 这几行诗是他那长篇叙事诗的序诗. 2 (music 音) (a) introductory movement coming before a fugue or forming the first part of a suite 前奏曲. (b) short piece of music of a similar type 类似上述乐曲之小段.

  premarital

  / 9pri:5mArItl; pri`mArEtl/ adj happening before marriage 婚前的: premarital sex, affairs, etc 婚前的性行为、 风流韵事等.

  premature

  / 5premEtjUE(r); ?@ 9pri:mE5tUEr; 9primE`tJr/ adj 1 (a) happening before the proper or expected time 提前的; 过早的; 未到期的: premature baldness, senility 早秃、 早衰 * A fire in the gallery caused the premature closing of the exhibition. 在美术陈列室里发生的火灾迫使展览会提前结束. (b) (of a baby, its birth, etc) born or occurring at least three weeks before the expected time (指婴儿、 其出生等)早产的(比预产期至少提前三周): the special care of premature babies 对早产婴儿的特别护理 * The baby was five weeks premature. 这个婴儿是提早五周生下来的. 2 ~ (in doing sth) (derog 贬) acting or done too soon; hasty 赶做的; 仓促的: a premature conclusion, decision, judgement, etc 草率作出的结论、 决定、 判决等 * Let's not be premature in closing this case, eg in a police investigation. 咱们先别急於结案(如刑事调查). > prematurely adv: born prematurely 早产的 * prematurely bald, grey, wrinkled, etc 早秃的、 早白的、 过早起皱纹的.

  premeditate

  / 9pri:5medIteIt; prI`mZdE9tet/ v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] plan (sth) in advance 预先计画(某事物); 预谋: a premeditated attack, murder, insult, etc 有预谋的攻击、 凶杀、 冒犯行为等 * We needed to know whether the crime had been premeditated. 我们需要知道的是这一犯罪行为是否经过事先策画.

  premeditation

  / 9pri:medI5teIFn; 9primZdE`teFEn/ n [U].

  premenstrual tension

  / 9pri:9menstrUEl 5tenFn; pri`mZnstrJEl `tZnFEn/ (abbr 缩写 PMT) mental and physiologicalupset caused by hormonal changes occurring before menstruation 月经之前的紧张.

  premier

  / 5premIE(r); ?@ 5pri:mIEr; `primIL/ adj [attrib 作定语] first in importance, position, etc (重要性、 位置等方面)第一的, 首位的: Britain's premier exporter of drilling equipment 英国全国最大钻机出口商 * The company has achieved a premier position in the electronics field. 该公司执电子行业之牛耳.

  premier

  n head of a government; prime minister 首相; (政府)总理. premiership [U] position or period of office of a premier 首相或总理的职位或任期: during her premiership 在她担任首相期间 * He was offered the premiership. 他被任命为总理.

  premiere

  / 5premIeE(r); ?@ prI5mIEr; prI`mIr/ n first public performance of (a production of) a play or showing of a film; first night (戏剧或电影的)首次公演, 首次公演之夜场.

  premiere

  v [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] perform (a play) or show (a film) to the public for the first time 首次公演(戏剧或电影): The film was premiered at the Cannes festival. 该影片是在戛纳电影节上首次放映的.

  premise (also premiss)

  / 5premIs; `prZmIs/ n 1 statement or idea on which reasoning is based; hypothesis (推理所依据的)前提; 假定: Advice to investors was based on the premise that interest rates would continue to fall. 给予投资者的建议是以利率将继续下降这一点为前提的. 2 (in logic) each of the first two parts (major premise and minor premise) of a forward argument (逻辑学中的)(大小)前提: If the major premise is `Boys like fruit' and the minor premise is `You are a boy', then the conclusion is `Therefore you like fruit'. 设若大前提为`男孩儿爱吃水果', 小前提为`你是男孩儿', 则结论为`所以你爱吃水果'. Cf 参看 syllogism.

  premises

  / 5premIsIz; `prZmIsIz/ n [pl] 1 house or other buildings with its outbuildings, land, etc (包括附属建筑、 土地等在内的)房屋或其他建筑物: business premises, ie building(s), esp offices, where a business is carried on 事务所 * The firm is looking for larger premises. 该公司正在寻找较大的经营场址. * He was asked to leave the premises immediately. 人家要他立刻离开该建筑物. 2 (law 律) details of property, names of people, etc specified in the first part of a legal agreement 契据之缘起部分(记述财产之详情、 当事人姓名等). 3 (idm 习语) off the `premises outside the boundary of the premises(1) 在建筑物范围以外: see sb off the premises, ie take a visitor, etc to the exit 把某人送出大门(送客). on the `premises in the building (s), etc 在建筑物等内: There is always a manager on the premises. 事务所里总有一名主管人员. * Alcohol may not be consumed on the premises. 场内不准饮酒.

  premium

  / 5pri:mIEm; `primIEm/ n 1 amount or instalment (to be) regularly paid for an insurance policy 保险费: Your first premium is now due. 你的第一期保险费现已到期. 2 additional payment, eg one added to wages or interest payments; bonus 额外费用; 津贴; 奖金; 花红: A premium of 2 per cent is paid on long-term investments. 对投资期限较长者可获百分之二的奖励. * You have to pay a premium for express delivery. 你得支付特快投递的补加费用. * [attrib 作定语] Premium rents are charged in the city centre. 市中心要收取额外的租金. 3 (idm 习语) at a `premium (a) (finance 财) (of stocks and shares) above the normal or usual value (指公债和股票)超过正常或市面的价值; 溢价: Shares are selling at a premium. 股票溢价出售. (b) rare or difficult to obtain, and therefore more expensive or more highly valued than usual 因稀少或难得而较之一般昂贵或宝贵: Space is at a premium in this building. 在这个建筑物里场地面积十分昂贵. * Honesty is at a premium in this profession, I'm afraid! 依我看, 干这一行诚实的人实在难得! put a premium on sb/sth (a) make (sb/sth) seem important 使(某人[某事物])受到重视: The high risk of infection puts a premium on the use of sterile needles. 由於受感染的风险很大, 无菌注射针的使用受到了重视. (b) attach special value or importance to sb/sth 高度评价某人[某事物]: The examiners put a premium on rational argument. 评委们对以理服人的论据给以高度评价.

  Premium Bond

  (Brit) government savings bond that pays no interest1(7) but offers instead the chance of winning money as a prize in a monthly draw1(1b) 有奖储蓄公债(以每月进行抽奖代替付息).

  premonition

  / 9pri:mE5niFn, 9prem-; 9primE`nIFEn, 9prZm-/ n ~ (of sth/that...) feeling that sth unpleasant is going to happen (不祥的)预感: a premonition of disaster 大祸临头的预感 * My premonition was right. 我的预感应验了. * As we approached the house, I had a premonition that something terrible had happened. 我们走近这所房子时, 我预感到出事了.

  premonitory

  / prI5mCnItErI; ?@ -tR:rI; prI`mBnE9tRrI/ adj (fml 文) giving a warning 给予警告的: premonitory signs 警告的信号.

  preoccupation

  / 9pri:CkjU5peIFn; pri9BkjE`peFEn/ n 1 [U] (a) state of being preoccupied; absent-mindedness 占据思想; 心不在焉. (b) ~ (with sth) state of constantly thinking or worrying about sth; obsession 全神贯注; 苦思苦想; 缠在心头; 如痴如迷: She found his preoccupation with money irritating. 她发觉他心里只有钱, 感到很生气. 2 [C] thing that a person thinks about all the time 心里总想著的事物; 耿耿於怀的事物: His main preoccupation at that time was getting enough to eat. 他那时盘算的是如何填饱肚子. * A pension is not usually one of the preoccupations of an eighteen year-old! 一个十八岁的人通常是不会老惦著养老金的!

  preoccupy

  / pri:5CkjUpaI; pri`BkjE9paI/ v (pt, pp -pied) [Tn] engage (sb or his mind, thoughts, etc) so that he cannot think of other things; obsess 占据(某人)思想; 使(某人)心无二用; 迷住: Something seems to be preoccupying her at the moment. 她此刻若有所思. * Health worries preoccupied him for the whole holiday. 整个假期里他一直为健康状况而担忧.

  preoccupied

  adj inattentive because one is thinking of or worrying about sth else 心不在焉的; 心事重重的: She seemed preoccupied all the time I was talking to her. 我跟她讲话时她始终显得心事重重. * He answered me in a rather preoccupied manner. 他心不在焉地回答我.

  prep

  / prep; prZp/ n (infml 口) 1 [C, U] (Brit) (esp in private boarding schools 尤用於私立寄宿学校) (a) school work (to be) done after lessons; homework 课外作业; 家庭作业. (b) time when this is (to be) done 做课外作业的时间: He felt ill during prep. 他在做课外作业时觉得身体不舒服. 2 (US) student in a preparatory school 预科学校的学生.

  prep school

  = preparatory school (preparatory).

  preparation

  / 9prepE5reIFn; 9prZpE`reFEn/ n 1 [U] preparing or being prepared 预备; 准备: You can't pass an exam without preparation. 不准备就考不及格. * The preparation of the meals is your job. 做饭是你分内之事. * [attrib 作定语] Food preparation areas must be kept clean. 制作食物的场所应保持清洁. 2 [C usu pl 通常作复数] ~ (for sth/to do sth) thing done to prepare for sth 准备工作; 准备措施: The country is making preparations for war/to go to war. 该国正进行备战[准备打仗]. * Was your education a good preparation for your career? 你所受的教育是否为你的事业打下了良好的基础? 3 [C] substance that has been specially prepared for use as a cosmetic, medicine, etc 适合於某一用途如化妆、 医药等的)配制品: a pharmaceutical preparation 药剂 * a preparation for hiding/to hide skin blemishes 肤斑遮盖霜. 4 [C, U] (Brit) = prep 1. 5 (idm 习语) in preparation (for sth) being prepared (for sth) (为某事物)作好准备: The advertising campaign is still in preparation. 广告宣传攻势仍在准备中. * They've sold their house and car in preparation for leaving the country. 他们卖掉了房子和汽车准备出国.

  preparatory

  / prI5pArEtrI; ?@ -tR:rI; prI`pArE9tRrI/ adj preparing for sth; introductory 准备的; 预备的; 筹备的: preparatory investigations, measures, training 为准备做某事而进行的调查、 而采取的措施、 而进行的训练.

  preparatory school (also infml 口语作 `prepschool)

  1 (Brit) private school for pupils aged between7 and 13 whose parents pay fees for their education 私立小学. Cf 参看 public school (public). 2 (US) (usu private) school that prepares students for college (通常为私立的)大学预科学校.

  prepare

  / prI5peE(r); prI`pZr/ v 1 [I, Ipr, Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.t] ~ (sb/sth) (for sb/sth) get or make (sb/sth) ready 使(某人)有准备; 把(某事物)准备好; 预备: I had no time in which to prepare. 我已来不及做准备了. * prepare for trouble 准备应付麻烦事 * prepare a meal, ie get food ready to be eaten 预备饭菜 * have everything prepared beforehand 事先把一切都准备好 * prepare children for an examination 指导儿童准备考试 * The troops were being prepared for battle/to go into battle. 部队已作好战斗准备[已准备好投入战斗]. 2 (idm 习语) be prepared for sth be ready for sth (esp sth unpleasant) 对某事物(尤指令人不愉快者)作好准备: I knew there were problems, but I was not prepared for this! 我知道有些问题, 却未料到这一点! * She was prepared for anything to happen. 她已准备好应付一切. be prepared to do sth be able and willing to do sth 能够 并愿意做某事: I am prepared to lend you the money if you promise to pay it back. 我愿意把钱借给你, 你得答应还给我. * I am not prepared to stay and listen to these outrageous insults. 我可不愿意在这儿受这种奇耻大辱. prepare the ground (for sth) make it possible or easier to develop sth 为发展某事物准备了条件: Early experiments with military rockets prepared the ground for space travel. 早期进行的军用火箭试验为宇航事业的发展打下了基础. 3 (phr v) prepare sb for sth cause sb to expect sth (esp sth unpleasant) 使某人对某事物(尤指令人不愉快者)有所准备: Prepare yourself for a nasty shock! 有件令人十分震惊的事, 你要有所准备!

  preparedness

  / prI5peErIdnIs; prI`pZrIdnIs/ n [U] being prepared 有所准备: a state of preparedness 有准备的状态.

  prepay

  / 9pri:5peI; pri`pe/ v (pt, pp prepaid / -5peId;-`ped/) [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] pay (sth) in advance 预先支付(某费用); 预付: a prepaid envelope, ie one on which the postage has already been paid 邮资已付的信封 * The telegram was sent reply prepaid. 电报已发出并已预付覆电费用.

  prepayment

  n [C, U].

  preponderant

  / prI5pCndErEnt; prI`pBndErEnt/ adj (fml 文) greater in influence, importance, quantity, etc (影响力、 重要性、 数量等方面)处於上风的, 占优势的: Melancholy is the preponderant mood of the poem.忧郁的感情是该诗的基调.

  preponderance

  /-Ens; -Ens/ n [sing]: a preponderance of blue-eyed people in the population 蓝眼睛的人占居民的大多数. preponderantly adv: preponderantly optimistic 乐观主义占了上风的.

  preponderate

  / prI5pCndEreIt; prI`pBndE9ret/ v [I, Ipr] ~ (over sth) (fml 文) be greater in influence, importance, quantity, etc (than sth else) (在影响力、 重要性、 数量等方面较其他事物)处於上风, 占优势: Christians preponderate in the population of that part of the country. 基督教徒在该国那一地区的人口中居多.

  preposition

  / 9prepE5zIFn; 9prZpE`zIFEn/ n (grammar) (abbreviated as prep in this dictionary 本词典中略作prep) word or group of words (eg in, from, to, out of, on behalf of) used esp before a noun or pronoun to show place, position, time, method, etc 介词(包括复合介词, 尤用於名词或代词前, 表示处所、 位置、 时间、 方法等, 如 in、 from、 to、 out of、 on behalf of).

  prepositional

  / -FEnl; -FEnl/ adj of or containing a preposition 介词的; 含介词的.

  prepositional phrase

  preposition and the noun or noun phrase that follows it, eg in the night, after breakfast 介词词组(介词连同其後的名词或名词词组, 如in the night、 after breakfast).

  prepossessing

  / 9pri:pE5zesIN; 9pripE`zZsIN/ adj makinga good impression; attractive 给人良好印象的; 有吸引力的: a prepossessing smile, manner, child 讨人喜欢的微笑、 举止、 孩子 * He/His appearance is not at all prepossessing. 他[他的外表]毫无吸引力.

  preposterous

  / prI5pCstErEs; prI`pBstErEs/ adj completely contrary to reason or common sense; absurd or outrageous 完全违背理性或常识的; 荒谬的; 反常的; 愚蠢的; 无法容忍的: That is a preposterous accusation! 那样的指责简直荒谬可笑! * They are asking a preposterous price for the work. 他们为该作品漫天要价.

  preposterously

  adv: That is a preposterously high price! 那价格高得出奇!

  prerequisite

  / 9pri:5rekwIzIt; pri`rZkwEzIt/ adj ~ (for/to sth) (infml 口) required as a condition (for sth) 必备的; 作为先决条件的: A degree is prerequisite for employment at this level. 必须具备大专院校的学位才能从事这一级的工作. * A sense of humour is prerequisite to understanding her work. 要理解她的作品就必须具有幽默感.

  prerequisite (also pre-condition)

  n ~ (for/of sth) thing required as a condition for sth to happen or exist 必备条件; 先决条件; 前提: Careful study of the market is a prerequisite for success. 仔细研究市场情况是取得成功的先决条件. * Good muscles are one of the prerequisites of physical fitness. 肌肉发达是身体健康的一个必备条件.

  prerogative

  / prI5rCgEtIv; prI`rB^EtIv/ n right or privilege, esp one belonging to a particular person or group 权利; (尤指)特权: It is the Prime Minister's prerogative to decide when to call an election. 决定大选的日期是首相的职权. * A monarch has the prerogative of pardoning criminals. 君主享有对罪犯的赦免权. * the,royal prerogative, ie (in Britain), the (theoretical) right of the sovereign to act without the approval of Parliament 皇家的特权(在英国, 指国君名义上享有的不经议会认可而采取行动的权利).

  pre-

  pref 前缀 (used fairly widely with vs, ns, adjs and advs 与大量动词、 名词、 形容词、 副词连用) before 在...前; 先於: pre-cook * prefabricate * pre-medication * pre-Christian * prematurely. Cf 参看 ante-, post-.

  Pres

  abbr 缩写 = President: Pres (Ronald) Reagan (罗纳德·)里根总统.

  presage

  / 5presIdV; `prZsIdV/ n (fml 文) (a) sign that sth (esp sth unpleasant) will happen; omen 预兆; 兆头; (尤指)恶兆, 凶兆. (b) feeling that sth unpleasant will happen; presentiment (不祥的)预感; 预知.

  presage

  / 5presIdV, rarely 罕读作 prI5seIdV; prI`sedV/ v [Tn] be a sign of (sth that will happen); foretell 预示; 预言: Those clouds presage a storm. 那样的密云预示著暴风雨将要来临.

  Presbyterian

  / 9prezbI5tIErIEn; 9prZzbE`tIrIEn/ adj (of a Church, esp of the national Church of Scotland) governed by elders (`presbyters) who are all equal in rank (指基督教教会, 尤指苏格兰国立教会)长老制的. Cf 参看 episcopal.

  Presbyterian

  n person who is a member of the Presbyterian Church 长老会教友.

  Presbyterianism

  / -IzEm; -9IzEm/ n [U] 1 beliefs of Presbyterians 长老会教义. 2 Presbyterian system of church government 长老制.

  presbytery

  / 5prezbItrI; ?@ -terI; `prZzbE9tZrI/ n 1 (regional) administrative court of the Presbyterian Church (基督教长老会的)教务评议会; 长老区会. 2 house where a Roman Catholic parish priest lives 天主教堂区神甫的居所. 3 (in a church) eastern part of the chancel beyond the choir; sanctuary (教堂内的)司祭席, 内殿.

  prescient

  / 5presIEnt; `prZsIEnt/ adj (fml 文) knowing about things before they take place; able to see into the future 有先见之明的; 能预知未来的.

  prescience

  /-Ens; -Ens/ n [U].

  prescribe

  / prI5skraIb; prI`skraIb/ v (fml 文) 1 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (for sth) advise or order the use of (esp a medicine, remedy, etc) 建议或吩咐采用(尤指药物、 疗法等); 开(药方): She prescribed some pills to help me to sleep. 她让我吃些药片以利睡眠. * Do not exceed the prescribed dose, ie quantity of medicine to be taken at one time. 勿超过规定剂量(药物的一次用量). * Ask the doctor to prescribe something for that cough. 请医生开点咳嗽药. * (fig 比喻) The doctor prescribed a holiday as the best cure for his depression. 医生认为要治好他的抑郁症最好是去度假. * a prescribed text, ie one that has to be studied, eg for an examination 指定学习的课文(如为应试). 2 [Tn, Tn.pr, Tf, Tw] declare with authority that (sth) should be done or is a rule to be followed 规定做(某事); 指定遵守(某事物): The law prescribes heavy penalties for this offence. 法律规定对这种不法行为从严惩处. * Police regulations prescribe that an officer's number must be clearly visible. 警员条例要求执行职务者的号码标志必须清楚易见. * Army regulations prescribe how rifles must be carried. 军规中对持枪方式有明文规定. =>Usage at decree 用法见decree.

  prescript

  / 5pri:skrIpt; `priskrIpt/ n (fml 文) law, rule or command 法律; 规章; 命令.

  prescription

  / prI5skrIpFn; prI`skrIpFEn/ n 1 [C] (a) doctor's written instruction for the composition and use of a medicine 处方; 药方: The doctor gave me a prescription for pain-killers. 医生给我开了个止痛药方. * (fig 比喻) His prescription for economic recovery was not well received. 他为使经济复苏提出的对策反应不佳. (b) medicine prescribed in this way 处方上开的药: The chemist made a mistake when making up the prescription. 药剂师配错了药. * [attrib 作定语] prescription charges, ie (in Britain) money to be paid by the patient for drugs supplied on the National Health Service 处方收费(在英国指病人为获得国民保健署所提供的药品而缴纳的费用). 2 [U] action of prescribing 开处方: The prescription of drugs is a doctor's responsibility. 开药方是医生的职责

  prescriptive

  / prI5skrIptIv; prI`skrIptIv/ adj (fml 文)1 (a) making rules or giving orders or directions 规定的; 指定的; 规范的: prescriptive teaching methods 规定的教学法. (b) (grammar) telling people how they ought to use a language (在指导语言运用方面)规定性的, 规范性的: a prescriptive grammar of the English language 英语规范语法. Cf 参看 descriptive 2. 2 made legal or acceptable by long-standing custom 因长期使用而合法或认可的; 约定俗成的: prescriptive rights 因时效而获得的权利.

  prescriptively

  adv.

  presence

  / 5prezns; `prZzns/ n 1 [U] being present in a place 出席; 在场; 存在: The dogs were trained to detect the presence of explosives. 那些狗是训练来查寻爆炸物的. * Your presence is requested at the shareholders' meeting. 敬请您出席股东会议. * Her presence during the crisis had a calming effect. 在危难中有了她就稳定了人心. Cf 参看 absence. 2 [U, sing] (approv 褒) person's way of standing, moving, etc, esp as it affects other people 仪态; (尤指)风度: a man of great presence 潇洒的男子 * The power of his stage presence could never be forgotten. 他的舞台表演才能令人难忘. 3 [C] person or thing that is or seems to be present in a place (似乎)在场的人或事物: There seemed to be a ghostly presence in the room. 屋里像是有个鬼似的. 4 [sing] number of eg soldiers or policemen in a place for a special purpose (执行某种使命的)一群在场人员(如军警等): a massive police presence at the meeting 大会期间在场的大批警察 * The United Nations maintains a military presence in the area. 联合国在该地区驻有军队. 5 (idm 习语)be admitted to sb's presence => admit. in the presence of sb/in sb's presence in the place where sb is; with sb there 当著某人; 有某人在场: He made the accusation in the presence of witnesses. 他在有见证人在场的情况下提出了控告. * She asked them not to discuss the matter in her presence. 她请求他们不要当著她讨论这个问题. make one's `presence felt make others aware of one's presence or existence by the strength of one's personality, one's superior ability, etc 凭本身的实力、 长处等使别人注意自己: The new chairman is certainly making his presence felt! 那位新任主席确是在突出自己! ,presence of `mind ability to remain calm and act quickly and sensibly in a crisis 危难中镇定自若; 遇事不慌: The child showed great presence of mind by grabbing the falling baby. 那孩子毫不慌张一把抓住了摔下的婴儿.

  present

  / 5preznt; `prZznt/ adj 1 [pred 作表语] ~ (at sth) (a) (of a person) being in the place in question (指人)出席, 在场: Were you present when the news was announced? 宣布那消息时你在场吗? * The mistake was obvious to all (those) present. 所有(那些)在场者一眼就看出那个错误. * Everybody present welcomed the decision. 出席的人都欢迎那个决议. * There were 200 people present at the meeting. 有200人到会. (b) ~ (in sth) being in a place, substance, etc 存在的; 含有的: He suspected that a leak was present somewhere along the pipe. 他猜疑管道里什麽地方漏了. * Analysis showed that cocaine was present in the mixture. 分析的结果表明混合物中含有可卡因. Cf 参看 absent1. 2 [attrib 作定语] existing or happening now 现存的; 现有的: the present difficulties, problems, uncertainties, etc 目前存在的困难、 问题、 不稳定性等 * the present administration, government, council, etc 现在的行政当局、 政府、 政务委员会等 * the present climate of opinion 当前的舆论 * You can't use it in its present condition. 照它目前这种情形, 是无法使用的. 3 [attrib 作定语] now being considered, dealt with or discussed 正在考虑、 处理或讨论中的: the present proposal for increasing taxation 正在讨论中的增税提案. 4 (idm 习语) present company ex`cepted/excepting present `company (used as a polite comment when making a critical remark 用作发表批评性言论时的礼貌用语) what I am saying does not apply to you 我不是指在座的诸位: People seem to have drunk far too much tonight, present company excepted of course. 今晚大家似乎喝酒喝得太多了, 当然在座的各位除外. the ,present `day the present age; modern times 当今; 现今: After being taken back 200 years, we were suddenly returned to the present day. 我们刚才还处在200年前的历史场景之中, 一下子又回到了现在.* [attrib 作定语] ,present-day `attitudes, con`ditions, `fashions 现时的态度、 条件、 流行款式. on `present form (of a judgement) based on sb/sth's previous and/or current actions, behaviour, progress, etc (指评价)基於某人[某事物]先前的和[或]现时的行动、 行为、 进步等的: He would not be elected on present form. 鉴於他的现时表现, 他不可能当选.

  present

  n 1 the present [sing] (a) the time nowpassing; the present time 当前; 目前: the past, the presentand the future 过去、 现在和未来 * Historical romances offer an escape from the present. 沉浸於历史传奇故事藉以逃避现实. (b) (grammar) = present tense. 2 (idm 习语) at `present at this time; now 此刻; 现在: I'm afraid I can't help you just at present I'm too busy.很抱歉, 我现在帮不了你--实在太忙了. ,by these `presents (law 律) by this document 根据此文件. for the moment/present => moment. no time like the present => time1.

  present participle

  (grammar) form of the verb that ends in -ing, eg going, having, swimming 现在分词(以-ing结尾的动词形式, 如going、 having、 swimming).,present `tense (grammar) one of the verb tenses (eg present, present continuous, present perfect) that express an action or state in the present at the time of speaking 现在时态(动词时态之一, 表示说话此时的动作或状态, 如一般现在时态、 现在进行时态、 现在完成时态): The verb is in the present tense. 这个动词使用的是现在时态. Cf 参看 past1 4.

  present

  / 5preznt; `prZznt/ n 1 thing given or received as a gift 礼物; 赠品: wedding, Christmas, birthday, etc presents 结婚、 圣诞、 生日等礼物 * This book was a present from my brother. 这本书是哥哥赠送给我的. 2 (idm 习语) make sb a present of sth give sth to sb as a gift 将某物赠送给某人: He admired my old typewriter so much, I made him a present of it. 他非常喜欢我的旧打字机, 所以我就送给他了. * (ironic 反语) Let's not make our opponents a present of any goals, ie allow them to score easily. 咱们别给对方送分(别让他们轻易得分).

  present

  / prI5zent; prI`zZnt/ v 1 [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.pr] ~ sb with sth; ~ sth (to sb) give or hand over sth to sb, esp formally at a ceremony 将某物赠予或交给某人; (尤指在仪式上)授予: Colleagues presented the retiring chairman with a cheque/presented a cheque to the retiring chairman. 同事们把一张支票交给退休的主席. * They presented a sum of money to the college in memory of their son. 他们向学院赠送了一笔款项以纪念他们的儿子. 2 [Tn, Dn.pr] ~ sb (to sb) introduce (sb) formally, esp to sb of higher rank, status, etc 正式介绍, 引见(某人)(尤指向级别、 地位等较高的人): May I present my new assistant (to you). 请允许我(向你)介绍我的新助手. * The custom of young ladies being presented at court (ie formally introduced to the monarch) has disappeared. 年轻女子被举荐入宫(觐见君主)的风俗已不复存在. 3 [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.pr] ~ sth (for sth); ~ sth (to sb) offer sth for consideration 将某事物提请考虑: a well- presented analysis 条理清楚的分析报告 * present one's designs for approval/consideration 提出自己的计画呈请批准[考虑] * They presented a petition to the governor. 他们向总督递交了一份请愿书. * She presented (ie argued) her case to the committee. 她提出了自己的理由供委员们考虑. 4 [Tn, Dn.pr] ~ sth (to sb) (fml 文) offer sth 提出某事物: present one's apologies, compliments, greetings, etc (to sb) (向某人)致歉、 致意、 致以问候. 5 (a) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ oneself (for sth) (of a person) appear or attend (指人)出现, 出席: You will be asked to present yourself for interview. 将要求你到场面试. * I have to present myself in court on 20 May. 我须於5月20日出庭. (b) [Tn, Dn.pr] ~ itself (to sb) (of an opportunity, a solution, etc) show itself (to sb); occur(指机会、 解决办法等)(对某人)显露, 产生: A wonderful opportunity suddenly presented itself. 突然有了个绝妙的机会. * The answer presented itself to him when he looked at the problem again. 那问题他再一考虑, 答案就在眼前. 6 [Tn, Tn.pr, Dn.pr] ~ sb with sth; ~ sth (to sth)show or reveal sth to sb 向某人显示某事物: This job presents many difficulties to the new recruit. 这件工作对新手来说困难重重. * Falling interest rates present the firm with a new problem. 利息一下降给公司带来了一个新的问题. 7 [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (for sth) offer (a bill or cheque) in order to be paid 提交, 交付(票据或支票): Has the builder presented his bill yet? 营造商把帐单送来了吗? * The cheque was presented for payment on 21 March. 这张支票是在3月21日兑现的. 8 [Tn] (a) show (eg a play) to the public 公演(戏剧等): The NationalTheatre presents `Hamlet' in a new production. 国家剧院上演新戏《哈姆雷特》. (b) cause (eg an actor) to perform in public 使(演员等)演出: Starlight Productions present the Chinese Children's Choir in concert. 星光剧团主办中国儿童合唱团演出音乐会. (c) introduce (a performance) to an audience in the theatre or (a programme) on radio or television (在剧院中)主持上演(节目); (在广播或电视中)主持播出(节目): Who will present his show (eg on television) while he's away? 他不在场时, 将由谁主持播放他的节目(如电视节目)? * Our review of this week's papers is presented by the editor of `The Times'. 我们的本周报纸要闻回顾由《时代》周刊编辑主持. 9 [Tn] hold (a rifle, etc) upright in front of the body as a salute 举(枪枝等)表示敬意: Present arms! 举枪敬礼! * The soldiers were ordered to present arms. 士兵们奉命举枪致敬.

  present

  n [sing] upright position of a weapon in a salute 敬礼时枪枝竖举的位置: rifles at the present, ie with the weapon held in an upright positon 枪枝竖举著.

  presenter

  n (esp on radio or television) person who presents (present3 8c) a programme (尤指广播或电视)节目主持人.

  presentable

  / prI5zentEbl; prI`zZntEbl/ adj fit to appear or be shown in public 拿得出去的; 像样的; 体面的: He's got dozens of suits but not one of them is presentable. 他有几十套衣服, 却没有一套像样的. * I must go and make myself presentable before the guests arrive. 趁客人没到, 我得去打扮得像点样子. * (approv 褒) She was seen at the opera with an extremely presentable escort. 她出现在歌剧院里, 有个十分体面的人陪伴著她.

  presentably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv: He was dressed quite presentably for a change. 他为了变化变化, 穿得相当体面.

  presentation

  / 9prezn5teIFn; ?@ 9pri:zen-; 9prizZn`teFEn/ n 1 [U] (a) presenting or being presented 赠送; 引见; 提出; 出席; 显示; 演出; 举枪致敬: They are preparing for the presentation of a new musical. 他们正准备上演新的歌舞喜剧. * The cheque is payable on presentation, ie at the bank. 本支票见票即付. (b) way in which sth is presented 赠送、 引见、 提出、 出席、 显示、 演出等的方式: The presentation of the material was untidy. 所提交的资料缺乏条理. * She needs to improve her presentation of the arguments. 她需要改进阐述其论点的方式. 2 [C] (a) thing presented 所赠送、 引见、 提出、 显示、 演出等的事物: We went to the premiere of their new presentation. 我们去观看了他们的新剧目的首场演出. (b) gift, esp one given at a formal ceremony 赠品; 礼物; (尤指经仪式)授予之物: We want to make her a presentation to celebrate her jubilee. 我们想送她一件礼物以庆贺她的纪念日. * The Queen will make the presentation (ie will hand over the gift) herself. 女王将亲自授予礼品. * [attrib 作定语] a presentation ceremony, ie one at which a presentation is made 赠礼仪式 * a presentation copy, ie a free book presented by the publisher or by the author (出版者或作者免费提供的)赠阅本. 3 [C, U] position of a baby in the mother's body just before birth 胎位.

  presentiment

  / prI5zentImEnt; prI`zZntEmEnt/ n (fml 文) vague feeling that sth (esp sth unpleasant) will happen; foreboding 预感(尤指不祥的); 凶兆: a presentiment of trouble ahead 要出乱子的预感.

  presently

  / 5prezntlI; `prZzntlI/ adv 1 after a short time; soon 不久; 立刻: I'll be with you presently. 我马上就来. 2 (esp US) at the present time; now 现在; 目前: The Secretary of State is presently considering the proposal. 国务卿目前正在考虑该项建议.

  presently

  NOTE ON USAGE 用法: When presently means `soon' it usually comes at the end of the sentence *presently 作`立即'解时通常位於句末: She'll be here presently. 她马上就来. When it means `after a short time' it sometimes comes at the beginning 作`很短时间之後'解时有时位於句首: Presently I heard her leave the house. 不一会儿我就听到了她离开屋子的声音. Increasingly in British as well as US English it means `now' or `currently' and is placed with the verb 不仅在美式英语中, 而且在英式英语中也逐渐广泛用以指`现在'或`当前', 位置紧靠动词: She's presently working on her PhD. 她目前在攻读哲学博士学位.

  preservation

  / 9prezE5veIFn; 9prZzL`veFEn/ n [U] 1 action of preserving 保护; 维护; 保存; 保留; 保持: the preservation and conservation of wildlife 对野生动物的保护 * the preservation of food, one's health, works of art 食物的保鲜、 健康的保持、 艺术作品的保存 * The aim of the policy is the preservation of peace. 这一政策旨在维护和平. * [attrib 作定语] a preser`vation order, ie (in Britain) one that makes it illegal to destroy a building, etc because of its historical value (英国的)文物保护法令. 2 degree to which sth has been unaffected by age, weather etc 保存完好之程度: The paintings were in an excellent state of preservation. 这些画保存得非常好.

  preservative

  / prI5z\:vEtIv; prI`z[vEtIv/ adj (used for) preserving (用来)保护的, 保存的: He painted the posts with a preservative liquid. 他在柱子上涂上了起保护作用的液体. * Salt has a preservative effect on food. 盐对食物有防腐作用.

  preservative

  n [C, U] (type of) substance usedfor preserving 保护剂; 防腐剂: food free from preservatives不含防腐剂的食品 * Alcohol is used as a preservative in certain foods. 酒精用作某些食物的保护剂. * Preservative is usually added to tinned meat. 防腐剂通常加在肉类罐头里.

  preserve

  / prI5z\:v; prI`z[v/ v 1 (a) [Tn] keep or maintain (sth) in an unchanged or perfect condition 保护, 维护(某事物): preserve one's eyesight 保护视力 * a very well-preserved man of eighty 一个保养得很好的八十老翁 * Wax polish preserves wood and leather. 上光蜡可以保护木料和皮革. * Efforts to preserve the peace have failed. 维护和平的努力已经失败了. (b) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sth (for sth) keep sth safe or alive for the future 保存或保留某事物: Few of the early manuscripts have been preserved. 早期的手稿保存下来的不多. * His work must be preserved for posterity. 他的作品当传诸後世. (c) [Tn, Tn.pr] ~ sb (from sb/sth) keep sb safe from harm or danger 保护某人: The calm courage of the pilot preserved the lives of the passengers. 飞行员临危不惧的勇气保住了乘客们的生命. * God preserve us! 上帝保佑我们吧! 2 [Tn] avoid losing (sth); retain 使(某事物)不受损失; 保持: She managed despite everything to preserve her sense of humour. 她不管遇到什麽情况都竭力保持著幽默感. * It is difficult to preserve one's self-respect in that job. 做那样的工作很难保持自尊. 3 [Tn] keep (food) from decay (by bottling, drying, freezing, etc) (用装瓶装罐、 乾燥、 冷冻等法)保存(食物): Salt and spices help to preserve meat. 盐和调味品有助於保藏肉类. * In the summer, large crops of fruit may be preserved by freezing or bottling. 夏天收获的大量水果可冷藏或装瓶装罐加以保存. 4 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] keep (fishing, game, land, part of a river, etc) for private use 禁止外人(捕猎等); 将(土地、 河流区段等)保留以供私用: The fishing in this stretch of the river is strictly preserved. 此段河流严禁外人捕鱼. Cf 参看 conserve.

  preserve

  n 1 (a) [C usu pl 通常作复数] preserved fruit 经加工保存的水果: apricot preserves 杏脯. (b) [U] jam 果酱: strawberry preserve 草莓酱. Cf 参看 conserve n. 2 [C] area where game or fish are preserved (preserve 4) for private hunting or fishing 专供私人行猎或捕鱼的保留区. 3 [sing] activities, interests, etc regarded as belonging to a particular person 被认为某人所专有的活动、 爱好等: She regards negotiating prices with customers as her special preserve. 她把与顾客讨价还价看作自己的专长.

  preserver

  n person or thing that preserves 保护者;维护者; 保藏食品者; 防护用品; 私人保留地: a `life-preserver 救生用品.

  preside

  / prI5zaId; prI`zaId/ v 1 [I, Ipr] ~ (at sth) be chairman (at a conference, meeting, etc) (在会上)担任主席; 主持(会议等): the presiding officer 主持会议的官员 * Whoever presides will need patience and tact. 无论谁作主席, 都需既要有耐性, 又要机敏老练. * The Prime Minister presides at meetings of the Cabinet. 首相主持内阁会议. 2 (phr v) preside over sth (a) be head or director of sth 掌管或领导某事物: The city council is presided over by the mayor. 市政委员会由市长领导. (b) control or be responsible for sth 管理某事物; 对某事物负有责任: The present director has presided over a rapid decline in the firm's profitability. 现任领导对公司利润的急剧下降负有责任.

  presidency

  / 5prezIdEnsI; `prZzEdEnsI/ n (a) the presidency (also the Presidency) [sing] office(4) of a president 总统、 主席、 行政部门首长、 院长、 会长、 行长、 总经理、 董事长等的职位: She hopes to win the presidency. 她希望争取到会长职位. (b) [C] term of office as a president 上述各职位的任期: the last days of his presidency 他当主席的最後几天 * He was elected to a second presidency. 他获选连任总统.

  president

  / 5prezIdEnt; `prZzEdEnt/ n 1 President elected head of state in the US and many modern republics 总统; 国家主席: the President of the United States 美国总统 * President De Gaulle 戴高乐总统. 2 (also President) head of some colleges, government bodies or departments, societies, etc (学院的)院长、 (政府部门或机构的)首长、 (社会团体等的)会长等: the President of the Board of Trade 贸易委员会主席 * He was made president of the cricket club. 他被任命为板球俱乐部会长. 3 (US) head of a bank, business firm, etc (银行的)行长、 (公司等的)总经理、 总裁、 董事长等.

  presidential

  / 9prezI5denFl; 9prZzE`dZnFEl/ adj of a president or presidency 总统(职位)的; 最高领导者(职位)的: a presidential candidate, election, policy 总统候选人、 选举、 政策 * (US) a presidential year, ie one in which an election for president is held 总统选举年.

  presidium (also praesidium)

  / prI5sIdIEm; prI`sIdIEm/ n (pl ~s) permanent executive committee of the administration, esp in Communist countries 常务委员会, 主席团(尤指共产党国家政府的): the presidium of the Supreme Soviet 最高苏维埃主席团.

  press

  / pres; prZs/ n 1 [C usu sing 通常作单数] act of pushing steadily with (sth held in) the hand 用手(持物)按、 压、 挤、 榨、 捏等: Flatten the dough with a press of the hand. 用手把生面团压平. * Those trousers need a press, ie with a hot iron. 那条裤子该熨一熨. 2 [C] (esp in compounds 尤用以构成复合词) any of various devices or machines used for compressing or shaping things, extracting juice, etc 任何压榨或挤压成形之器具或机器: a `winepress (制酒的)葡萄榨汁机 * a `cider-press 苹果榨汁机 * an `olive-press 橄榄榨油机 * keep one's tennis racket in a press 把网球拍放在球拍夹中 * a hydraulic press 水压机. 3 (a) (also `printing-press) [C] machine for printing 印刷机: He took a copy of the newspaper as it came off the press. 报纸在印刷机上印出来後他拿了一份. (b) [U] printing or being printed (used esp as in the following phrases) 印刷(尤用於以下词组中): pass sth for press, ie give final approval for sth before it goes to be printed 核准稿件以备付印 * go to press, ie start to be printed 付印(开始印刷) * Prices are correct at the time of going to press, but may be changed. 付印前价目无误, 之後或有变化. * stop press 停印. 4 (often 常作 the Press) [Gp] (journalists who work for) newspapers, periodicals and the news sections of radio and television 报刊; 定期刊物; 广播和电视的新闻节目; 报界; 新闻界; 记者们: The Press were not allowed to attend the trial. 新闻界人士不得出庭旁听. * The majority of the press support the Government's foreign policy. 舆论界多数支持政府的外交政策. * the local/national/provincial press 地方[全国性/省级]报刊 * the gutter press, ie newspapers that concentrate on sensational stories about people's personal lives 低级报纸(专门宣扬别人隐私者) * The freedom of the press (ie right of journalists to report events, express opinions, etc freely) must be protected. 新闻报道的自由(记者自由报道新闻、 表达观点等的权利)应该得到保障. * [attrib 作定语] press advertising, comment, freedom 报刊上的广告、 报刊评论、 出版自由. 5 [sing] treatment given to a person, a group, an event, etc in radio, newspaper, etc reports (广播、 报刊等对个人、 团体、 事件等的)报道, 评论: be given/have a good/bad press 受到舆论界的好评[批评]. 6 [C] business for printing (and publishing) books or periodicals 印刷业; 出版业; 出版社: Oxford University Press 牛津大学出版社 * a small press specializing in illustrated books 专印有插图的书的小出版社. 7 [sing] (a) crowd or crowding of people 人群; 人群拥挤: The child got lost in the press of people leaving the match. 在看完比赛後散场的人群中把孩子挤丢了. (b) pressure of affairs; hurry or stress 事务的压力; 匆忙; 紧迫: the press of modern life 现代生活的压力. 8 [C] large cupboard, usu with shelves, for clothes, books, etc 大柜橱(通常有架以放置衣物、 书籍等): a linen press 衣物柜.

  press agent

  person employed by a theatre, etc to organize advertising and publicity in the press (剧院等雇用在报刊等上做宣传和登广告的)宣传员. `press agency 1 office or business of a press agent 剧院等的宣传员的办事处或业务. 2 business firm that gathers news and supplies it to journalists 通讯社.

  the Press Association (abbr 缩写 PA)

  (Brit) press agency that gathers home news and supplies it to the British press1(4) 新闻协会(英国负责采集国内新闻并向本国新闻媒介供稿的通讯社).

  press baron

  (infml 口) powerful newspaper proprietor 报业大王.

  press-box

  n place reserved for reporters, eg at a football or cricket match 记者席(如足球或板球比赛时设置的).

  press conference

  interview given to journalists in order to announce a decision, an achievement, etc 记者招待会: The Minister called a press conference as soon as the results were known. 结果一见分晓, 部长立即举行了记者招待会.

  press cutting (also esp US `press clipping)

  paragraph, article, etc cut out from a newspaper or periodical 剪报.

  press-gallery

  n place reserved for reporters, esp in Parliament or in a lawcourt 记者席(尤指议会里或法庭上的).

  pressman

  / 5presmEn, -mAn; `prZsmEn, -9mAn/ n (pl -men / 5presmEn, -men; `prZsmEn/) 1 (Brit) journalist 记者. 2 (US) person who operates a printing-press 印刷工人.

  press officer

  person employed by a business firm, political party, etc to provide information to the press and to answer journalists' questions (企业、 政党等雇用向新闻界发布消息并回答记者问题的)新闻代言人, 新闻发布官.

  press photographer

  newspaper photographer 摄影记者.

  press release

  official announcement or account of sth given to the press by a government department, political party, etc (政府机构、 政党等发布的)新闻稿: The company issued a press release to try to stop speculationin its shares. 公司发布了新闻稿以期遏止对其股票的投机活动.

  press

  / pres; prZs/ v 1 (a) [Tn, Tn.p] move (sth) by pushing steadily against it 对(某物)施以压力使之移动; 按动(某物): press the trigger of a gun 扣枪的扳机 * press (down) the accelerator of a car 踩(下)汽车的油门 * press (in) a button 按电钮 * press a switch (up) (向上)扳开关. (b) [Ipr, Tn.pr] ~ (sth/sb/oneself) against/on sth; ~ sth to sth (cause sth/sb/oneself to) push steadily against sth (使某物[某人/自己])对某物施以压力; 压、 挤、 推或顶某物: My boot is pressing against a blister on my toe. 我的靴子挤压了我脚趾上的水 . * I had to press myself against the wall to let them pass. 我得贴紧墙壁好让他们过去. * The child pressed her nose against the window. 那小女孩把鼻子贴在窗户上. * He pressed a handkerchief to his nose. 他用手帕捂著鼻子. (c) [Tn.pr] ~ sth into sth put sth in a place by pushing steadily against it 对某物施以压力使其进入某位置; 将某物压入、 按入或塞入: press money into sb's hand 把钱塞进某人手中 * press putty into a hole 把油灰塞入洞中. 2 [Tn, Cn.a] apply force or weight to (sth) in order to get juice, etc from it 挤出(某物)的汁等; 榨(某物): press apples, olives, oranges, etc 挤压苹果、 橄榄、 橙子等 * press grapes to make wine 榨葡萄制酒 * press fruit dry, ie obtain all its juice 把水果榨乾(取其全部汁液). 3 [Tn, Cn.a] (a) make (sth) flat or smooth (by using force or weight) 压扁, 压平(某物): press flowers, eg between pages of a book 把花压扁(如夹在书里) * press the soil flat with the back of a spade 用铲子的背面平整土地. (b) shape or remove creases from (clothes) by applying pressure with an iron 熨平(衣物): That suit ought to be pressed. 那套衣服得熨一熨. * Press the pleats flat. 把褶子熨平. 4 (a) [Tn.pr] ~ sb/sth to one hold sb/sth close; embrace sb/sth 抱紧某人[某物]; 拥抱某人[某物]: She pressed the child to her. 她把那孩子搂在怀里. (b) [Tn] squeeze (a person's arm, hand, etc) as a sign of affection 紧握(某人之臂、 手等)表示情意: Overcome with emotion, he pressed her hand and left her. 他感慨万千, 用力握了一下她的手, 离开了她. 5 [Tn, Tn.pr, Cn.t] ~ sb (for sth) try repeatedly to persuade sb (to do sth) 一再劝说某人(做某事); 催促; 催逼; 敦促: I don't want to press you, but shouldn't you be leaving? 我不想逼你, 但你还不该走吗? * The bank is pressing us for repayment of the loan. 银行催我们偿还贷款. * They are pressing us to make a quick decision. 他们正在敦促我们迅速作出决定. 6 [Tn] make (one's case, etc) urgently or repeatedly (used esp with the ns shown) 急於做或坚持做(某事等)(尤与以下句中名词连用): I don't wish to press the point, but you do owe me 200. 我是不愿老提这一点的, 可你还欠著我200英镑呢. * She is still pressing her claim for compensation. 她仍然坚持要求赔偿. * They were determined to press their case at the highest level. 他们决定把他们那事向最高层反映. 7 [Tn] make a pressing(n a) of (a gramophone record) 压制(唱片). 8 (idm 习语) be pressed for sth have barely enough of sth 缺少某事物: Please hurry we're a bit pressed for time. 请快点--我们时间不多了. * I'm very pressed for cash at the moment can I pay you next week? 我现在手头很紧--下周再付给你行吗? press sth home (a) push sth into place 用压力使某物就位: He locked the door and pressed the bolt home. 他锁上房门, 并插好插销. (b) obtain as much advantage as possible from sth by being determined in attacking, arguing, etc (在进攻、 争辩等方面)坚持不懈以多获益: press home one's advantage 坚决维护自己的利益 * press home an argument, an attack, a point, etc 把争论、 进攻、 某一论点等坚持到底. press sth into `shape flatten, smooth or shape sth by pushing against it 压平某物; 施加压力使某物平整; 将某物压制成型. time presses => time1. 9 (phr v) press across, against, around, etc (sth) (of people) move in the specified direction by pushing (指人们)挤著走; 拥挤著前进: The people pressed round the royal visitors. 人们把那些王室贵宾团团围住. * The crowds were pressing against the barriers. 人群向著栅栏推挤. * She had to press through the throng to reach the stage. 她不得不穿过拥挤的人群走上舞台. press ahead/forward/on (with sth) continue (doing sth) in a determined way; hurry forward 坚决地继续(进行某事物); 坚持(做某事); 加紧: The firm is pressing ahead with the modernization plan. 公司竭力实施现代化计画. * We must press on with the project without wasting time. 我们要不失时机地加紧进行这项工程. press for sth make repeated and urgent requests for sth 一再迫切要求某事物: The chairman is pressing for a change in the procedure. 主席一再要求改变程序. * The unions are pressing for improved working conditions. 工会再三要求改善工作条件. press sth from sth; press sth out of/in sth make sth by applying force or weight to a surface 压制某物: press car bodies out of sheets of steel 把钢板冲压成汽车车身 * press holes in a piece of leather 在一块皮革上打出许多洞 * press out shapes from a piece of card 从一张纸板上压出各种花样. press sth from/out of sth; press sth out remove (juice, etc) from fruit by squeezing 挤出(果汁等); 榨出(汁液): press the juice from oranges 挤橙子汁 * press oil from olives 榨橄榄油 * press the seeds out of a tomato 挤出西红柿的籽. press (down) on sb weigh heavily on sb; oppress sb 对某人施重压; 压迫某人: His responsibilities press heavily on him. 他身负重任. press sth on sb insist that sb accepts sth (against his will) 硬要某人接受某事物: They pressed gifts on their benefactors. 他们硬要赞助人接受礼物. * I didn't want to take the money but he pressed it on me. 我不愿接受那笔钱, 但是他却硬塞给我. press sth on/onto sth attach sth to sth by pressing 把某物紧贴在另物上: press a label on a parcel 把标签贴在包裹上 * press a clean pad onto a wound 把一块乾净的纱布敷在伤口上.

  pressing

  adj (a) urgent 紧迫的; 迫切的: a pressing engagement 急迫的约会. (b) (of a person, request, etc) insistent (指人、 要求等)坚持的: a pressing invitation todinner 十分恳切的赴宴邀请 * He was so pressing I couldn'trefuse. 他这样坚持, 我实在难以拒绝.

  pressingly

  adv.

  pressing

  n (a) thing made by pressing, esp a gramophonerecord 模压制品; (尤指)唱片: 10000 pressings of a symphony 10000张交响乐的唱片. (b) number of gramophone records made at one time 同一批制成的唱片: a pressing of several thousand records 同批制成的几千张唱片.

  press-stud

  / 5prestQd; `prZs9stQd/ n (also infml 口语作 popper, esp US `snap fastener) small fastener for clothes made of two parts that can be pressed together 子母扣儿; 摁扣儿.

  press-up (US `push-up)

  n (usu pl 通常作复数) exercise in which a person lies facing the floor and, keeping his back straight, raises his shoulders and trunk by pressing down on his hands 俯卧撑.

  press

  / pres; prZs/ v 1 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] (formerly) force (sb) to serve in the army or navy (旧时)强徵(某人)入伍. 2 (idm 习语) press sb/sth into `service use sb/sth because he/it is urgently needed; use sth as a temporary measure (因急需)徵用某人[某物]; 临时使用某物: Her whole family were pressed into service when the shop was busy. 店里忙时, 她全家都来干. * Old buses were pressed into service as emergency housing for the refugees. 用旧公共汽车应急来安置难民.

  press-gang

  n [CGp] (a) (formerly) group of people employed to force men to join the army or navy (旧时)强行拉人的徵兵队, 抓壮丁队. (b) group who force others to do sth 强拉他人做某事的一伙人. v [Tn] force (sb) into service 强迫(某人)做事: (joc 谑) We were press-ganged into serving the drinks. 抓了我们当差斟酒.

  pressure

  / 5preFE(r); `prZFL/ n 1 [U] (a) force or weight of sth pressing continuously on or against sth that it touches 压力; 挤压: the pressure of the crowd against the barriers 人群推挤栅栏的力量 * The pressure of the water caused the wall of the dam to crack. 水的压力使堤坝决口. (b) amount of this 压力之量; 压强: The tyre is too hard reduce the pressure a bit. 这轮胎太硬, 要减少一点压力. * Your blood pressure (ie force of the blood in the veins and arteries) is too high. 你的血压过高. * a pressure of 6 lb to the square inch 每平方英寸6磅的压力 * [attrib 作定语] a pressure gauge, ie an instrument for measuring the pressure of liquid, gas, air, etc 压力计 * (fig 比喻) work at high pressure 在很大压力下工作. 2 [U] weight of the air in the atmosphere 大气的压力: atmospheric pressure 气压 * A band of low pressure is moving across the country. 一个低压带正横越该国. 3 [U, C] ~ (of sth); ~ (to do sth) strong or oppressive influence 强大的影响; 压迫(感): She left home to escape the pressure to conform to her family's way of life. 她离家出走以求摆脱她家生活方式对她的束缚. * The pressures of city life forced him to move to the country. 都市生活的艰难迫使他迁往乡村. 4 (idm 习语) bring pressure to bear on sb (to do sth) use force or strong persuasion (to make sb do sth) 对某人施加压力(使之做某事): The bank will bring pressure to bear on you if you don't pay. 你要是不付款, 银行就对你施加压力. * The council brought pressure to bear on the landlord to improve his property. 市政会向房主施加了压力, 促使其改善房子的居住条件. put pressure on sb (to do sth) (try to) force sb (to do sth, esp quickly) (试图)迫使某人(做某事); (尤指)催逼某人: The birth of twins put pressure on them to find a bigger flat. 他们生了双胞胎, 不得不寻找一套较大的住房. * I don't want to put pressure on you to make a decision, but we haven't much time left. 我并不想催你做决定, 只是我们剩下的时间已经不多了. under `pressure (a) (of a liquid or gas held in a container) subject to pressure; compressed (指容器中所含的液体或气体)受有压力的, 压缩的: The gas is stored under pressure in the tank. 该气体在压缩状态下贮存於罐中. * The beer comes out of the barrel under pressure. 啤酒受到压力从桶中流出. (b) influenced by urgency or compulsion 被催逼的; 被迫的: work under pressure 在压力下工作 * put sb under pressure (to do sth) 迫使某人(做某事) * come under pressure (to do sth) 被迫(做某事). (c) suffering stress 承受压力的: She is constantly under pressure and it is affecting her health. 她经常负担很重, 因而影响了健康.

  pressure

  v = pressurize.

  pressure-cooker

  n strong tightly-closed pot in which food can be cooked quickly by steam under high pressure 压力锅. =>illus at pan 见 pan 插图.

  pressure group

  [CGp] (in politics, business, etc) organized group who try to influence policy, esp by intensive propaganda and campaigning; lobby 压力集团(尤指藉大力宣传及开展活动谋求对政策施加影响的政治、 工商业等组织); (议院)院外活动集团.

  pressurize, pressurise

  / 5preFEraIz; `prZFE9raIz/ (also pressure)v 1 [Tn.pr, Cn.t] ~ sb into sth/doing sth use force, influence or strong persuasion to make sb do sth 强使某人做某事: She was pressurized into agreeing to a merger. 她被迫同意将公司合并. * He felt that he was being pressurized to resign. 他感到有压力逼他辞职. 2 [Tn esp passive 尤用於被动语态] keep (the compartment of a submarine, the cabin of an aircraft, etc) at a constant atmospheric pressure 使(潜艇的水密舱、 飞机的座舱等)保持恒定的气压: a pressurized cabin 增压舱 * The compartments are fully pressurized. 水密舱均已增压完毕.

  pressurization, pressurisation

  / 9preFEraI5zeIFn; ?@-rI5z-; 9prZFErE`zeFEn/ n [U].

  pressurized-water

  reactor type of nuclear reactor that uses water under pressure as a coolant 压力水冷反应堆.

  prestidigitator

  / 9prestI5dIdVIteItE(r); 9prZstI`dIdVI`tetL/ n (fml or joc 文或谑) conjurer 变戏法的人; 耍把戏的人.

  prestidigitation

  / 9prestI9dIdVI5teIFn; 9prZstI9dIdVI`teFEn/ n [U] (skill in) performing tricks by conjuring; sleight of hand (变)戏法.

  prestige

  / pre5sti:V; prZs`tiV/ n [U] 1 respect based on good reputation, past achievements, etc 威望; 威信: lose/regain prestige 失去[恢复]威望 * He suffered a loss of prestige when the scandal was publicized. 这件丑事公开後他便威信扫地. 2 power to impress others, esp as a result of wealth, distinction, glamour, etc 影响力: have, enjoy, earn prestige in the community 在社会上很有影响 * [attrib 作定语] the prestige value of owning a Rolls Royce 拥有劳斯·莱斯汽车的威风.

  prestigious

  / pre5stIdVEs; prZ`stIdVEs/ adj having or bringing prestige 有威望的; 有威信的; 有影响力的;带来声望的: one of the world's most prestigious orchestras世界上最负盛名的管弦乐队之一.

  presto

  / 5prestEU; `prZsto/ adj, adv 1 (music 音) quick(ly)以急板(的). 2 (idm 习语) hey presto => hey.

  presto

  n (pl ~s) movement or passage of music (to be) played quickly 急板; 急板乐段.

  presumable

  / prI5zju:mEbl; ?@ -5zu:-; prI`zumEbl/ adj (fml 文) that may be presumed 可假定的; 可推测的: the presumable result is an election defeat 推测结果可能竞选失败.

  presumably

  / -EblI; -EblI/ adv it may be presumed 可假定; 可推测: She is aware of the difficulties, presumably?她对这些困难大概了解吧? * He will presumably resign in view of the complete failure of his policy. 由於他所推行的政策彻底失败了, 他很可能辞职.

  presume

  / prI5zju:m; ?@ -5zu:m; prI`zum/ v 1 [Tf, Cn.a, Cn.t] suppose (sth) to be true; take (sth) for granted 假定(某事物)是事实; 认定(某事物); 假设; 推测: I presume that an agreement will eventually be reached. 我想最终是会达成协议的. * `Are the neighbours away on holiday?' `I presume so.' `邻居们去度假了吗?'`我想是的.' * In English law, an accused man is presumed (to be) innocent until he is proved guilty. 根据英国的法律, 被告未经证明有罪即认为是清白的. * Twelve passengers are missing, presumed dead. 十二名乘客失踪, 据信已经死亡. 2 [It] venture to do sth; be so bold as to do sth 冒昧地做某事; 胆敢做某事: I won't presume to disturb you. 我不敢打扰你. * May I presume to advise you? 我可以冒昧向你进一言吗? 3 (phr v) presume on sth (fml 文) make a wrong use of sth; take unfair advantage of sth 不正当地利用某事物; 占某事物的便宜: presume on sb's good nature, eg by asking for help 利用某人的好心肠(如请求帮助).

  presumption

  / prI5zQmpFn; prI`zQmpFEn/ n 1 (a) [U] ~ (of sth) presuming sth to be true or the case 假定; 认定; 假设; 推测: presumption of her innocence by the court 法庭对她无罪的推定. (b) [C] thing presumed to be true or very probable 假定属实的事物; 被认定的事物; 极为可能的事物: The article makes too many false presumptions. 这篇文章中凭空臆测的成分太多. * We're having the party in the garden on the presumption that it's not going to rain. 我们认为不会下雨, 所以在花园里举行宴会. 2 [U] behaviour that is too bold; arrogance 放肆; 傲慢: She was infuriated by his presumption in making the travel arrangements without first consulting her. 他事先没和她商量便做好旅行安排, 她对他自作主张很生气.

  presumptive

  / prI5zQmptIv; prI`zQmptIv/ adj (fml esp law 文, 尤用於法律) (a) based on reasonable belief 基於合理之推测的; 推定的: presumptive evidence 推定的证据. (b) probable 可能的; 假定的: the presumptive heir/the heir presumptive, ie the person who will inherit the throne unless sb with a stronger claim is born 假定继承人(除非有更具继承权资格的人出生, 否则即由其继承王位).

  presumptuous

  / prI5zQmptFUEs; prI`zQmptFJEs/ adj (a) (of a person or his behaviour) too bold or self-confident (指人或其行为)胆大妄为的, 放肆的, 冒失的, 专横的: Would it be presumptuous of me to ask you to contribute? 可否冒昧请求你出一份力? (b) (of a person) acting without the necessary authority (指人)自行其是的, 自作主张的: He was presumptuous in making the announcement before the decision had been approved. 决议尚未通过他已径自宣布.

  presumptuously

  adv.

  presuppose

  / 9pri:sE5pEUz; 9prisE`poz/ v [Tn, Tf] (not used in the continuous tenses 不用於进行时态) 1 assume (sth) to be true beforehand 预先假定(某事物)属实; 预料: We cannot presuppose the truth of his statements. 我们不能预先假定他的话属实. 2 require (sth) as a condition; imply 以(某事物)为先决条件; 意味著: Effects presuppose causes. 有其果必有其因. * Approval of the plan presupposes that the money will be made available. 批准该计画先要有可用的资金.

  presupposition

  / 9pri:sQpE5zIFn; 9prisQpE`zIFEn/ n(fml 文) (a) [U] (action of) presupposing (presuppose1)预先假定; 预料: Bail was refused on the presupposition of his guilt. 已料到他罪名成立而不准保释. (b) [C] thing that is presupposed 预先假定的事物; 预测之事; 先决条件: You have made several unjustified presuppositions. 你作了一些毫无根据的假设.

  pretence (US pretense)

  / prI5tens; prI`tZns/ n 1 (a) [U] deception; make-believe 虚假; 虚伪; 虚饰; 假装; 做作: Their friendliness was only pretence. 他们的友谊完全是虚假的. * Their way of life was all pretence. 他们的生活方式都很做作. (b) [sing] ~ of sth false show of sth 假象; 假相: a pretence of strength, grief, sleep 有力量、 伤心、 睡觉的假象. 2 (a) [C] ~ to sth claim to (merit, honour, etc) 声称; 自称; 自诩; 标榜: I have no pretence to being an expert on the subject. 我并不自命是这方面的专家. (b) [U] (fml 文) ostentation; pretentiousness 炫耀; 虚夸: an honest, kindly man without pretence 诚实而不做作的好心人. 3 (idm 习语) on/under false pretences => false.

  pretend

  / prI5tend; prI`tZnd/ v 1 [I, Tf, Tt] make oneself appear to be (doing) sth in order to deceive others or in play 假装; 佯作: The time has come to stop pretending! 够了, 别再装蒜了! * She pretended (that) she was not at home when we rang the bell. 我们按门铃时, 她假装不在家. * The children pretended to eat the mud pies. 孩子们假装吃泥饼. 2 [Tn] claim (sth) falsely, esp as an excuse 伪称(某事物)(尤用作藉口): She pretended illness as an excuse. 她佯称有病以为藉口. * His pretended friendship was part of the deception. 他所谓的友谊是一种骗局. 3 [Ipr, Tt] ~ to sth (fml 文) make a claim to (do) sth 声称做某事; 自称为某事物: Surely he doesn't pretend to any understanding of music! 谅他不会自以为懂得什麽音乐吧! * I don't pretend to know as much as he does about it. 我不敢说我对此事的了解有他那样多.

  pretender

  n person whose claim (to a throne, title, etc) is disputed 觊觎王位、 爵位等者.

  pretension

  / prI5tenFn; prI`tZnFEn/ n 1 [C usu pl 通常作复数] ~ (to sth/doing sth) (making of a) claim 声称; 自命; 主张; 要求; 权利: a poet with serious pretensionsto literary greatness 完全有资格称作文学泰斗的诗人 * He has/makes no pretensions to being an expert on the subject. 他并不以这方面的专家自居. * (derog 贬) His social pretensions (ie behaving as if he was of a higher class) make him appear ridiculous. 他冒充上流社会人士而出尽洋相. 2 [U] being pretentious 自负; 狂妄; 炫耀; 标榜: Readers may find the pretension and arrogance of her style irritating. 读者可以感觉到她文章中的狂妄自负令人反感.

  pretentious

  / prI5tenFEs; prI`tZnFEs/ adj claiming (esp without justification) merit or importance; pompous or showy 自负的; 自命不凡的; 炫耀的; 自我标榜的: expressed in pretentious language 用狂妄的语言表达的 * a pretentious writer, book, style 自我炫耀的作家、 书、 文风.

  pretentiousness

  n [U].

  preterite (US preterit)

  / 5pretErEt; `prZtErEt/ adj, n (grammar) (of the) past simple tense (of a verb) (动词的)过去式(的): `Ran' is the preterite of `run'. ran 是 run 的过去式.

  preternatural

  / 9pri:tE5nAtFrEl; 9pritL`nAtFrEl/ adj (fml 文) beyond what is natural or normal; unusual 超自然的; 异乎寻常的; 不可思议的: preternatural power, force, ability, etc 超乎一般的能量、 力量、 能力等 * a preternatural gift for knowing what others are thinking 知道别人在想什麽的特异禀赋.

  preternaturally

  adv.

  pretext

  / 5pri:tekst; `pritZkst/ n ~ (for sth/doing sth) reason given (for doing sth) that is not the real reason; excuse 藉口; 托辞: He came to see me on/under the pretext of asking my advice when he really wanted to borrow money. 他以请我指教为藉口前来看我, 其实是想借钱. * We'll have to find a pretext for not going to the party. 我们不去参加聚会得找个藉口才是.

  prettify

  / 5prItIfaI; `prItI9faI/ v (pt, pp -fied) [Tn] (usu derog 通常作贬义) make (sth) pretty in a superficial way 为(某物)装门面; 粉饰, 点缀(某物): The old farm workers' cottages are being prettified as holiday homes. 这些农场工人的旧房屋都装饰成了度假别墅. Cf 参看 beautify.

  pretty

  / 5prItI; `prItI/ adj (-ier, -iest) 1 pleasing and attractive, without being beautiful or magnificent 漂亮的, 可爱的, 精致的(并非华丽的或堂皇的): a pretty child, pattern, tune 可爱的孩子、 好看的花样、 好听的曲调 * a pretty (ie effeminate-looking) boy 俊俏的男孩儿 * What a pretty dress! 多漂亮的连衣裙哪! * She looks very pretty in that hat. 她戴著那顶帽子真是漂亮极了. * The bodies of the victims were not a pretty sight. 这些受害者的尸体惨不忍睹. =>Usage at beautiful 用法见beautiful. 2 (a) (esp dated 尤作旧) fine; good 美好的; 良好的: a pretty wit, compliment, turn of phrase 敏捷的头脑、 动听的恭维话、 巧妙的措辞. (b) (ironic 反语) not pleasing 糟糕的: You've got yourself into a pretty mess now! 你现在可惹了麻烦了! * This a pretty state of affairs! 事情糟透了! 3 (idm 习语) (as) ,pretty as a `picture very pretty 非常漂亮. come to such a pass/a pretty pass => pass1. not just a pretty `face not just sb who is superficially attractive without having other qualities or abilities 不仅相貌好(尚有其他优点): His good looks won him the election but he has still to prove that he's not just a pretty face. 他由於仪表堂堂而当选, 但他尚须证明决非徒有其表. a pretty `penny a lot of money 大量金钱: Renovating that house will cost you a pretty penny. 为了整修那所房子, 你得花很多钱.

  pretty

  adv 1 fairly or moderately 相当; 颇: The situation seems pretty hopeless. 这情况似乎没有多大希望了. * She seemed pretty satisfied with the result. 她对那结果似乎相当满意. =>Usage at fairly 用法见fairly. 2 (idm 习语) pretty much/nearly/well almost 几乎; 差不多: The two are pretty much the same. 这两个简直一模一样. * The car is pretty nearly new. 那辆车跟新的差不多. * My patience is pretty well exhausted. 我几乎忍无可忍. sitting pretty => sit.

  prettily

  / 5prItIlI; `prItIlI/ adv in a pretty or charming way 漂亮地; 可爱地; 精致地; 迷人地: She decorated the room very prettily. 她把房间装饰得漂亮极了. * She smiled prettily as she accepted the flowers. 她在接受鲜花时, 笑得真迷人.

  prettiness

  n [U]: People commented on the prettiness of the cottage. 大家都夸那小屋很精致.

  pretty-pretty

  adj (infml derog 口, 贬) too pretty 过分漂亮的: a pretty-pretty colour scheme of pale pinks and blues 浅的粉红色和蓝色过於漂亮的色彩设计 * a frilly, pretty-pretty dress 有褶边的十分华丽的连衣裙.

  pretzel

  / 5pretsl; `prZtsl/ n crisp salty biscuit made in the shape of a knot or stick 椒盐脆饼乾(做成纽结状或棒状).

  prevail

  / prI5veIl; prI`vel/ v 1 [I] ~ (among/in sth/sb) exist or happen generally; be widespread 普遍存在; 普遍发生; 盛行; 流行: conditions prevailing in the region 该地区的普遍状况 * The use of horses for ploughing still prevails among the poorer farmers. 用马耕作的现象在贫苦农民中仍然十分普遍. 2 [I, Ipr] ~ (against/over sb/sth) (fml 文) fight successfully (against sb/sth); defeat 战胜(某人[某事物]); 击败: Virtue will prevail against evil. 美德定将战胜邪恶. * The invaders prevailed over the native population. 入侵者打败了土著居民. 3 (phr v) prevail on sb to do sth (fml 文) persuade sb to do sth 劝说某人做某事: May I prevail on you to make a speech after dinner? 可以请你在用餐後讲几句话吗?

  prevailing

  adj [attrib 作定语] (a) most usual orwidespread 普遍的; 盛行的; 流行的: the prevailing customs,fashions, style, etc 流行的风俗、 式样、 款式等. (b) (of a wind) that blows in an area most frequently (指风)某一区域里最常刮的: The prevailing wind here is from the south-west. 这里最常刮的风是西南风.

  prevalent

  / 5prevElEnt; `prZvElEnt/ adj (fml 文) ~ (among/in sth/sb) existing or happening generally; widespread 普遍存在的; 普遍发生的; 盛行的; 流行的: The prevalent opinion is in favour of reform. 一般舆论都支持改革. * Is malaria still prevalent among the populationhere? 疟疾是否仍为此地居民的多发病?

  prevalence

  / -Ens; -Ens/ n [U] being prevalent 普遍; 盛行; 流行: They were very surprised by the prevalence of anti-government sentiments. 他们对普遍存在的反政府情绪感到很吃惊.

  prevaricate

  / prI5vArIkeIt; prI`vArE9ket/ v [I] (fml 文) try to avoid telling the (whole) truth by speaking in an evasive or a misleading way; equivocate 支吾; 搪塞; 闪 烁其辞: Tell us exactly what happened and don't prevaricate.有什麽就原原本本地告诉我们吧, 别躲躲闪闪的.

  prevarication

  / prI9vArI5keIFn; 9prIvArE`keFEn/ n (a) [U] prevaricating 支吾; 搪塞. (b) [C] instance ofthis 支吾; 搪塞: The report was full of lies and prevarications.这篇报道不是颠倒黑白就是含糊其辞.

  prevaricator

  n person who prevaricates 支吾搪塞的人.

  prevent

  / prI5vent; prI`vZnt/ v [Tn, Tn.pr, Tsg] ~ sb/sth (from doing sth) stop or hinder sb/sth 阻止或妨碍某人[某事物]: prevent the spread of a disease/a disease from spreading 防止某种疾病的蔓延 * Nobody can prevent us/our getting married. 谁也阻止不了我们结婚. * Your prompt action prevented a serious accident. 你由於动作敏捷而防止了一次严重事故.

  preventable

  adj that can be prevented 可防止的; 可预防的: preventable accidents, deaths, diseases, etc 可避免的事故、 死亡、 疾病等.

  prevention

  / prI5venFn; prI`vZnFEn/ n 1 [U] (action of) preventing 阻止; 防止; 妨碍; 预防: the prevention of crime 防止犯罪行为 * the prevention of cruelty to animals 防止虐待动物. 2 (idm 习语) pre,vention is ,better than `cure (saying 谚) it is easier to prevent sth happening than to undo the damage or cure the disease later 预防胜於治疗; 宜未雨绸缪.

  preventive

  / prI5ventIv; prI`vZntIv/ (also preventative / prI5ventEtIv; prI`vZntEtIv/) adj (a) preventing or intendedto prevent sth; precautionary 预防(性)的; 防备的: preventive measures 预防性措施. (b) (of medicine) preventing or intended to prevent disease; prophylactic (医学上)预防疾病的, 预防性的: research into preventive medicine, ie ways of preventing disease 研究防治学.

  preventive (also preventative)

  n thing (esp a medicine) used or designed to prevent sth 预防物; 预防性措施; (尤指)预防药.

  preventive detention

  (law 律) imprisonment of sb because it is thought likely that he will commit a crime (对有可能犯罪者采取的)预防性拘留.

  preview

  / 5pri:vju:; `pri9vju/ n (a) showing of a film, an exhibition, a play, etc before it is shown to the general public (电影、 戏剧、 展览会等的)预映, 预演, 预展: a press preview, ie one for journalists only 为新闻界举办的预映 * We attended a sneak preview of the winter fashion collection. 我们参观了一次对内的冬季时装预展. (b) report or description of a film, performance of a play, etc before it is shown to the general public (电影、 戏剧表演等的)预告性述评: a preview of next week's viewing/listening 下周节目预告述评.

  preview

  v [Tn] have or give a preview of (sth) 举行(某事物)的预演、 预映或预展等.

  previous

  / 5pri:vIEs; `privIEs/ adj 1 [attrib 作定语] coming before in time or order (时间或顺序上)先的, 前的: We had met on a previous occasion. 我们上次见过面. * He was there the previous day. 他前一天还在那儿呢. * Who was the previous owner? 谁是以前的属有人? * I am unable to attend because of a previous engagement. 我因有约在先故不能出席. * The criminal had had four previous convictions. 这名罪犯有四次前科. * Applicants for the job must have previous experience. 申请这份工作的人须先前有过这种工作经验. 2 [pred 作表语] (infml 口) done or acting too hastily; presumptuous 操之过急; 自行其是: Aren't you rather previous in assuming I am going to pay? 你以为我会付款未免太自作聪明了吧?

  previously

  adv: She had previously worked in television.她以前干过电视这一行.

  prey

  / preI; pre/ n 1 [U] (a) animal, bird, etc hunted and killed by another for food 被捕食的动物; 捕获物: a beast/bird of prey, ie one that kills and eats others, eg a tiger, an eagle 食肉猛兽[禽](如虎、 鹰) * The lion stalked its prey through the long grass. 那狮子在很深的草丛里潜步逼近猎物. * Mice and other small creatures are the owl's prey. 老鼠以及其他小动物都是猫头鹰的捕食物. (b) (fig 比喻) person who is exploited or harmed by another; victim 被剥削者; 受损害者; 牺性品: She was easy prey for dishonest salesmen. 她很容易地让奸商敲了竹杠. 2 (idm 习语) be/fall prey to sth (a) (of an animal) be hunted and killed for food by another (指动物)被捕食, 成为其他动物的捕获物: The zebra fell prey to the lion. 那斑马被狮子捕食. (b) (of a person) be greatly troubled or tormented by sth (指人)为某事物所苦, 受到某事物的折磨: She was prey to irrational fears. 她遭受著无端恐惧的折磨.

  prey

  v 1 (idm 习语) prey on sb's `mind trouble sb greatly 烦扰某人: Fear of the consequences preyed on her mind. 她担心其後果而惴惴不安. * The thought that he was responsible for her death preyed on his mind. 他一想到自己对她的死负有责任就感到心如刀割. 2 (phr v) prey on sb/sth (a) hunt or catch (an animal, etc) as prey 捕食(动物等): hawks preying on small birds 捕食小鸟的老鹰. (b) make sb one's victim; exploit or attack 使某人成为受害者; 剥削; 掠夺: a confidence trickster preying on rich widows 一个玩弄花招使一些阔寡妇上当的骗子 * The villagers were preyed on by bandits from the hills. 村民们受到山里强盗抢劫.

  price

  / praIs; praIs/ n 1 amount of money for which sth is (to be) bou